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Financial ratio annalysis dharwad milk project report mba

Financial ratio annalysis dharwad milk project report mba



Financial ratio annalysis dharwad milk project report mba BEC DOMS BAGALKOT

Financial ratio annalysis dharwad milk project report mba BEC DOMS BAGALKOT



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    Financial ratio annalysis dharwad milk project report mba Financial ratio annalysis dharwad milk project report mba Document Transcript

    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION • EXECUTIVE SUMMORY • INDUSRTY PROFILE • COMPANY PROFILE • NEED OF STUADIES • OBJECTIVES OF STUDY • METHODOLOGY • FINDINGS, CONCLUSTION & RECUMENDATION • LIMITATION OF STUDYEXECUTIVE SUMMARY Financial statements provide summarized view of the financial position andOperation of the company. Therefore, now a day it is necessary to all companies to knowBABASAB PATIL 3
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINIONas well as to show the financial soundness i.e. position and operation of Company to theirstakeholders. It is also necessary to company to know their financial position and operation ofthe company. In this report I made an effort to know the financial position of Dharwad MilkProducers Union Limited, by using the Annual Reports & Financial Statements of the firm. The Financial analysis of this report will show the Strength and weakness of theDharwad Milk Producers Union Limited. Financial analysis will help the firm to take decision. Thus, we can say that, Financial Analysis is a starting point for making plansbefore using any sophisticated forecasting and planning. “Study the FINANCIAL RATIO ANDANALYSIS” at Dharwad Milk Union Ltd. Dharwad.INDUSTRIAL PROFILEBABASAB PATIL 4
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION • Name of the INDUSTRI : KarnatakaMilkFederation (KMF) • Year of establishment : 1976 • Type of Industry : UNION BASED INDUSTRI • Corporate office : Bangalore : • Total Unions : 13 • Production : Milk products • Turnover 2007-08 : Rs. 2707.00crores. • Dairy Co-operatives 2007-08 : 11063ORGANISATION PROFILE:BABASAB PATIL 5
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION • Name of the Organization : Dharwad Milk Union (DMU) -KarnatakaMilkFederation (KMF) • Year of establishment : 1984 • Type of Organization :Small Scale Industry • Total area : 15 acres • Sales 2008-09 : 46,82,83,461.32 : • Labors Strength : 316 • Production : Milk products MISSION STATEMENT OF DMUL “TO ENHANCE MILK PRODUCTION AND PROCURMENT AND MAXIMIZE RETURNS TO MILK PRODUCERS BY FINDING LUCRATIVE MARKET FOR MILK AND THEREBY TOWARDS VIABILITY OF MILK UNION”.Need For Study:BABASAB PATIL 6
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION • The financial performance of the company is known by calculating financial statement and ratio. • To know the organizational activity. • To know the societies contribution to build the industry and also organization.Objectives of Study: o To study the organization activity of each department.BABASAB PATIL 7
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION o To find out the financial performance of the organization for last 5 years through ratio analysis. o To know how the ratio analysis helps the organization to improve profits. o To know the Utilization of financial resources.Research Methodology:Research:BABASAB PATIL 8
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION Research is nothing but systematic investigation and study of sources & materials.it establish facts and it reach conclusions.Methodology: Methodology is nothing but a body of methods used in a particular activity. • The methodology includes the personal interaction with the finance manager. • Selection of data: From the Financial Statements of the firm for last five years; i.e. from Financial Statements for the year 2004-05 Financial Statements for the year 2005-06 Financial Statements for the year 2006-07 Financial Statements for the year 2007-08 Financial Statements for the year 2008-09Period: The Study covers a period of five years data from 2004-05, 2005-06, 2006-07, 2007-08& 2008-09 mean an Accounting year of the company consisting of 365 working days.FINDINGSBABASAB PATIL 9
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION 1. Firm is more dependent Internal funds Its Good sign. 2. The firm is not utilizing assets efficiently. 3. Profit of the firm is increasing but not satisfactory.RECUMENDATION 1. Have to concentrate on short term loans to improve liquidity position. 2. Management of manufacturing, administrative and selling expenses is necessary.CONCLUSTION The profit Of the Company Is not in a good Position For That companyhastoTake Alternative Actions such As Increasing in Procurement of milk, Production, andControl in Fixed Expenses Like, Administrative, selling Etc.BABASAB PATIL 10
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINIONLIMITATION OF THE STUDY: • The accuracy of the ratios is subject to the validity of information provided through Balance sheet, Profit and Loss A/c and interactions with Management. • The standard for the ratios are suitably modified to prudently reflect the financial position keeping in mind the peculiarities of the industry / company.BABASAB PATIL 11
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINIONINTRUDUCTION TO THE STUDY The study paper on the topic “a study financial Ratio Analysis at DMUL” ispartial fulfillment of requirement of MBA course in finance under the banner of IMS ILKAL. It was an opportunity to learn practical aspects of industries. I have chosen thistopic because “ratios are use to interpret the financial statements so that strengths and weaknessof a firm as well as to know its historical performance and current financial condition can bedetermined.” My study covers the calculation of ratios for DMUL and to know theirfinancial performance.RATIO ANALYSISBABASAB PATIL 13
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION When we observed the financial statements comprising the balance sheet and profitor loss account is that they do not give all the information related to financial operations of afirm, they can provide some extremely useful information to the extent that the balance sheetshows the financial position on a particular date in terms of structure of assets, liabilities andowners equity and profit or loss account shows the results of operation during the year. Thus thefinancial statements will provide a summarized view of the firm. There fore in order to learntabout the firm the careful examination of in valuable reports and statements through financialanalysis or ratios is required.Meaning and Definition:- Ratio analysis is one of the powerful techniques which is widely used forinterpreting financial statements. This technique serves as a tool for assessing the financialsoundness of the business. The idea of ratio analysis was introduced by Alexander wall for the first time in1919. Ratios are quantitative relationship between two or more variables taken from financialstatements. Ratio analysis is defined as, “The systematic use of ratio to interpret the financialstatement so that the strength and weakness of the firm as well as its historical performance andcurrent financial condition can be determined. In the financial statements we can find manyitems are co-related with each other For example current assets and current liabilities, capital andlong term debt, gross profit and net profit purchase and sales etc. To take managerial decision the ratio of such items reveals the soundness offinancial position. Such information will be useful for creditors, shareholders management andall other people who deal with company.Importance;BABASAB PATIL 14
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION As a tool of financial management ratio are of crucial significance. Theimportance of ratio analysis lies in the fact that it presents facts on a comparative basis andenables the drawing inferences regarding the performance of a firm. Ratio analysis is relevant inassessing the performance of a firm in respect of the following aspects: • Liquidity position • Long term solvency • Operating efficiency • Overall profitability • Inter firm comparison • Trend analysis. Liquidity Position With the help of ratio analysis conclusions can be drawn regarding the liquidity position of a firm would be satisfactory if it is able to meet its current obligations when it become due. A firm can be said to have the ability to meet its short term liabilities if it has sufficient liquid funds to pay the interest on its short maturing debt usually within a year as well as to repay the principal. This ability is reflected in the liquidity ratios of a firm. The liquidity ratios are particularly useful in credit analysis by banks and other suppliers of short term loans. Long term solvency:BABASAB PATIL 15
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION Ratio analysis is equally useful for assessing the long term financial viability of a firm. This aspect of the financial position of a borrower is of concern to the long term creditors, security analysts and the present and potential owners of a business. The long term solvency is measured by the leverage/capital structure and profitability ratios which focus on earning power and operating efficiency. Ratio analysis reveals the strengths and weakness of a firm in this respect. The leverage ratio for instance, will indicate whether a firm has reasonable proportion of various sources of finance or if it is heavily loaded with debt in which case its solvency is exposed to serious strain. Similarly the various profitability ratios would reveal whether or not the firm is able to offer adequate return to its owners consistent with the risk involved. Operating efficiency: Yet another dimension of the usefulness of the ratio analysis, relevant from the viewpoint of management, is that it throws light on the degree of efficiency in the management and utilization of its assets. The various activity ratios measure this kind of operational efficiency. In fact, the solvency of a firm is, in the ultimate analysis, dependent upon the sales revenues generated by the use of its assets total as well as its components. Overall profitability: Unlike the outside parties which are interested in one aspect of the financial position of a firm, the management is constantly concerned about the overall profitability of the enterprise. That is, they are concerned about the ability of the firm to meet its short term as well as long term obligations to its creditors, to ensure a reasonable return to its owners and secure optimum utilization of the assets of the firm. This is possible if an integrated view is taken and all the ratios are considered together. Inter firm comparison:BABASAB PATIL 16
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION Ratio analysis not only throws light on the financial position of a firm but also serves as a stepping stone to remedial measures. This is made possible due to inter firm comparison and comparison with industry averages. A single figure of a particular ratio is meaningless unless it is related to some standard or norm. one of the popular techniques is to compare the ratios of a firm with the industry average. It should be reasonably expected that the performance of a firm should be in broad conformity with that of the industry to which it belongs. An interfere comparison would demonstrate the firm’s position vis-à-vis its competitors. If the results are at variance either with the industry average or with those of the competitors, the firm can seek to identify the probable reasons and, in that light, take remedial measures. Trend Analysis Finally, ratio analysis enables a firm to take the time dimension into account. In other words, whether the financial position of a firm is improving or deteriorating over the years. This is made possible by the use of trend analysis. The significance of a trend analysis of ratios lies in the fact that the analysts can know the direction of movement, that is, whether the movement is favorable or unfavorable. For example, the ratio may be low as compared to the norm but the trend may be upward. On the other hand, though the present level may be satisfactory but the trend may be a declining one.Limitations:BABASAB PATIL 17
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION Ratio analysis is a widely used tool of financial analysis. Yet, it suffers fromvarious limitations.The operational implication of this is that while using ratios, the conclusions shouldnot be taken on their face value. Some of the limitations which characterise ratio analysis are i) Difficulty in comparison ii) Impact of inflation, and iii) Conceptual diversity.Difficulty in comparison:BABASAB PATIL 18
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION One serious limitation of ratio analysis arises out of the difficulty associated withtheir comparisons are vitiated by different procedures adopted by various firms. The differencesmay relate to: • Differences in the basis of inventory valuation (e.g. last in first out, first in first out, average cost and cost); • Different depreciation methods (i.e. straight line vs. written down basis); • Estimated working life of assets, particularly of plant and equipment; • Amortization of intangible assets like good will, patents and so on; • Amortization of deferred revenue expenditure such as preliminary expenditure and discount on issue of shares; • Capitalization of lease; • Treatment of extraordinary items of income and expenditure; and so on. Secondly, apart from different accounting procedures, companies may havedifferent accounting periods, implying differences in the composition of the assets, particularlycurrent assets. For these reasons, the ratios of two firms may not be strictly comparable. Another basis of comparison is the industry average. This presupposes theavailability, on a comprehensive scale, of various ratios for each industry group over a period oftime. If, however as is likely such information is not compiled and available, the utility of ratioanalysis would be limited.Impact of inflation:BABASAB PATIL 19
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION The second major limitation of the ratio analysis as a tool of financial analysis isassociated with price level changes. This, in fact, is a weakness of the traditional financialstatements which are based on historical costs. An implication of this feature of the financialstatements as regards ratio analysis is that assets acquired at different periods are, in effect,shown at different prices in the balance sheet, as they are not adjusted for changes in the pricelevel. As a result, ratio analysis will not yield strictly comparable and, therefore, dependableresults. To illustrate, there are two firms which have identical rates of returns on investments, say15%. But one of these had acquired its fixed assets when prices were relatively low, While the other one had purchased them when prices were high. As a result, thebook value of the fixed assets of the former type of firm would be lower, while that of the latterhigher. From the point of view of profitability, the return on the investment of the firm with alower book value would be overstated. Obviously, identical rates of returns on investment are notindicative of equal profitability of the two firms. This is a limitation of ratios.Conceptual Diversity:BABASAB PATIL 20
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION Yet another factor which influences the usefulness of ratios is that there isdifference of opinion regarding the various concepts used to compute the ratios. There is alwaysroom for diversity of opinion as to what constitutes shareholders equity, debt, assets, and profitand so on. Different firms may use these terms in different senses or the same firm may use themto mean different things at different times. Reliance on a single ratio, for a particular purpose may not be a conclusiveindicator. For instance, the current ratio alone is not a as adequate measure of short termfinancial strength; it should be supplemented by the acid test ratio, debtors turnover ratio andinventory turnover ratio to have real insight into the liquidity aspect. Finally, ratios are only a post mortem analysis of what has happened betweentwo balance sheet dates. For one thing, the position in the interim period us bit revealed by ratioanalysis. Moreover, they give no clue about the future. In brief, ratio analysis suffers from some serious limitations. The analyst shouldnot be carried away by its oversimplified nature, easy computation with a high degree ofprecision. The reliability and significance attached to ratios will largely depend upon the qualityof data on which they are based. They are as good as the data itself. Nevertheless, they are animportant tool of financial analysis.Some Ratio are helpful to know the financial condition of the organonization,thare are1. Liquidity ratio: • Current ratio • Quick ratio2. Long –term Solvency Ratio:BABASAB PATIL 21
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION • Debt-equity ratio • Proprietor Ratio • Int.Coverage ratio3. Activity/Efficiency 0r Current Assets Movement Ratio: • Inventory turnover ratio • Debtors turnover ratio • Debtors collection period ratio • Creditors turnover ratio4. Profitability Ratios: • Gross profit ratio • Net profit ratio • Operating expenses ratio5. Earning Ratios – Overall Profitability Ratios: • Return on asset • Return on capital employedLiquidity Ratios:BABASAB PATIL 22
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION The importance of adequate liquidity in the sense of the ability of a firm to meetcurrent/short term obligations when they become due for payment can hardly be overstressed. Infact, liquidity is a prerequisite for the very survival of a firm. The short term creditors of the firmare interested in the short term solvency or liquidity of a firm. But liquidity implies, from theviewpoint of utilization of the funds of the firm that funds are idle or they earn very little. Aproper balance between the two contradictory requirements, that is, liquidity and profitability isrequired for efficient financial management. The liquidity ratios measure the ability of firm tomeet its short term obligations and reflect the short term financial solvency of a firm.Long –term Solvency Ratio: The second category of financial ratios is leverage or capital structure ratios. Thelong term creditors would judge the soundness of a firm on the basis of the long term financialstrength measured in terms of its ability to pay the interest regularly as well as repay theinstallment of the principal on due dates or in one lump sum at the time of maturity. The longterm solvency ratio of a firm can be examined by using leverage or capital structure ratios. Theleverage or capital structure ratios may be defined as financial ratios which throw light on thelong term solvency of a firm as reflected in its ability to assure the long term creditors withregard to: (1) Periodic payment of interest During the period of the loan and (2) Repayment ofprincipal on maturity or in pre determined installments at due dates.Activity Ratios:BABASAB PATIL 23
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION Activity ratios are concerned with measuring the efficiency in asset management.These ratios are also called efficiency ratios or assets utilization ratios. The efficiency withwhich the assets are used would be reflected in the speed and rapidity with which assets areconverted into sales. The greater is the rate of turnover or conversion, the more efficient is theutilization/management, other things being equal. For this reason, such ratios are also designatedas turnover ratios. Turnover is the primary mode for measuring the extent of efficientemployment of assets by relating the assets to sales. An activity ratio may, therefore, be definedas a test of the relationship between sales and the various assets of a firm.Profitability Ratios: Apart from the creditors, both short term and long term, also interested in thefinancial soundness of a firm are the owners and management or the company itself. TheManagement of the firm is naturally eager to measure its operating efficiency of a firm and itsability to ensure adequate return to its shareholders depends ultimately on the profits earned byit. The profitability of a firm can be measured by its profitability ratios. In other words, the profitability ratios are designed to provide answers toquestions such as:(1) Is the profit earned by the firm adequate?(2) What rate of return does it represent?(3) What is the rate of profit for various divisions and segments of the firm?(4) What is the rate of return to equity holders?BABASAB PATIL 24
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINIONDIARYING IN INDIA The association of Indian with Animal Husbandry and Dairying is deep-rooted inhistory. Since time immemorial, milk and milk products have been accepted in the diet of peopleof India as items of choice. It is said in Indian mythology that lord ‘Krishna’ the god ofrighteousness grew up by drinking milk and eating butter and ghee. He was nicknamed as ‘butterKrishna’ as he used to steal the butter in his neighborhood. The sage hashish possessed a sacredcow, donated by Lord Brahma, the god of knowledge, which was named as Nandini says Indianmythology. The word Nandini is the family brand of the Karnataka Co-operative Milk Producersfederation, in short, KMF, which is engaged in marketing of milk and milk products. BACKGROUD:BABASAB PATIL 25
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION Towards the end of 1950’s a development in the kaira district of Gujarat state,paved the way for co-operative dairy in India. The milk producers of this district decided tocome together and form a Co-operative as a protection against the exploitation by the privatedairy owners and middlemen in the form of unremunerative prices. Sardar vallabhai patel, a greatIndian freedom fighter and the first Deputy Prime Minister of independent India, provided mainimpetus to the farmers. He heard the formers tale of woe and was touched to the quick. The manof action took no time to find a solution; Co-operative the dairy. Thus, came the era of co-operative dairying in Indian dairying. A meeting called on January 4, 1946 in samarkha villagedecided to set up a milk producers Co-operative it culminated in the establishment of the kairadistrict Co-operative producers union limited and the establishment of worldwide renownedAmul dairy plant at Anand. Later on, the kaira District union was identified as Anand MilkUnion Limited.The Anand pattern is a three- tier structure consisting of the producers societies at the villagelevel, which collect the milk from producers daily and pay them; the district level producersunions (a representative body of the village societies) which provide the inputs required by thefarmers including artificial insemination, veterinary services and the supply of feeds; and afederation of the unions of the state level, which manages the dairy with the help of electedrepresentative of the districts unions. On behalf of the unions, the federation undertakes thecollecting marketing of milk and milk products attending to quality control. The role of thegovernment is to supervise, guide and encourage the co-operatives. The Anand pattern, theirestablishes a direct link between the producers and consumers. To achieve this objective ofreplicating Anand or Amul pattern dairy co-operative society, the national dairy developmentboard was set up under the chairmanship of dr. v. kurien in the year 1965. The NDDB was askedto draw up plans and policies to realize the objective of percolating the Anand pattern in ruralIndia.Dharwad milk producer union limited has been established in 1986 and started function in 1988.it procure milk from many villages on daily bases.INDUSTRIAL PROFILEBABASAB PATIL 26
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION • Name of the INDUSTRI : KarnatakaMilkFederation (KMF) • Year of establishment : 1976 • Type of Industry : UNION BASED INDUSTRI • Corporate office : Bangalore : • Total Unions : 13 • Production : Milk products • Turnover 2007-08 : Rs. 2707.00crores Karnataka Cooperative Milk Producers Federation Limited (KMF) is the ApexBody in Karnataka representing Dairy Farmers Co-operatives. It is the third largest dairy coBABASAB PATIL 27
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINIONoperative amongst the dairy cooperatives in the country. In South India it stands first in terms ofprocurement as well as sales. One of the core functions of the Federation is marketing of Milkand Milk Products. The Brand is the household name for Pure and Fresh milk andmilk products. KMF has 13 Milk Unions throughout the State which procure milk fromPrimary Dairy Cooperative Societies(DCS) and distribute milk to the consumers in variousTowns/Cities/Rural markets in Karnataka. KMF has the following Units functioning directly under its control: Mother Dairy, Yelahanka, Bangalore. Nandini Milk Products, KMF Complex, Bangalore. Cattle Feed Plants at Rajanukunte/Gubbi/Dharwad/Hassan Nandini Sperm Station (formerly known as Bull Breeding Farm & Frozen Semen Bank) at Hessaraghatta Pouch Film Plant at Munnekolalu, Marathhalli Central Training Institute at KMF Complex, Bangalore. Quality Control Lab at KMF Complex, Bangalore.BABASAB PATIL 28
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION Coordination of activities among the Unions and developing market for Milk andMilk products is the responsibility of KMF. Marketing Milk in the respective jurisdiction isorganized by the respective Milk Unions. Surplus/deficit of liquid milk among the member MilkUnions is monitored by the Federation. While the marketing of all the Milk Products is organizedby KMF, both within and outside the State, all the Milk and Milk products are sold under acommon brand name NANDINI The growth over the years and activities undertaken by KMF is summarized briefly hereunder: 1976-77 2007-2008 Dairy Co-operatives Nos 416 11063 Membership Nos 37000 1956163 Milk Procurement Kgs/day 50000 3025940 Milk Sales Lts/day 95050 2129790/curd:1.77LKPD Cattle Feed Consumed Kgs/DCS 220 3010 Daily Payment to Farmers Rs.Lakhs 0.90 342 Turnover Rs.Crores 2707.00 The Corporate Office of the Karnataka Milk Federation is locatedonDr.M.H.Marigowda Road in Bangalore. The Federation has a Board consisting representatives ofMilk Producers and the Government nominees. The day to day functions of the Federation ismanaged by a group of professional managers headed by the Managing DirectorBABASAB PATIL 30
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION • Name of the Organization : Dharwad Milk Union (DMU) -KarnatakaMilkFederation (KMF) • Year of establishment : 1984 • Type of Organization : Small Scale Industry • Total area : 15 acres • Sales 2008-09 : 46,82,83,461.32 : • Labors Strength : 316 • Production : Milk products MISSION STATEMENT OF DMUL “TO ENHANCE MILK PRODUCTION AND PROCURMENT AND MAXIMIZE RETURNS TO MILK PRODUCERS BY FINDING LUCRATIVE MARKET FOR MILK AND THEREBY TOWARDS VIABILITY OF MILK UNION”.Dharwad Milk UnionBABASAB PATIL 32
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINIONEstablishment The Dharwad Milk union is co-operative society among the 13 establishment;under KMF the Dharwad Milk Union (DMU) is one of the most modern plants in Karnataka. it islocated in specious 15 acres of land, located in lakamanahalli industrial area, adjacent to thenational highway -4 it is patterned after AMUL Milk dairy Anand Gujarat.HISTORY A group of experienced offices appointed by the Karnataka Milk Federationsurveyed the whole of Dharwad districts in before 1984 dairy was run by Karnataka governmentin 1984 it was being handed over to Karnataka milk federation and in 1988 the unit is handedover to cooperative society called as Dharwad milk union operated by co-operative societies offour north Karnataka Districts, Dharwad, Gadag, Haveri, Uttar Kannada. The production capacity of DMU is 1.5 lakh liters of milk per day and also hasthe capacity to produce 12 tons of milk powder 10 tones of butter and 6 tones of Ghee perday.DMU collecting 80-85 thousand liters of milk per day from its societies and sells above 65thousand liters per day and the remaining milk is used for produce milk products.BABASAB PATIL 33
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION STATUS: A Co-operative Society registered under the Co-operative act 1959 NATURE OF BUSINESS: Procuring and marketing of milk production and sale of milk products SHARE CAPITAL 3 Corers approximately MILK CHILLING CENTER AND CAPACITY Gadag 20000 LPD, Haveri 20000 LPD, Hirekerur 20000 LPD, Naragunda 8000 LPD, Ron 10000 LPD, Sirsi 20000 LPD.COMPETITORSBABASAB PATIL 34
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION The Nandini milk is facing lot of competition in the milk market the primeCompetitors are private players like, 1. Bharat 2. Siddhi Vinayak 3. Mayour 4. Gopal 5. Aditya 6. Datta 7. Loose venders etc.WELFARE FACILITIES:BABASAB PATIL 35
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINIONI. Statutory Facilities• canteen facilities• payment to provident fund contribution• Provision of toilets, Restroom sittings.• Leave facilities. i. casual leave 15days ii. sick leave 10days iii. Earned leaves 30days • Uniforms are provided. • Provision of wash basins. • Medical benefitsII.Non Statutory Facilities.BABASAB PATIL 36
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION• Factory arranges cultural programs at the time of Ganesh chaturthi, workers day and deepavali.• Factory often conducts demonstration through social workers in respect of family planning, AIDS awareness, etc.• Staff member’s children will be provided with gift for scoring in SSLC, PUC.• Milk subsidy for i. 10 months ¼ ltr free (Jan-Oct) ii. 2 months ½ ltr free (Nov-Dec)• 15%discuount on purchase of 1kh Ghee (Only staff)• Yearly 1kg Ghee free for festivals i.e. Deepavali and Ganesh Chaturthi.III. Financial SchemeBABASAB PATIL 37
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION• Employee gratuity scheme.• Employee’s group savings linked insurance scheme.• Employee’s death cum gratuity scheme.• Employees provided fund and pension scheme.ORGANISATION CHARTBABASAB PATIL 38
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINIONPRESIDENTDIRECTOR DIRECTOR DIRECTOR(ELECTED - 8) (EX – OFFICER - 5) (NOMINATED - 3)MANAGING DIRECTORP&I PRODUCTN FINANCE ADMITN SECURITY MKTINGDy.Mngr Dy.Mngr Dy.Mngr Dy.Mngr Dy.Mngr Dy.MngrExtension Q.C A/C’s Assistant Jn.Supry AssistantOfficer Officer AssistantHelper Assistant Helper AssistantBABASAB PATIL 39
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION MEMEBERS OF WORKING BOARD Shri. Basavaraj N Arabgonda chairman Shri. N N Asuti Director Shri. G M Morbad Director Shri. H G Hiregoudar Director Shri. S M Hadagli Director Shri. R N Davagi Director Shri.U M Hegade Director Shri. B G Hegade Director Shri. M N Venkatrao DirectorBABASAB PATIL 40
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION DEPARTMENTAL STUDYPRODUCTION DEPARTMENT: It is one of the major departments in DMUL. Production is basic operatingfunction of every industrial enterprises around which other activities of an organization such asfinancial, marketing, storing personnel, research and development involve production departmentdeal with decision making resulting in production of goods of specification.The structure of production department:BABASAB PATIL 41
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINIONPRODUCTCTIONDY.MANAGERQ.COFFICERASSISTANTFINANCE DEPARTMENT The main activity of the finance department is to keep all the account of thefinancial transactions. It is responsible for maintaining up to date account. The various activitiesare collected to different sections. The structure of finance department:BABASAB PATIL 42
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINIONFINANCE DEPTMNTDY.MANAGERA/C OFFICERASSISTANT - HELPERPURCHASE DEPARTMENT: There is a separate department for purchasing of products in DMUL.Factors to be considered during purchase decision: 1. Tenders 2. Enquiries 3. Performance analysis.The structure of the purchase departmentBABASAB PATIL 43
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINIONPURCHASE DEPARTMENT:DY.MANAGEREXTENTION OFFICERHELPERQUALITY CONTROL DEPARTMENT: A qualified q.c officer is in charge of this section which works in all the threeshifts. The main of this department is to see and check the quality of milk and milk productsproduced in the plant. The activities of this section in brief are as listed below: 1. 1Tanker milk - Fat, Snf, Temperature, acidity, cob, and 2. Adulterants 3. Can milk: - organoleptic, fat & snf of society samples 4. and cob Of doubtful cases 5. Raw milk silo - stock check at beginning and end of shift. 6. Temperature, fat, snf, clr, and acidity 7. pasteurized milk silo- fat , snf, mbrt, phosphates, temperature and 8. Keeping qualityBABASAB PATIL 44
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION 9. Butter---- fat, curd, moisture, salt, yeast & mould, coli 10. Form count. 11. ghee moisture and free fatty acid 12. peda moisture and total solids 13. powder snf, moisture, burnt particles etc 14. Material testing chemicals and packing materials. 15. Water- hardness, ph, alkalinity, total dissolved solids 16. Of raw, soft and boiler blow down water. There are various tests conducted by the officer in charge as well as the assistants tomeet this requirement. If any product does not pass through the quality standard then the productis rejected. Even before dispatching the Products undergo testing and it is only after the approval of the quality departmentthat the goods are dispatched.Test conducted at DMU: When the milk arrives at DMU, at the reception center a panel of well-qualifiedpersons in a laboratory tests the quality and quantity of milk. There are number of tests carried,some of them are as follows: • Clot on boiling (COB) test • Alcohol test • Taste • Flavor • Acidity • Corrected lactometer reading (CLR) • Gerber method for fat test. • Milk-tested methodBABASAB PATIL 45
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION • Moisture test • Solid not fat (SNF) test.Test for SNF: SNF is tested using lactometer at 27oc because at this temperature the SNF andfat contact will be equally distributed in the milk.TESTS FOR FAT:Gerber method: This is the most accurate scientific method of checking the fat content in the milk.In this method 10% of H2SO4 (90%dilute) + 10.75ml of milk is taken in a test tube withappropriate marketing. To this 1ml of Amyl alcohol is added. Shake well and centrifuge it at1200 RPM (revolutions per minute) for 3 minutes. This gives the amount of fat content in themilk. Out of these some tests are carried out for milk products such as moisture test etcand the remaining are carried for milk.BABASAB PATIL 46
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINIONOther tests conducted in laboratory:Phosphates test: This test is carried out to see that whether the milk is pasteurized or not. If thetest shows yellow color it is raw milk and if it shows white color it is pasteurized milk. For thistest 5ml of Disodium-4 para nitro phenyl di-sodium salt =1 of milk. Keep it in water incubator at37oMethelene Blue Reduction Test (MBRT): This test is carried to test the life of the Pasteurized milk. For this test 10mlpasteurized of milk +1ml of MBR solution. This mixture is kept for one hour and if the color isreduced to blue in color in 1 hour, it extends the life of the milk to 3hours.Alcoholic Test: This test is done to check the acidity of the milk. For this test 65% of alcohol ismixed with equal volume of milk. If any precipitate in the test tube then it shows that it ispositive meaning it contains alcohol which gives higher acidity.Acidity Test: This test is also carried out to check the acidity of the milk. For this test 10ml ofmilk +10ml of distilled water +1 or 2 drops of phenolphthalein is added as an indicator. ThisBABASAB PATIL 47
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINIONmixture is titrated till the color changes from, white to light pink in color. This shows thepercentage of lactic acid content in the milk. The other tests like taste, flavor etc…., are conducted at the reception center by theperson in charge. These all tests are conducted to ensure that right quality of milk and milkproducts are producedPRODUCTS PROFILE:Sl.No: Picture of Products About Products1. Homogenized Toned MILK: It is a pure milk which is homogenized & pasteurized consistent right through, it gives you more cups of tea or coffee & easily digestible.BABASAB PATIL 48
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION Full Cream MILK:2. Containing 6% fat & % SNF. A rich, creamier & tastier milk, Ideal for preparing home made sweets & savories & savories. Cow’s Pure milk:3. Cow’s Pure milk Homogenized, double toned UHT processed milk bacteria free in temper proof tetra fine pack which keep the milk fresh for 60 days without a refrigeration un till opened. Nandini curd:4. It is made from pure milk .its thick & delicious. Giving you all the goodness of home made curds. Nandini Ghee:5. A taste of purity.nandini ghee made from pure butter. It is fresh & pure with a delicious flavor.BABASAB PATIL 49
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION Mysore Pak:6. Fresh & tasty, it is made from quality Bengal gram, nandini ghee & suger.its delicious way to relish a sweet movement. Gulab Jamon:7. Great way to those soft & juicy jamon treats at home! It is made from Nandin skimmed milk powder, maida, and soji and nandini special grade ghee. Peda:8. No matter what you are celebrating! Made from pure milk, nandini peda is a delicious treat for family. Paneer:9. Pure & tasty dishes with nandini paneer! A fresh, nutritive product made by coagulating pure milk, it is an excellent source of milk protein.BABASAB PATIL 50
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION Ice cream:10 Nutritious delicious creamy ice cream is manufactured at ISO 9002/HACCP certifiedTYPES OF MILK CONTENT Mother dairy modern plant. The range includes vanilla, strobary, pinapel, mango, chocalte, FAT (in %) Butter scotch, SNF (in %) and orange & mango kaser pista, candies.Toned milk 3.0 8.5Standard milk 4.5 8.5Full cream milk 6.0 9.0BABASAB PATIL 51
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINIONSWOT ANALYSES:STRENGTH • Many products are marked • Major market share 70% • Market leader in milk products • Competitive price • The best quality products • Excellent distribution channels • Excellent brand image • Consisatnancy in demand for product thought out the Year • Wide distribution network leads regular and timely supply • Reduce the transportation costWEAKNESS • More man power • All the products are perishable products • Poor retail serving and consumer grievance handling • Recurring quality problem • Lowest paying brand i.e. commission given by the company is less compare to other brandsBABASAB PATIL 52
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION • Inadequate sales promotional activity. Due to bad smell that persists low saleOPPORTUNITIES: There is scope for developing in new areaAvailability of buffalo milk improves market milk quality • Predominant of loose milk segment – divide appropriate strategies • Phenomenal scope for innovation in product development packaging and presentation. • Step should be taken to introduce value added products like srikhands ice-creamTHREATS: • No entry barriers for private players • Low level of consumer awareness • Persuade benefits of competing brand • Increase in tax and service rate • Increase of competitors.BABASAB PATIL 53
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINIONResearch Methodology:Research:Research is nothing but systematic investigation and study of sources & materials. it establishfacts and it reach conclusions.Methodology:Methodology is nothing but a body of methods used in a particular activity. • The methodology includes the personal interaction with the finance manager. • Selection of data: From the Financial Statements of the firm for last five years; i.e. from Financial Statements for the year 2004-05 Financial Statements for the year 2005-06 Financial Statements for the year 2006-07 Financial Statements for the year 2007-08 Financial Statements for the year 2008-09BABASAB PATIL 55
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINIONPeriod: The Study covers a period of five years data from 2004-05, 2005-06, 2006-07, 2007-08& 2008-09 mean an Accounting year of the company consisting of 365 working days.MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE / STATISTICAL TOOLS: • Accounting Ratios. • Financial Statements of the Company.ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE:Statistical technique used for calculation of ratios is in terms of percentage.BABASAB PATIL 56
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINIONDATA COLLECTION METHOD:1. PRIMARY DATA: • The financial information is collected from the personal interaction with the financial managers of DMU. • About the organization information is collect from all departments of DMU by the help of HR department.2. SECOUNDARY DATA: • This is collected through DMUL ANNUAL. • About Financial information by collecting 5years financial statements of DMU. • Other information collects from records from concern department of DMU.BABASAB PATIL 57
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION • And othe information related to the organization that is collected from industries/organization website,like http://www.kmfnandini.coop/html/contactus.htm FINANCIAL STATEMENT A financial statement is a organized collection of data according to logical and consistent accounting procedures. Its purpose is pose is to convey understanding of some financial aspects of business firm. It may show a position at a moment in time as in the case of b/s or may reveal a series of activities over a given period of time as in case of income statement. Financial statement are prepared for the management to deal with, a. Status of investments. b. Results achieved during a given period under review a financial statement generally refers to the following; 1. Income Statement: The income statement also termed as (profit or loss account) is generally considered to be the most useful of all financial statements. It explains what has happened to a business as a result of operations between two balance sheet dates. It discloses the revenue realized from the sale of goods and the costs incurred in the process of producing the scheme. It tells the story of Progress or decline over given period and why and how an indicated result was achieved. 2. Balance Sheet: it is statement of financial position of a business at particular moment of time and the claims of the owners and outside against those assets at that time.BABASAB PATIL 58
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION 3. Statement of Retained Earnings: the term retained earnings means the accumulated excess of earnings over losses and dividends. The balance shown income statement is transferred to the balance through this statement. After making necessary appropriations. It is thus a connecting link between the B/s and income statement. This statement is also termed as project and loss appropriation account in case of companies. Statement of Changes in Financial Position: the balance sheet shows the financialcondition of the business at a particulars moment of time while the income statement discloses the resultof operations of business over a period of time. However for a better understanding of the affairs of thebusiness, it is essential to identify the movement of working capital or cash in and out of the business.This information is available in the statement of changes in financial position of the business.BABASAB PATIL 59
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINIONAnalysis and Interpretation of Ratio 1) Current ratio: This ratio indicates the rupees of current assets available for each rupee of current Liability. By this ratio we can see the stability of the firm or short term financial position of the firm. The ratio is calculated as fallows; Current ratio= current assets/current liabilitiesSl.No Year Current Assets Current Liabilities Ratio1 2004-05 60717987.34 32656240.05 1.862 2005-06 71181058.76 43576691.74 1.633 2006-07 63658413.39 35978861.25 1.774 2007-08 86244063.79 53736056.45 1.605 2008-09 72128952.41 50741016.54 1.42TABLE – 1 Current ratioBABASAB PATIL 61
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION current ratio 2 1.86 1.8 1.77 1.63 1.6 1.6 1.42 1.4 1.2 ratios 1 0.8 Series1 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 yearsInterpretation:According to the standards the Current Ratio of the firm should be 2:1, but the ratios of thecompany are less than 1.It tells the business can not pay debts due within one year from assetswhich it expects to turn into cash within the year. In 2004-05 it was 1.86. but in the year 2005-06it is decreased ,&It has gradually increased, it indicates improvements in the year 2006-07financial poison of the company; again it has decreased in 2007-08&2008-09.BABASAB PATIL 62
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINIONSo this ratio indicates DMU has ratio of all five years they interpreted as insufficiently liquidity.It provides an indication of strength of working capital. 2) Quick /Liquid/Acid Test Ratio: It show the relationship between quick assets & quick liabilities. It shows the bosiness solvency or strength of liquidity. That are calculated as fallows: Quick ratio= Quick assets/ Current liabilitiesTABLE – 2 Quick ratioBABASAB PATIL 63
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINIONSl.No Year Quick Assets Current Liabilities Ratio1 2004-05 30921237.16 32656240.05 0.952 2005-06 49441660.56 43576691.74 1.133 2006-07 39499292.65 35978861.25 1.104 2007-08 56085341.26 53736056.45 1.045 2008-09 48710020.15 50741016.54 0.96BABASAB PATIL 64
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION quick ratio 1.15 1.13 1.1 1.1 1.05 1.04 ratios 1 0.95 0.96 Series1 0.95 0.9 0.85 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 yearsInterpretation:The ideal ratio of the firm should be 1:1, but the ratios of the company are less than 1 in2004-05It tells the business can not pay debts due within one year from assets that it expects to turn intocash within the year. but in 2005-06 it raised up to 1.13 ,but in 2006-07,2007-08 & 2008-09 It isgo on reducing, it is bad sign for Organization .3) DEBT-EQUITY RATIO:BABASAB PATIL 65
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION It measures the relation between debt and equity in the capital structure of the firm. In otherwords, this ratio shows the relationship between the borrowed capital and owner’s capital, thisratio shows relative claim of the creditors and shareholders against the assets of the company.This ratio is calculated as fallows, Debt equity ratio=long term debt/share holders equity Generally higher the ratio greater is the possibility of increasing the ROR to equity & viceversa. A high debt equity ratio may be adopted to take advantage of cheaper debt capital. Theratio indicates the extent to which the firm depends upon out side for its existence. The ratioprovides margin of safety to the creditors. It tells owners the extent to which they can gainbenefits of maintaining control with a limit investment.TABLE - 3 Debt equity ratioSl.No Year Long term debt Share holders equity Ratio1 2004-05 112719511.00 83507980.03 1.352 2005-06 106042793.00 86473535.94 1.233 2006-07 97383678.00 100072068.45 0.974 2007-08 88459946.00 102364616.29 0.865 2008-09 82363231.00 86063160.54 0.96BABASAB PATIL 66
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION debt equity ratio 1.6 1.35 1.4 1.23 1.2 0.97 0.96 1 0.86 Ratio 0.8 Series1 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 yearsInterpretation:General Standard of Debt Equity ratio is 2:1.Since the company is using more borrowings. Butcompare to 2006-07 to 2007-08 it has decreased little more it good sign. Even though it has toimprove. High ratios un favorable to the firm & High debt company is called leveraged or geared& low debt equity ratio indicates grater claim of owners than creditors.4) PROPRITORY RATIO:It establishes relationship between the propitiator or shareholders funds & total tangible assets.BABASAB PATIL 67
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINIONIt may be expressed as: Proprietary ratio= proprietory funds/total assets*100The ratio indicates properties stake in total assets. Higher the ratio lowers the risk and lower theratio higher the risk. Debt –equity ratio & current ratio affects the proprietary ratio.TABLE – 4 Proprietary Ratios.Sl.No Year Proprietary funds Total assets Ratio1 2004-05 83507980.03 158600052.76 52.652 2005-06 86473535.94 164460270.78 52.583 2006-07 100072068.45 163314054.86 60.684 2007-08 102364616.29 194820880.91 52.055 2008-09 86063160.54 195465307.64 43.54BABASAB PATIL 68
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION proprietary ratio 70 60.68 60 52.65 52.58 52.05 50 43.54 40 ratio ratio 30 20 10 0 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 yearsInterpretation: Since company property Ratio is high in 2004-05 at 52.65,but later it goes on reduced in2005-06 was 52.58 & in 2006-07 was 60.68 & in 2007-08 it was 52.050. & 2008-09 was 43.54its shows the little Dangers to creditors & above 50% is Satisfactory. 5) INTEREST COVERAGE RATIO:BABASAB PATIL 69
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINIONThis is a measure of the protection available to creditors for payment of interest charges by thecompany. The ratio shows whether the company has sufficient income to cover its interestrequirements by a wide margin. The interest coverage ratio is computed by dividing profit beforeinterest and tax by the interest expenses. A high ratio implies adequate safety for payment ofinterest even if there were to be a drop in the company’s earnings.The interest coverage ratio is as follows: Interest coverage ratio=EBIT/interestNOTE:-Hear no need of calculation of Earning Per Share .Because the organization is recoveringloss since from 2003-05 menace from 6years.we can see in the Financial Statements ofDMU.6) INVENTORY / STOCK TURNOVER RATIO (ITR/STR).BABASAB PATIL 70
    • Inventory turn ratio=cost of goods sold/average inventory DHARWAD MILK UNINION It indicates the efficiency of firm in producing and selling its products. High Ratio is good from the view point of liquidity and vice versa. A low ratio would signify that inventory does not sell fast and stably in the warehouse for a longtime. It is calculated as follows: Inventory turn ratio=cost of goods sold/average inventory Hence Avg. Inventory = Opening Stock + Closing Stock/2 Avg. Inventory is calculated by taking stock levels of raw materials, working process and finished goods at the beginning of year & at the end of the year & that is divided by 2 TABLE - 5 Inventory/Stock Turnover Ratio: Sl.No Year Cost of goods sold Average inventory Ratio 1 2004-05 346684069.60 28794258.73 12.04 2 2005-06 446321775.02 25768074.19 17.32 3 2006-07 397561561.55 22949259.47 17.32 4 2007-08 439826074.98 27158921.63 16.19 5 2008-09 495708694.15 26788827.39 18.50 BABASAB PATIL 71
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION inventory tournover ratio 20 18.5 17.32 17.32 16.19 15 12.04 ratio 10 ratio 5 0 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 yearInterpretation:In 2004-05, 2005-06 & 2006-07 there is development shows management of inventory is highbut in 2007-08 in this period reduce and again in 2008-09 it increased. It shows efficientmanagement of inventory. Higher ratio says efficient business activities.7) DEBTORS TURNOVER RATIO:BABASAB PATIL 72
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINIONDebtors constitute an important constituent of current assets and therefore the quality of debtorsto great extent determines that firm’s liquidity. There are two ratios. They are: 1. Debtors turnover Ratio 2. Debtors collection period RatioDebtor’s turnover can be calculated by dividing total sales by balance of debtors. Debtors turn over ratio=sales/average debtorsHigher the ratio is better, since it indicate that debts are being collected more promptly.TABLE - 6 Debtors turn over ratioSl.No Year Sales Average debtors Ratio1 2004-05 390565567.88 11152086.00 35.032 2005-06 489014707.98 15577528.55 31.393 2006-07 468283461.32 14783343.38 31.684 2007-08 511817606.31 14105823.74 36.285 2008-09 573720167.78 19426089.69 29.53BABASAB PATIL 73
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION debtors turn over ratio 40 36.28 35.03 35 31.39 31.68 29.53 30 25 ratios 20 Series1 s 15 10 5 0 1/1/1900 1/2/1900 1/3/1900 1/4/1900 1/5/1900 yearsInterpretation:It shows number of times the receivables rotate in a year in times of sales. It shows how quicklydebtors are converted in to cash.8) DEBTORS CLLECTION PERIODBABASAB PATIL 74
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINIONThis ratio indicates the extent to which the debts have been collected in time. It gives the averagedebt collection period. The higher is the turnover ratio and shorter is the average collectionperiod the better is the trade credit management and the better is the liquidity of debtors, as shortcollection period and high turnover ratio imply prompt payment on the part of debtors. On theother hand, low turnover ratio and long collection period reflects that payments by debtors aredelayed. That is calculated as fallows: Debtors collection period=no of days in a year/debtors turnover ratioIt is helpful to • The creditors and lenders of the firm to know the firm’s collecting within a reasonable time. TABLE – 7 Debtor’s collection periodSl.No Year No of days Drs turnover ratio Period1 2004-05 365 35.03 10.422 2005-06 365 31.39 11.633 2006-07 365 31.68 11.524 2007-08 365 36.28 10.065 2008-09 365 29.53 12.36BABASAB PATIL 75
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION debtors collection period 14 12.36 11.63 11.52 12 10.42 10.06 10 8 ratio Series1 6 4 2 0 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 yearsInterpretation:The ratios Indicates the debtors collection. In 2004-05 10.42, 2005-06 it was 11.63 & but in theyear 2006-07 11.52, & 2007-08 10.06 its decreasing the debtors collection days but againincreases to 12.36 in the year 2008-09 . Collection period of WCPM is improving i.e. days aredecreasing, i.e. from 11 days to only 10 days. It shows the payments of debtors are very prompt.but last financial year it meets at 12 days.BABASAB PATIL 76
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION9) CREDITOR’S TURNOVER RATIO:It indicates the speed with which the payment for credit purchases is made to creditors. This ratiois calculated as follows: Creditors turn over ratio=total purchases/ average creditorsTABLE - 8 Creditors turn over ratio:Sl.No Year Total purchases Average creditors Ratio1 2004-05 303770822.77 10363756.00 29.312 2005-06 371288996.58 10219771.08 36.333 2006-07 340907385.66 12199222.63 27.954 2007-08 383026045.84 10177882.56 37.635 2008-09 422383354.32 6784716.21 62.25BABASAB PATIL 77
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION creditors turn over ratio 70 62.25 60 50 36.33 37.63 40 ratio 29.31 27.95 Series1 30 s 20 10 0 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 yearsInterpretation :The ratios are increasing. In 2004-05 29.31 times and now it increase to in 2008 35.77 times. Thecreditor’s payment period is decreasing i.e. in 2005-06 27.95 times; it is continuously and in2008-09 become days. It signifies the creditors are being paid promptly. It shows company ishaving credit worthiness.PROFITABILITY RATIO:INTRODUCTION:BABASAB PATIL 78
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINIONA company should earn profit to survive and grow over a long period of time. Profit is theultimate output of company and company will have no future if it fails to make sufficient profits.Therefore company should continuously evaluate the efficiency of the company in terms ofprofits.OBJECTIVES:Profitability ratios are calculated to measures the operating efficiency of the company. Pooroperational performance may indicate poor sales and hence poor profits. Lower profitability mayarise due to lack of control over the expenses etc.INTRESTED PARTIES IN PROFITABILITY RATIOS: • MANAGEMENT • CREDITORS • OWNERSGenerally two major types of profitability ratios are calculated: • Profitability in relation to sales • Profitability in relation to investmentPROFITABILITY RATIOS INVOLVE:BABASAB PATIL 79
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINIONGross profit is the difference between sales and the manufacturing cost of goods sold. And grossprofit is compared with the sales. Gross profit margin ratio reflects the efficiency with whichmanagement produces each unit of product. This ratio indicates the average spread between thecost of goods sold and sales revenue. A high gross profit ratio is sign of goods management andimplies that the firm is able to produce at relatively lower cost. A low gross profit margin reflectshigher cost of goods sold due to • Reduction in selling price • Inefficient utilization of plant and machinery etc. It is calculated as follows: Gross profit ratio=gross profit/net sales*100TABLE - 9 Gross profit ratio:Sl.No Year Gross profits Net sales Ratio1 2004-05 43881498.28 390565567.88 11.242 2005-06 42692932.96 489014707.98 8.733 2006-07 70721889.77 468283461.32 15.104 2007-08 71991531.33 511817606.31 14.075 2008-09 78011473.63 573720167.78 13.59BABASAB PATIL 81
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION gross profit ratio 16 15.1 14.07 13.59 14 11.24 12 10 8.73 ratio 8 Series1 6 4 2 0 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 yearsInterpretation:The gross profit ratio is not satisfactory its fluctuating in 2004-05 11.24, 2005-06 8.73,2006 – 07 15.1, 2007-08 14.07 & 2008-09 13.59 its not good because the expenses are more .11) NET PROFIT MARGIN RATIOBABASAB PATIL 82
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINIONThis ratio is also known as net margin. This measures the relationship between net profit andsales of a firm. Depending on the concept of net profit employed, it is calculated as follows Net profit ratio=Net Profit/net sales *100This ratio indicates company’s capacity to withstand adverse economic conditions.A company with high net margin ratio would ensure adequate return to the owners as well asenable a firm to withstand adverse economic condition when selling price is declining, cost ofproduction is rising and demand for the product is falling. It would really be difficult for a lownet margin ratio company to withstand these advantageous.TABLE - 10 NET PROFIT MARGIN RATIO:Sl.No Year Net Profit Net sales Ratio1 2004-05 7624062.22 390565567.88 1.952 2005-06 -1353071.58 489014707.98 -1.523 2006-07 1512197.06 468283461.32 1.594 2007-08 20380815.01 511817606.31 3.985 2008-09 7014282.39 573720167.78 1.22BABASAB PATIL 83
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION net profit ratio 5 3.98 4 3 1.95 2 1.59 1.22 ratio Series1 1 0 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 -1 -2 -1.52 yearsInterpretation: since the net profit ratio of company in 2005-06 come negative becauseincreasing in expenses and later it has recover the profit ratio in the year 2006-07 again in2007-08 it incries, but in the last financial year its reduced in 2008-09 1.22 but it will show theorganizations financial efficiency.12) RETURN ON TOTAL ASSETS (ROTA)BABASAB PATIL 84
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINIONThis ratio is compared to know the ‘Productivity of the total assets’. There are two methods ofcomputing Return on Total Assets Return on asset=net profit /total asset*100TABLE 11 RETURN ON TOTAL ASSETS (ROTA)Sl.No Year Net profit Total assets Ratio1 2004-05 7624062.22 158600052.76 4.812 2005-06 -1353071.58 164460270.78 -0.8223 2006-07 1512197.06 163314054.86 0.934 2007-08 20380815.01 194820880.91 10.465 2008-09 7014282.39 195465307.64 3.59BABASAB PATIL 85
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION Retorn on assets 12 10.46 10 8 6 4.81 ratio 3.59 Series1 4 2 0.93 0 -2 2004-05 2005-06 -0.822 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 yearInterpretation:In period 20005-06 here is net loss no return in 20006 – 07. again in 2007-08 it is recovered &in 2008-09 it reduce comparing last year 2007-08 so there is fluctuation in return on total assetratio. There is no proper utilization of total assets in the company.14) RETURN ON INVESTMENT (ROI) :BABASAB PATIL 86
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINIONIt is also called as overall profitability ratio or Return on capital employed (ROCE) Ratio. Thisratio is the broadest measure of the overall performance of business firm. It indicates thepercentage of return on the total capital employed in the business. The higher ratio, the moreefficient use of the capital employed. It is calculated on the bases of the following: Return on Investment= Net Profit/total capital employed*100TABLE 12 RETURN ON INVESTMENT (ROI):Sl.No Year Net Profit/loss Total capital employed Ratio1 2004-05 7624062.22 196227491.03 3.892 2005-06 -1353071.58 192516328.94 -0.703 2006-07 1512197.06 197455746.45 0.764 2007-08 20380815.01 190824562.29 10.685 2008-09 7014282.39 168426391.54 4.16BABASAB PATIL 87
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION ROI 12 10.68 10 8 6 ratio 4.16 Series1 3.39 4 2 0.76 0 -2 2004-05 2005-06 -0.7 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 yearInterpretation:In 2004-05 or 100 Rs. of investment the company is getting only3.39 Rs. Profits ,but in lateryears it has reduce to Rs. -.70 paise & in 2006-07 .76paise respectively. After in 2007-08Rs.10.68 & in 2008-09 Rs.4.16.But also, it is not favorable because operating expenses are more.15) Fixed Asset – Turnover Ratio:BABASAB PATIL 88
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION This ratio measures the efficiency and profit earning capacity of the organization. Higher ratioindicates intensive utilization of fixed asset. Lower ratio indicates under utilization of assets. Fixed Asset – Turnover Ratio: Cost Of sales/Fixed assetTABLE 14 - Fixed Asset – Turnover Ratio:Sl.No Year Cost of sales Fixed asset Ratio1 2004-05 346684069.6 90571545.42 3.822 2005-06 446321775.02 88854612.02 5.023 2006-07 397561561.55 95147041.47 4.184 2007-08 439826074.98 104041217.21 4.235 2008-09 495708694.15 101278755.23 4.89BABASAB PATIL 89
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION Fixed assets turnover ratio 6 5.02 4.89 5 4.18 4.23 4 3.82 Ratio 3 Fixed assets turnover ratio 2 1 0 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 YearsInterpretation:Hear in 2004-05, 2006-07 & 2007-08 in this year the under utilization of fixed asset. In 2005-06& 2008-09 the firm intensive utilization of fixed asset.BABASAB PATIL 90
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION16) Fixed Asset to Proprietor’s RatioIt indicates the percentage of owners fund invested in fixed asset. if ratio is grater than 1,it meansthat creditors obligation have been used to acquire a part of the fixed assets. Fixed Asset to Proprietor’s Ratio=Fixed asset/Shareholders fundsTABLE 15 Fixed Asset to Proprietor’s RatioSl.No Year Fixed asset Shareholder Funds Ratio1 2004-05 90571545.42 83507980.03 1.082 2005-06 88854612.02 86473535.94 1.033 2006-07 95147041.47 100072068.45 0.954 2007-08 104041217.21 102364616.29 1.015 2008-09 101278755.23 86063160.54 1.18BABASAB PATIL 91
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINION Fixed asseta to Properietor ratio Fixed asseta to Properietor ratio 1.4 1.18 1.2 1.08 1.03 1.01 0.95 1 0.8 ratio 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 yearInterpretation:Hear in 2004-05, 2006-07 & 2007-08 in this year the under utilization of fixed asset. In 2005-06& 2008-09 the firm intensive utilization of fixed assetsBABASAB PATIL 92
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINIONFINDINGS: 1. The Current ratio is below the standard ratio and it is not good from company’s point of view. It shows that it is not good position to meet the short term liabilities. 2. The liquidity ratio is according to standard ratio (1:1) and it is good from company’s point of view. it shows the company is able to meet its liabilities is short period. 3. The Debt equity ratio is showing decreasing trend in year by years. It indicates that the company is depending more on internal sources, a more internal funds means the shareholders fund, it shows that the company is financially strong (i.e., a low debt company). 4. The debtor turnover ratio is good. It shows the collection of debtors is very prompt. 5. The return on total assets is also fluctuating It indicates that, the assets had not been utilized properly by the firm. 6. The firm is slowly recovering loss from past five financial years. For that reason the firm unable to pay the returns to the share holders.BABASAB PATIL 94
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINIONSuggestions: 1. The profit Of the Company Is not in a good Position For That company has to Take Alternative Actions such As i. Increasing in Procurement of milk , ii. Production, and Control in Fixed Expenses Like, Administrative, selling Etc. 2. The organization should increase its current assets to meet the current obligations through making credit sales, and also improve the liquidity position through increasing cash in hand and at Bank. 3. The organization can think to increase the Debt equity which is profitable to the company its helps in expansion of business or investing in some mutual funds and other market securities. Investment is again subject to market risk, hence a special funds managers can be appointed or a broker who will take care of such aspects 4. The existing capacity of DMU is 2,00,000 lts of milk per day. Presently only 85,000 ltrs of milk is procured by DMU, which is not even 50% of the capacity. Hence it has to increase milk procurement routes by encourage village people to increase the cooperative milk societies (Presently 560) and add to their existing list of suppliers to DMU. 5. the organization should make sum rules and regulation, which is should apply the all the department employee – worker to effort to meet the stated organization goals & objects. 6. Proper training should give to all employees – workers to take use of avlablee resource in organization. it may monitory or otherless.BABASAB PATIL 95
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINIONCONCLUSION “FINANCE IS THE LIFE BLOOD OF EVERY INDUSTRI – ORGANIZATION –COMPANY AND ASWELLAS ECONOMIC ACTIVES” "PROFIT IT IS A CONDITION OF SURVIVAL.IT IS COST OF SURVIVAL.IT ISTHE COST OF STAYING IN BUSINESS ". When we analyze its financial performance through ratios there the DMU is recoveringfrom loss whatever they faced from 6 years. it is an one of the milk production industry which isestablished in Karnataka in the year of 1984. There is an increment in its financial performancebut it is not enough, because the firm has 25 years experience. And it has great potential toincrease its profit. By calculating Financial Ratio we see the financial performance of DMU isrecovering.BABASAB PATIL 96
    • DHARWAD MILK UNINIONBIBLIOGRAPHY:TEXT BOOKSFinancial Management I.M.Pande – VIKAS PUBLISHING HOUSE PVT LTD 9th EDITION (2004) - 2007Financial Management G.B.Balgar – ASHOK PRAKASHAN 1st EDITION - 2008.Entrepreneurships Development. - S.Anilkumar & S.C.Pornima - NEW INTARNATIONAL PUBLICATION LTD DELHI 2005WEBSITE: • www.google .com. • http://www.kmfnandini.coop/html/advertisements.htm.BABASAB PATIL 97