CHANGE AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT PRESENTED BY :- BABASAB PATIL
WHAT IS CHANGE? Change is considered with making things different. Change intervention is a planned action to make things different. The person or persons who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing the change process is the change agent.
Defn of CHANGE Change is defined as ‘ to make or become different, give or begin to have a different form’. Change also means dissatisfaction with the old and belief in the new.
WHY CHANGE ? To survive and eventually prosper, an organization must monitor its external environment and align itself with changes that occur, or tend to occur. Change takes place on three levels:
Contd…, The self, the team or the (small) organization and the wider system that surrounds the team or the small organization or the organizational unit – depending on how the borders are defined. In a process, change needs to be facilitated on all three levels to become sustainable.
CHANGE IN HISTORY In 513 B.C., Heraclitus of Greece observed “ There is nothing permanent expect change”. In 16th century, Niccolo Machivelli stated in his political treatise, The Prince, “There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success, than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things”.
Contd…, Simply managing change is insufficient. Successful change requires leadership. The old saying, “You can lead a horse to water, but you can’t make it drink”. Eight step model to implement change by John P.Kotter –4. Establish a sense of urgency5. Obtain management & peer backing6. Create a vision for change7. Communicate the vision
Contd…,1. Empower employees to implement change2. Establish short term goals3. Encourage additional changes4. Reinforce changes made as permanent.
WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF CHANGEa. Missionb. Workloadc. Politicald. Environmente. Changes in managementf. Resourcesg. Technological.
DEALING WITH CHANGE Change is an inevitable part of all organization. The world we live in is constantly changing and at an accelerated rate. Organizations and individuals must continually adapt to this changing environment by changing themselves or they will not survive. Some people accept and some people resist change.
PHASES OF CHANGE when change is introduced & there is an understanding that it will be implemented, we experience the following –i Denial – when things change, the first reaction is to deny it.h Bargaining & Negotiating – when we perceive that the change don’t go away, we still believe things worked better before the change & bargain for reinstating the old system.e Anger – when we realize change is here to stay, and we can do nothing about it, we get angry.
HOW TO DEAL WITH CHANGEOnce change is communicated and implemented, we can play a part in reducing the effects on us by:e AcceptingB Communicating – share and communicate our feeling through which we get more information and fear can be reduced. Planning – where we were and where we want to be, how we are going to get there. Clarify goals and expectations, get feedback from others.
INDIVIDUAL RESISTANCEThe following are the five reasons why individuals may resist change:e Habit – while going to college use the same route.o Security- threatens their feelings of safetyf Economic Factors – changes will lower one’s income specially when pay is closed tied with productivitya Fear of the Unknown : the experience of school to collegef Selecitive Information Processing Individuals shape their world through their perceptions.
ORGANIZATIONAL RESISTENCEE Structural Inertia – selection process.c Limited focus of change – depts. are interdependent, difficult to change one without affecting others.u Group Inertia – individuals want to change but group acts as constraint. Union member.n Threat to Expertise – decentralized personal computers, which allow for managers to gain access to information directly from a company mainframe. It was resisted by centralized information depts.e Threat to Establish Power Relationship – redistribution of decision making authority can threaten long-established power relationships within the organization.t Threat to Establish Resource Allocations – Groups in the organization that control sizable resources often see change as a threat. Reduction in their budget or cut in their staff size?
OVERCOMING RESISTENCE TO CHANGESix tactics have been suggested for use by change agents in dealing with resistance to change.3. Education & Communication4. Participation5. Facilitation & Support – counseling, training etc to reduce fear.6. Negotiation7. Manipulation & Co-optation8. Coercion
PERSONAL CHANGE Personal change is defined as means of improvement in an individual’s life. It also helps in finding how to change. It aims at tapping the unlimited potential available in the individual.
UNDERSTANDING PERSONAL CHANGE Personal change is a process of movement of an individual from current undesirable level to a desirable level of behavior to improve the organizational and individual effectiveness and efficiency. Identified & Desire to change
PERSONAL CHANGE PROCESS Step 1: PC starts with discovery, finding out more about yourself; how you do things, how you have been limiting your options. Discovery involves willingness to learn. Learning might be unexpected & surprising.
Contd..., Step 2: After discovery phase clearing phase starts which involves the process of realizing and rejecting the wrong answers which have become a part of us.Ex: The problem with getting angry inappropriately. The process of discovery helps realize that the anger really belonged with a specific incident 30 years ago. That would allow clearing undesirable responses now. Clearing is a key element in Personal Change.
Step 3: Contd...,Clearing then leads to programming which is establishing useful ways of how to do things. That might involve the discovery of how things are being done and the creation of more powerful new methods. Once the Programming phase is over the phase of processing starts.
ELEMENTS / COMPONENTS OF PERSONAL CHANGE1. Self – Awareness.2. Self – Analysis.3. Self Esteem .4. Self Efficacy.
1.SELF-AWARENESS A self-aware person is one who:2. Is aware of one’s strengths & limitations3. Has a clear idea of one’s priorities: know what is imp4. Is aware of one’s attitudes, values & beliefs: Values and beliefs are the primary causes of conflicts.5. Knows how one’s behavior is affecting others6. Knows how others are affecting oneself.7. Is aware of ones feelings & emotions & how they affect oneself & others8. One is aware of his fears & anxieties & the defenses he usually employs to protect his sanity.9. One has relatively stable & strong self-image & is not unduly perturbed by what others say about oneself.
Contd..., SELF AWARENESS – can be defined as the ability to perceive one’s own existence, including one’s own traits, feelings & behaviors. Self awareness helps in –3. Personal development through self-awareness4. Skill development5. Knowing your strengths and weaknesses6. Developing intuitive decision-making skills7. Stress
Contd...,1. Motivation2. Leadership3. Practicing this management skill4. Ask somebody5. Questionnaires6. Seek professional help
21st century leadership is based on emotional self- Contd..., awareness Emotional Self-awareness is the key to increased personal & organizational performance. Johari Window explains Self awareness as an element of personal Change. Johari Window is a tool used for illustrating & improving self-awareness, & mutual understanding between individuals within a group.
Contd...,Developed by Joseph Luft and Harry Ingram in the1950’s, who recognized that, effective learning isfacilitated by good interpersonal communication.
Johari Window model is referred to as a ‘disclosure / feedback’ model of self awareness and by some people an ‘information processing tool’. It represents information – feelings, experience, views, attitudes, skills, intensions, motivation, etc within or about a person-in relation to their group, from four prospective, which are ‘regions’ or ‘areas’ or ‘quadrants’ - ‘open/ free area’, ‘blind area’, ‘hidden area’, & ‘unknown area’.
Known by self Unknown by selfKnown ARENA BLINDby others CONCEALED DARK / / HIDDEN UNKNOWNUnknownby others
Johari Window four regions: Contd...,u What is known by the person about him/himself & is also known by others – open area, open self, free area, free self, or ‘the arena’. What is unknown by the person about him/herself but which others know – blind area, blind self, or ‘blindspot’.a What the person knows about him/herself that others do not know – hidden area, hidden self, avoided area, avoided self, or ‘façade’.i What is unknown by the person about him/herself & is also unknown by others – unknown area or unknown self.
JOHARI Window: An Interpersonal Communications Model KNOWN TO ME UNKNOWN TO MEKNOWN Public Blind spotTO Arena BadOTHERS Open UnacceptedUNKNOWN Hidden UnknownTO Avoided UnconsciousOTHERS Private Not tried
JOHARI Window: An Interpersonal Communications Model KNOWN TO ME UNKNOWN TO ME Name Bad breathKNOWN Height SnoringTO Education/Dept Untidy tableOTHERS Marks scored Short tempered Bad habits PotentialsUNKNOWN Known fears Unknown fearsTO Unshared secrets Untried methodsOTHERS Jealousy Unseen places
When you share about yourself or self-disclose: KNOWN TO ME UNKNOWN TO ME Blind spotKNOWN Public BadTOOTHERS Arena Unaccepted Open UnknownUNKNOWN HiddenTO Unconscious AvoidedOTHERS Not tried Private
When you share about yourself or self-disclose: KNOWN TO ME UNKNOWN TO ME Name Height Blind spotKNOWN Education/Dept BadTO Marks scoredOTHERS Unaccepted Native place Parents Old friends Hidden UnknownUNKNOWN UnconsciousTO Avoided Not triedOTHERS Private
When you solicit or receive feedback & Improve KNOWN TO ME UNKNOWN TO ME Name Height (Mouth Wash) Education/Dept SnoringKNOWN Marks scored (OrganisedTO Table)OTHERS Short tempered Native place Parents Old friends Hidden UnknownUNKNOWNTO Avoided UnconsciousOTHERS Not tried Private
When you solicit or receive feedback and self-disclose: KNOWN TO ME UNKNOWN TO ME Blind spotKNOWNTO Public Bad UnacceptedOTHERS Arena Open UnknownUNKNOWN Hidden UnconsciousTO Avoided Not triedOTHERS Private
When you acquire knowledge: KNOWN TO ME UNKNOWN TO MEKNOWNTO Public Blind spotOTHERS Bad Arena Unaccepted OpenUNKNOWN Learn new HiddenTO thingsOTHERS Avoided Like Private swimming
JOHARI Window : Ideal KNOWN TO ME UNKNOWN TO ME KNOWN Less TO OTHERS More Strengths weaknesses More Comfort Free to interactUNKNOWN KnownTO Less avoidance potentials,OTHERS Increased Less fear Learning
MYERS BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR (MBTI)E Psychological tool used for self-awareness.o Myer’s Brigg’s classification means the person can begin to identify preference in behavior & how the individual is similar to & different from him/her.
Contd..., The MBTI preferences indicate the differences in people that result from the following – Where they prefer to focus their attention & get energy (Extroversion or Introversion) The way they prefer to take in information (Sensing or Intuition)f The way they prefer to make decisions (Thinking or Feeling)f How they orient themselves to the external world-with a judging process or a perceiving process (Judging or Perceiving)There is no right or wrong to these preferences. Each identifies normal & valuable human behaviors.
Contd..., The MBTI model is useful for:2. Understanding & developing yourself3. Understanding & developing others4. Understanding what motivates others5. Understanding other’s strengths & weaknesses6. Working in teams-by ensuring that all relevant necessary capabilities are represented in the team7. Allocating & agreeing tasks & project responsibilities8. Agreeing roles & development with others & for oneself.
(E) Extraversion Or Introversion (I) The focus or direction or ‘Attitude’ or orientation of our orientation behavior – outward or inward(S) Sensing Or Nituition (N) How we gather Function information (Jungian ‘Irrational’ or MB ‘Perceiving’)(T) Thinking Or Feeling (F) How we decide Function (Jungain ‘Rational’ or MB ‘Judging’)(J) Judging Or Perceiving (P) How we react to the Myers Briggs’ world – do prefer to added make decisions or keep dimension open to options (& also equating to which middle ‘Functions’ Jung’s do we favour) ‘Irrational’ & ‘Rational’
Contd…, are – Sixteen Personality types2. ISTJ – The dominant quality in their lives is an abiding sense of responsibility for doing what needs to be done in the here & now.3. ISTP – For them, the driving force in their lives is to understand how things & phenomena in the real world work so that they can make the best & most effective use of them.4. ESTP – For these individuals the dominant quality in their lives is their enthusiastic attention to the outer world of hands on & real life experiences.5. ESTJ – the driving force in their lives is their need to analyze & bring into logical order the outer world of events, people & things.6. ISFJ – the dominant quality in their lives is an abiding respect & sense of personal resp for doing what need to be done in the here & now.7. ISFP – They have a dominant quality which is deep felt caring, for living things, combined with a quietly playful & sometimes adventurous approach to life & all its experiences.8. ESFP – For them the dominant quality in their lives is their enthusiastic attention to the outer world of hands on & real life experiences.
Contd…,1. ESFJ – active & intense caring about people & a strong desire to bring harmony in their relationships.2. INFJ – is their attention to the inner world of possibilities, ideas & symbols.3. INFP – is a deep felt caring & idealism about people.4. ENFP – is their attention to the outer world of possibilities; they are exited by continuous involvement in anything new.5. ENFJ – is an active & intense caring about people & a strong desire to bring harmony into their relationships.6. INTJ – is their attention to the inner world of possibilities, symbols, abstractions, images & thoughts.7. INTP – is to understand what ever phenomenon is the focus of their attention.8. ENTP – is their excitement in continuous involvement in anything new, whether it be ideas, people or activities.9. ENTJ – is their need to analyze & bring into logical order the outer world of events, people, & things.
2. SELF ANALYSIS Personal change begins with analyzing oneself. Self analysis has to do with a personal SWOT analysis. Self analysis helps a person in understanding: Whether or not one has a suitable aptitude for a given job. Whether or not one is capable of handling the various roles and responsibilities one has accepted. What motivates and what drains one’s energy.
Contd..., Whether one brings out the best in others or the worst in others. Who in the environment be it a personal or official capacity brings out the best in oneself and who brings out the worst in oneself? One’s stress tolerance potential. Whether one is doing the work that is meaningful to himself / herself, others around him/her, his/her organization and community.An important aspect of self analysis is to examine whether one has meaningful relationships with others & to move away from relationships that are not fulfilling.
Contd..., Exercise on self analysis – blank sheet of paper start answering the following questions. One’s current and previous jobs, including any voluntary work One’s interest outside work and extracurricular activities One’s course and Any other significant experiences, in life.
Contd...,Ask Oneself :2. Why did I choose the course, job, experience?3. Which parts of this experience did I really enjoy?4. Which parts did I find frustrating or boring?5. Which bits was I best at?6. Which bits did I find a struggle?7. What have other people said about my contribution in this job, course, and experience?8. What do others consider I am good at? (Ask them)
Contd..., It tells us about the sorts of skills one feels most comfortable using, the sort of environment one performs best in and the types of people with whom one enjoys working.
3. SELF ESTEEM Self-esteem or self-worth is defined as a person’s self-image at an emotional level; circumventing reason & logic. According to Hellriegel, Slocum & Woodman defined Self esteem as the result of an individual’s continuing evaluation of himself or herself. According to Rosenberg’s described it as a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward the self.
Contd…, Factors determining one’s self esteem: build an image of oneself through one’s experiences with different people & activities.– experience during childhood,- one’s successes & failures, - how we were treated by the members of one’s immediate family, teachers, coaches, religious authorities, & by one’s peers, all contributes to the creation of one’s basic self esteem.
Contd…, Nature of Low Self-Esteemed Person & Healthy Self Esteemed Person- People with low self-esteem often rely on how they are doing in the present to determine how they feel about themselves. They need +ve external experiences to counteract the –ve feelings & thoughts that constantly plague them. Even them the good feeling can be temporary.- People with healthy self esteem are able to assess oneself accurately. They will be able to realistically acknowledge one’s strengths & limitations & at the same time accepting oneself as worthy & worthwhile without conditions or reservations.
Contd…, • Causes for healthy & low self esteem CAUSES FOR HEALTHY SELF-ESTEEM CAUSES FOR LOW SELF ESTEEM Childhood Childhood experiences experiences that that include being include being praised yelled at, or beaten Being listened to Being ignored Being spoken to Teased respectfully Being expected to be Getting attention & “perfect” all the time hugs Experiencing failures Experiencing success in in sports or school
Contd…, • Facets of Low self-Esteem It is not so easy to recognize low self esteem The three common faces that low self esteem may wear are – The Impostor – pretends to be happy & successful - Lives with a constant fear that he or she will be “found out” - Needs continuous successes to maintain the mask of +ve self esteem The Rebel – acts against the opinions or good will of others- especially people who are important or powerful-don’t matter. - Lives with constant anger about not feeling “good enough” - Continuously needs to prove that others’ judgments & criticisms don’t hurt
Contd…, The Loser – acts helpless & unable to cope with the world & waits for someone to come to the rescue.- Uses self-pity or indifference as a shield against fear of taking responsibility for changing his or her life.- Looks constantly to others for guidance, which can lead to such problems as lacking assertiveness skills, under-achievement, & excessive reliance on others in relationships.
Contd…, Consequences of Low Self Esteem – It can create anxiety, stree, loneliness & increased likelihood for depression It can cause problems with friendships & relationships. It can seriously impair academic & job performance. It can lead to underachievement & increased vulnerability to drug & alcohol abuse. It reinforces the –ve self image & can take a person into downward spiral of lower & lower self-esteem & increasingly non-productive or even actively self-destructive behavior.
• MeasuresContd…, to overcome Low self-esteem: First believe that one can change, and should be willing to change.There are three steps one can take to begin to change one’s self- esteem: Step 1: Rebut the Inner Critic – challenge the –ve messages of the critical inner voice.“I failed the class test. I don’t understand anything in class. I shouldn’t be taking this course”.Rebut the critic by saying – “ I did poorly on this one test, but I’ve done O.K. on all the assignments. There are some things here that I don’t understand as well as I thought I did.
Contd…, Step 2: Practice Self-Nurturing – treat oneself as a worthwhile person, caring for oneself in ways that shows that one is valuable, component, deserving & lovable. Components to self-nurturing: - Practice Basic Self-Care: enough sleep, healthy food, regular exercise - Plan Fun & Relaxing Things for yourself - Reward Yourself for Your Accomplishment - Remind Yourself of Your Strengths & Achievements – keep file of certificates & awards where you can see them. - Forgive Yourself When You Don’t Do All You’d Hoped - Self-Nurture Even When You Don’t Feel You Deserve It: “Fake it” until you can “make it”.
Contd…, Step 3: Get Help from Others - Ask for support from Friends - Get help from Teachers & Other Helpers - Talk to a Therapist or Counselor
4. SELF-EFFICACY According to Albert Bandura, self-efficacy refers to an individual’s sense of competence or ability in general or in particular domains.
ORGANIZATIONAL ROLES Personal change has a direct impact in an Organization & the roles that individuals play. In a social system an organization has roles with expectations that require individuals to perform certain tasks called job duties. Discharge of duties. People must be attracted not only to the organization but also to remain in it. People must perform the task for which they are hired, and must do so in a dependable manner and People must go beyond the dependable role performance & engage in creative, spontaneous & innovative behaviour at work. The organizational structure & Individual characteristics need to be matched to become effective. This matching leads to the evolving of a Role in the organization.
Contd…, The organization structure consists of - Work Structure, Status Structure, Authority Structure, Individual Characteristics like – Interest, Attitudes, Needs. There are TWO Role Systems – - Role Space – each individuals plays several roles like daughter, mother, sales person, member of a club & so on. - Role Set – is a pattern of interrelationship between one role among many others. Role is a convergence region between the individual & the organization. What is given in a organization chart is the position & when the individual occupies a position, it becomes a ‘role’. It has been defined as “a set of Behaviours enacted by a person as a result of his occupying a certain position in the organization.
Making organizational roles effectiveRole effectiveness depends on: Having high role efficacy on the part of the role occupant and By developing a style & strategy to cope with the Role Conflict or stress.