Demand & suppaly PPT OF MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS MBA

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Demand & suppaly PPT OF MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS MBA

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Demand & suppaly PPT OF MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS MBA

  1. 1. 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com SUPPLY AND DEMAND
  2. 2. 7 Consumers, Producers, and the Efficiency of Markets 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  3. 3. REVISITING THE MARKET EQUILIBRIUM • Do the equilibrium price and quantity maximize the total welfare of buyers and sellers? • Market equilibrium reflects the way markets allocate scarce resources. • Whether the market allocation is desirable can be addressed by welfare economics. 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  4. 4. Welfare Economics • Welfare economics is the study of how the allocation of resources affects economic well- being. • Buyers and sellers receive benefits from taking part in the market. • The equilibrium in a market maximizes the total welfare of buyers and sellers. 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  5. 5. Welfare Economics • Equilibrium in the market results in maximum benefits, and therefore maximum total welfare for both the consumers and the producers of the product. 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  6. 6. Welfare Economics • Consumer surplus measures economic welfare from the buyer’s side. • Producer surplus measures economic welfare from the seller’s side. 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  7. 7. CONSUMER SURPLUS • Willingness to pay is the maximum amount that a buyer will pay for a good. • It measures how much the buyer values the good or service. 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  8. 8. CONSUMER SURPLUS • Consumer surplus is the buyer’s willingness to pay for a good minus the amount the buyer actually pays for it. 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  9. 9. Table 1 Four Possible Buyers’ Willingness to Pay Copyright©2004 South-Western 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  10. 10. CONSUMER SURPLUS • The market demand curve depicts the various quantities that buyers would be willing and able to purchase at different prices. 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  11. 11. The Demand Schedule and the Demand Curve 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  12. 12. Figure 1 The Demand Schedule and the Demand Curve Copyright©2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning Price of Album 0 Quantity of Albums Demand 1 2 3 4 $100 John’s willingness to pay 80 Paul’s willingness to pay 70 George’s willingness to pay 50 Ringo’s willingness to pay 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  13. 13. Figure 2 Measuring Consumer Surplus with the Demand Curve Copyright©2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning (a) Price = $80 Price of Album 50 70 80 0 $100 Demand 1 2 3 4 Quantity of Albums John’s consumer surplus ($20) 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  14. 14. Figure 2 Measuring Consumer Surplus with the Demand Curve Copyright©2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning (b) Price = $70 Price of Album 50 70 80 0 $100 Demand 1 2 3 4 Total consumer surplus ($40) Quantity of Albums John’s consumer surplus ($30) Paul’s consumer surplus ($10) 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  15. 15. Using the Demand Curve to Measure Consumer Surplus • The area below the demand curve and above the price measures the consumer surplus in the market. 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  16. 16. Figure 3 How the Price Affects Consumer Surplus Copyright©2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning Consumer surplus Quantity (a) Consumer Surplus at Price P Price 0 Demand P1 Q1 B A C 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  17. 17. Figure 3 How the Price Affects Consumer Surplus Copyright©2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning Initial consumer surplus Quantity (b) Consumer Surplus at Price P Price 0 Demand A B C D E F P1 Q1 P2 Q2 Consumer surplus to new consumers Additional consumer surplus to initial consumers 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  18. 18. What Does Consumer Surplus Measure? • Consumer surplus, the amount that buyers are willing to pay for a good minus the amount they actually pay for it, measures the benefit that buyers receive from a good as the buyers themselves perceive it. 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  19. 19. PRODUCER SURPLUS • Producer surplus is the amount a seller is paid for a good minus the seller’s cost. • It measures the benefit to sellers participating in a market. 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  20. 20. Table 2 The Costs of Four Possible Sellers 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  21. 21. Using the Supply Curve to Measure Producer Surplus • Just as consumer surplus is related to the demand curve, producer surplus is closely related to the supply curve. 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  22. 22. The Supply Schedule and the Supply Curve 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  23. 23. Figure 4 The Supply Schedule and the Supply Curve 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  24. 24. Using the Supply Curve to Measure Producer Surplus • The area below the price and above the supply curve measures the producer surplus in a market. 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  25. 25. Figure 5 Measuring Producer Surplus with the Supply Curve Quantity of Houses Painted Price of House Painting 500 800 $900 0 600 1 2 3 4 (a) Price = $600 Supply Grandma’s producer surplus ($100) 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  26. 26. Figure 5 Measuring Producer Surplus with the Supply Curve Quantity of Houses Painted Price of House Painting 500 800 $900 0 600 1 2 3 4 (b) Price = $800 Georgia’s producer surplus ($200) Total producer surplus ($500) Grandma’s producer surplus ($300) Supply 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  27. 27. Figure 6 How the Price Affects Producer Surplus Producer surplus Quantity (a) Producer Surplus at Price P Price 0 Supply B A C Q1 P1 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  28. 28. Figure 6 How the Price Affects Producer Surplus Quantity (b) Producer Surplus at Price P Price 0 P1 B C Supply A Initial producer surplus Q1 P2 Q2 Producer surplus to new producers Additional producer surplus to initial producers D E F 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  29. 29. MARKET EFFICIENCY • Consumer surplus and producer surplus may be used to address the following question: – Is the allocation of resources determined by free markets in any way desirable? 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  30. 30. MARKET EFFICIENCY Consumer Surplus = Value to buyers – Amount paid by buyers and Producer Surplus = Amount received by sellers – Cost to sellers 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  31. 31. MARKET EFFICIENCY Total surplus = Consumer surplus + Producer surplus or Total surplus = Value to buyers – Cost to sellers 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  32. 32. MARKET EFFICIENCY • Efficiency is the property of a resource allocation of maximizing the total surplus received by all members of society. 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  33. 33. MARKET EFFICIENCY • In addition to market efficiency, a social planner might also care about equity – the fairness of the distribution of well-being among the various buyers and sellers. 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  34. 34. Figure 7 Consumer and Producer Surplus in the Market Equilibrium Producer surplus Consumer surplus Price 0 Quantity Equilibrium price Equilibrium quantity Supply Demand A C B D E 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  35. 35. MARKET EFFICIENCY • Three Insights Concerning Market Outcomes – Free markets allocate the supply of goods to the buyers who value them most highly, as measured by their willingness to pay. – Free markets allocate the demand for goods to the sellers who can produce them at least cost. – Free markets produce the quantity of goods that maximizes the sum of consumer and producer surplus. 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  36. 36. Figure 8 The Efficiency of the Equilibrium Quantity Quantity Price 0 Supply Demand Cost to sellers Cost to sellers Value to buyers Value to buyers Value to buyers is greater than cost to sellers. Value to buyers is less than cost to sellers. Equilibrium quantity 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  37. 37. Evaluating the Market Equilibrium • Because the equilibrium outcome is an efficient allocation of resources, the social planner can leave the market outcome as he/she finds it. • This policy of leaving well enough alone goes by the French expression laissez faire. 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  38. 38. Evaluating the Market Equilibrium • Market Power – If a market system is not perfectly competitive, market power may result. • Market power is the ability to influence prices. • Market power can cause markets to be inefficient because it keeps price and quantity from the equilibrium of supply and demand. 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  39. 39. Evaluating the Market Equilibrium • Externalities – created when a market outcome affects individuals other than buyers and sellers in that market. – cause welfare in a market to depend on more than just the value to the buyers and cost to the sellers. • When buyers and sellers do not take externalities into account when deciding how much to consume and produce, the equilibrium in the market can be inefficient. 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  40. 40. Summary • Consumer surplus equals buyers’ willingness to pay for a good minus the amount they actually pay for it. • Consumer surplus measures the benefit buyers get from participating in a market. • Consumer surplus can be computed by finding the area below the demand curve and above the price. 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  41. 41. Summary • Producer surplus equals the amount sellers receive for their goods minus their costs of production. • Producer surplus measures the benefit sellers get from participating in a market. • Producer surplus can be computed by finding the area below the price and above the supply curve. 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  42. 42. Summary • An allocation of resources that maximizes the sum of consumer and producer surplus is said to be efficient. • Policymakers are often concerned with the efficiency, as well as the equity, of economic outcomes. 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
  43. 43. Summary • The equilibrium of demand and supply maximizes the sum of consumer and producer surplus. • This is as if the invisible hand of the marketplace leads buyers and sellers to allocate resources efficiently. • Markets do not allocate resources efficiently in the presence of market failures. 4/10/2013 Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com

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