Business Communication        BSPATIL          1
CONTENTS1. Communication in Business2. A Good Business Letter3. Commercial Correspondence4. Format of Business Letters5. C...
Chapter I                                      COMMUNICATION IN BUSINESSObjectives of CommunicationCommunication is a mean...
Companies which are concerned with employees’’ welfare have counselling centres for their employees.Services of specialist...
Man is a social animal. He fosters relation with his fellow-men by means of effective communications,such as listening, sp...
Resistance to Change       (i)    A Sales Representative generally sends his sales report to his firm. If he writes the re...
creative, brilliant.   9. Organizational Barrier: The classical organizational structure with a scalar chain of command   ...
5. Select the right medium of communication.6. Try to give sufficient information to avoid further clarifications.7. Try t...
Chapter II                                         A GOOD BUSINESS LETTERImportance and Functions of Commercial Correspond...
has to be communicated, must be stated clearly. Clarity can be attained only when we have a clear   idea of what we want t...
10. Character: The mark of individuality is called character. A business letter should possess character.       A letter m...
The qualities of a good letter have been studied in the preceding section. In general, there is no methodwhich is applicab...
HOW TO WRITE GOOD LETTERS                     ESSENTIALS OF GOOD BUSINESS LETTERS   1. Think about what you want to say   ...
7. Does the letter convey the idea at FIRST READINMG?         8. Does the letter ensure the GOODWILL of the firm?         ...
Your sincerely                                                                    (S. Ramu)                               ...
The block type is preferred, because the carriage of the typewriter need not be adjusted. This    saves time and it is eas...
9. expressions which are badly spelled;        10. expressions which are ungrammatical.While writing a business letter, re...
BSPATIL   18
Chapter V                                             CIRCULAR LETTERSCircular letters are the cycle of business dealings....
Some Model Letters followModel 3 : Announcing the opening of new businessTes. 3242                                        ...
8. The letter must have a beautiful get –up.         9. A warm and friendly tone may be used.Model 4: Announcing the forma...
It is with regret to inform you of my retirement from business on account of my old age and failing health.My retirement w...
We trust that the pleasant business relations, which have existed between us, will be continued with thenew firm, where di...
This is to inform you that owing to lack of spaces, we are compelled to seek for more commodiouspremises. Accordingly, we ...
You will be pleased to know that during this month, we offer you at extra-ordinary REDUCED PRICES of allreadymade garments...
Topson Buildings,                                                                              Highway,                   ...
The BABY BUTTER is bottled in sterilized glass which containers are hygienically sealed to preventcontamination.Arrangemen...
Yours sincerely,For Ramco & Company(Sales Manager)Model 15 : Circular letter – acquisition of a firm                      ...
The reduction sale will remain open till 10th of August. Hence you are requested to pay us a visit during theperiod.The go...
Dated ……………………………………………………………Dear ………………..Thank you for your order dated ………… for supplying ……………. Portable typewriting ma...
Chapter VI                                                SALES LETTERSPublicity has a very important role to play in a co...
You may write a line in the enclosed post card as the day and time convenient to you to meet our          salesman along w...
Yours sincerely,                                                                                                  ……………….....
Thanking you.                                                                                               Yours sincerel...
Thanking you,Yours sincerely(Manager)Model 23 : A Sales letter about steel tables                                         ...
Effective business letters are the “life blood” of modern business because they help to expand business ormarket from one ...
Encl : as above“Most business letters have two objectives : to promote a particular transaction and to build goodwill. The...
CHAPTER VII                                            FOLLOW UP LETTERSEvery businessman tries to increase his business t...
Business communication book 1 st mba @ bec doms
Business communication book 1 st mba @ bec doms
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Business communication book 1 st mba @ bec doms
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Business communication book 1 st mba @ bec doms

  1. 1. Business Communication BSPATIL 1
  2. 2. CONTENTS1. Communication in Business2. A Good Business Letter3. Commercial Correspondence4. Format of Business Letters5. Circular Letters6. Sales Letters7. Follow up Letters8. Trade Enquiries9. Offers and Quotations10. Trade Offer11. Status Enquiry12. Confirmation of Orders13. Complaints and their Adjustments14. Collection Letters15. Making Payments16. Application for Situation17. Banking Letters18. Agency Correspondence19. Corresponding with the Government20. Drafting of Reports21. Secretarial Correspondence22. Import Trade Correspondence23. Export Trade Correspondence24. Writing of Minutes25. Letters to Editors and Complaints to Personnel26. Insurance Correspondence BSPATIL 2
  3. 3. Chapter I COMMUNICATION IN BUSINESSObjectives of CommunicationCommunication is a means by which different persons are linked together in a group or organization toattain a common goal. No group activity is possible without communication. it enables the members toco-ordinate, to exchange and to make progress. A good communication should aim at making everyoneconcerned aware of the goal which the organisation wants to achieve. The two main objectives ofcommunication are to inform and to persuade. A group of persons, whether a social community or abusiness firm, can pool their4 effort for a common goal only if all the members of the group know whatthey are working for a trying to achieve. Individuals and sections in a group will try to persuade oneanother to change one’s attitudes, ideas etc. so that the whole organisation may benefit. Effective andefficient perfo0rmance of work in any office calls for providing convenient and efficient means ofcommunication. the specific objective of each message may b e to instruct, to advise, to request and so on,depending on the nature of relationship between the transmitter and the receiver. Communication may bedownward –top to bottom, upward-bottom to top or horizontal-between persons of same status. Let usbriefly look into the goals/objectives of communication. 1. Information GivingInformation may be given orally or in writing. The basic objective of communication is to turn the staticinto dynamic. Information effects decisions. Information needed for daily work can be given orally. If largegroups have to be informed, a meeting may be called. Good management believes in keeping employeeswell informed about the company’s aims, plans, progress and prospects about working and serviceconditions, training and promotions opportunities and the benefits available to them. For instance,farmers in India have simple organisation. They need information about weather, prices, availability toseeds, facility of irrigation, market trend etc. And these pieces of information are gathered from friends,relatives, through radio, television etc. On the basis of the information gathered a farmer takes decisions:“What and when to sow?” “From where to get seeds? “How to solve the problems of irrigation? “How andfrom where to get financial assistance?” etc.Many companies circulate news about their employees, their achievements and event their family affairs soas to create an atmosphere of social friendliness. However, pointless communication is a waste of time.The purpose of all communication is to bring about change for the better. Communication is intended toinfluence action is order to promote the common welfare of an organisation or a group. 2. Education is TradingEducation means imparting instruction, character building, enriching mental faculties, giving training tohuman being etc. Communication is vital in education. Education is achieved through communication.Employees are trained essentially by communication. Communication can be accomplished by means oflectures, discourses, books, cassettes, videos, seminars, conferences, study-tours, mock-sessions, casestudies etc. all education takes place by means of communication. a supervisor or any other personentrusted with the responsibility for training must have the ability to communicate. 3. MotivationMotivation means getting people to give their best. The manager communication with the people bemanages and motivates them. He has to get people to work as a team. The motivation of the employeesdepends upon the patience and sympathy shown by the management. Motivation cannot be achieved by asingle communication. It can be achieved only by a constant policy followed in all communications.Creation of healthy worker attitudes and good relations is a slow and continuous process, which takesplace through communication. it is always advisable to orientate the employees with the company’s target,aim, object etc. through communication. 4. Counselling BSPATIL 3
  4. 4. Companies which are concerned with employees’’ welfare have counselling centres for their employees.Services of specialists are engaged for the purpose: and employees receive free medical advice, legaladvice and vocational guidance. Counselling can be successful if there is a two way communication. 5. PersuasionIncluding, compelling or prompting a person to do or to act, mostly in a positive way is persuasion.Managements try to persuade their worker to put in their best effort. Politicians persuade people in votefor them; teachers persuade their pupils to listen to them and study; sellers persuade customers to buy etc.Persuasion is an important objective of communication. Sales letters, advertisements etc. seek to persuadecustomers. When new policies or machineries are introduced, employees resist, fearing retrenchment. Inorder to accept the change, the managements must persuade them not to fear. Persuasion is more easilydone by a person who enjoys respect and confidence of those whom he wishes to persuade. a goodenunciation can make a person very persuasive. 6. SuggestionSuggestion coming from employees are upward communication. the employees actually involved in thework have a better understanding of the shortcomings and can make useful suggestions for improvements.In big concerns suggestions are collected at regular intervals by means of a suggestion box. They arerejected or accepted or further clarification is asked for from the suggestor. Communication is used toconvey suggestions or ideas. This is being constantly done is all human groups. Someone makes asuggestions and the others react to it. Such intercourse of ideas and suggestions is the moving force of allaction in a society or in any social group like a family, office, factory, state, nation etc. effectivecommunication promotes the acceptance. 7. Morale BoostingMorale is the state of discipline and spirit in a body of workers, army or nation. Morale must be kept highwith constant effort and regular and consistent policy. Rumours of close down, a take over, retrenchmentetc. cause anxiety and fear in the minds of employees. When morale falls, communication has to bestepped up. When employees are in fear, the top management has to reassure them ad keep up theirmorale. Special morale boosting communications have to be well-timed, carefully planned and coordinated.They must fortify workers against debilitating frustration and inspire them to put in hard work that canproduce good results. 8. AdviceAdvice is opinion about what to do, how to behave etc. Therefore it is a kind of information. Parents advisetheir children. Grown-us advise young ones. Teachers advise pupils. Politicians advise everyone else.Advise means opinion given as to the action to be taken. Advice is most effective if it is oral – face to face.If the advice is on official matters, the senior can speak with authority. If the advice is on personal matters,it can be offered as a suggestion. However, good communication, in the form of advice facilitates thedetection of defects and drawbacks and good results may be expected in a given situation. In any sense ofthe word, advice denotes some communication which is aimed at bringing about a change. 9. WarningTo warn means to give notice to. A warning may be given orally or in writing. A written warning is oftencalled a memo. Warning may be given to an employee for his indiscipline. Groups may also be warnedagainst activities that disrupt or obstruct smooth functioning or regular work. At first an attempt is madeby advice, request, suggestion, instruction, orders etc. When all these fail, a warning is given. 10. AppreciationAppreciation of initiative, good effort and work by employees is very useful for creating a good attitude. Itmay be conveyed orally. If given publicly, it has better effect. Letters of appreciation will certainly boost aflagging morale. BSPATIL 4
  5. 5. Man is a social animal. He fosters relation with his fellow-men by means of effective communications,such as listening, speaking and writing. The story of civilizations and culture is, to a large extent, the storyof man’s advancement in the art of communication. the transformation of our planet into a global villageowes much to modern communication systems such as the telegraph, the telephone, the television and theinternet.The life blood of a business organisation is purposeful communication. it transfers thought from oneperson to another. It directs controls and evaluates each and every activity of the organisation. No groupactivity is possible without communication.Aims of Good CommunicationGood communication aims to reaching the goals which the organisation wants to achieve. According toScott, “Administrative communication is a process which involves the transmission and accurate replicationof ideas ensured by feedback for the purpose of eliciting actions which will accomplish organizationalgoals.” The message to be given is the information, which is to be transferred from one to another in aneffective manner. If the message is understood by the reader, communication is said to have served thepurpose. Our letter is our ambassador. It reaches where we cannot reach a business letter represents thefirm or the business house from it springs. The letter must strengthen the friendship between twobusiness houses or the customer and the dealer.Barriers to CommunicationBarriers are the obstacles which cause problems in communication. When an organisation is large, it willconfront more obstacles. The problems or the difficulties are called barriers to communication. the chiefaim of communication is to get a definite response. A perfect act of communication takes place when theinformation as aimed by the giver is passed on and is understood by the receiver. Organizationalcommunication is totally a human oriented process. The failure of communication is mainly a humanfailure. Despite the development of high speed electronic devices communication does not alwaysaccomplish what it aims at. Communication barriers lead to misunderstanding and conflict.Miscommunications can originate at three levels : at the level of eh transmitter, of the medium or of therece4iver. There are mainly three types of communication media – (i) Oral, (ii) Written and (iii) Gestural. Allthese media have their relative merits and limitations. A proper selection of media can add to theeffectiveness of communication, while improper selection of media may itself act as a barrier to it.See the following examples: COMMUNICATION BARRIERS Noise Time and Distance Interpretation of words Inattentiveness Sender of Message Premature evaluation Receiver Unclarified Assumptions Status Block Closed Mind Organizational Barrier BSPATIL 5
  6. 6. Resistance to Change (i) A Sales Representative generally sends his sales report to his firm. If he writes the report in lengthy letters or talks loosely on phone, he fails to communicate the right purpose. If the reports are in a tabular form or diagrams, the receiver can clearly grasp the situation, at the first sight. (ii) When a worker, who is guilty of misconduct in a factory, wants to apologize to his foreman, a written explanation alone will not be sufficient. A face to face communication will definitely lead to an amicable solution.A brief explanation of each of the above: 1. Noise: Noise is quite often a barrier to communication. Noises, mechanical as well as natural, are a barrier to effective communication. They distract both sender and the receiver of the messages. For example, a factory that employs noisy machines hinder oral communication, Conversation becomes difficult due to physical noise and hence the messages get distorted and unclear. 2. Time and Distance: Smooth flow of communication is quite often affected by the time and distance. There is no doubt that the development of computer technology has made communication very fast and it has even overcome the space barrier. However, sometimes owing to the breakdown of modern equipment, communication is interrupted or delayed. Conveying a message at the right time to the right place is essential. Imperfect and delayed information is of little use and often creates confusion. 3. Interpretation of Words: Communication is carried on through words, whether spoken or written. Words are capable of communicating a variety of meanings. When the giver uses words or phrases which have a variety of meaning, the listener may not get the proper message or understand it in a different sense. It is possible that the receiver of a message does not assign the same meaning to a word that the sender has intended. This may lead to miscommunication. 4. Inattentiveness: When the receiver does not pay complete attention to the message, communication becomes ineffective. Many people do not pay proper attention when others speak. Inattention leads to inadequate absorption of messages. Attention is guided by self-interest. All messages should be received with full attention. Concentration is very essential. A person may be inattentive when he considers the message as superficial or uninteresting. 5. Premature Evaluation: Most people exhibit a tendency to evaluate while communication is being carried on. But this leads to premature evaluation and thus hampers communication. it is not advisable to jump to conclusions. Evaluation should b e made only after getting complete information. 6. Unclarified Assumptions: Many a time communication suffers because of vague or unclarified assumptions. When authority is delegated, it should be clear. One should know clearly what one is expected to do. It must be clear in the message itself. Unclarified assumptions lead to complications. 7. Status Block: Every organization has some kin d of hierarchical system. Some persons have higher status than others. People in senior positions develop the feeling that they know everything as to how to run the business. People of lower status do not feel free to talk to their superiors. It is generally seen that executive spend their time in “telling” and “commanding”. But they do not listen to or ask opinions of subordinates. This negative attitude of executives is a barrier in the process of two-way communication. 8. Closed Mind: A person who assumes that he knows everything will be rigid and dogmatic. Such a person is of limited intellectual acumen and narrow interests. When a junior comes to an executive with some new ideas, the executive should listen to him with an open mind. However, if he is closed minded, communication will breakdown as he is not prepared to consider his junior’s ideas. The junior consequently, fails to take advantage of the junior’s ideas which may be original, BSPATIL 6
  7. 7. creative, brilliant. 9. Organizational Barrier: The classical organizational structure with a scalar chain of command restricts free and frequent communication. When the organisation, orders and information have to pass through many levels of authority. Too many levels intervene causing delay in transmission and distortion of the message. The more complex the organisation, the more difficult it becomes to ensure that correct information is passed on to the right person at the right time through the right medium. 10. Resistance to Change: The resistance is an important obstacle to effective communication. there is a general tendency among human beings to maintain status-quo. Change frightens them. They lack the spirit of adventure. They turn a deal ear to new ideas and glorify the past. They cease to be receptive to communication. then conservatism this becomes a barrier to communication.CorrespondenceThe term “correspondence” means communication by exchange of written messages. Commercial orbusiness correspondence, as it is now-a-days called, refers to the written communication relating tobusiness of any interest to both the parties, between whom messages have been exchanged. The purposeof letter writing is to pass on the information to the recipient without personal contact. Written wordsconvey the meaning and feeling of the message.Words are the symbols we use to express out ideas. They are the tools of effective communication. thebest words in the best order have tremendous power and appeal. They convey our thoughts to otherpeople in language that is unmistakably clear and readily understood. To write effectively you must choosethe right words and use them to express yourself clearly, concisely and directly. You must not fall into thetrap of pompous and unfamiliar words and roundabout phrases. Choose the language that bestcommunicates your message.Communication is a two-way traffic. The communication between two parties fail for a number of reasons.Make a firm note of the following: 1. A letter containing a badly expressed message or written in an unintelligible language finds a place in the recipient’s waste basket. 2. An inaccurate letter leads to inefficiency. 3. A communication succeeds only when the person being communicated to respond positively. To achieve this the letter must be persuasive. 4. People will be repelled by letters written in a roundabout way or discursive style.Principles of Effective CommunicationModern business is busy, complex and comp0etitive. Buying and selling is done rapidly. Every business isinextricably bound up with several others. There is competition among different brands of a product andalso among different sellers. Time is precious. The following broad principles may be followed when youwrite business letters: 1. Business letter-writing calls for a plain style-a style i.e., simple clear and easily understood. 2. To write clearly one must think clearly and have a clear awareness of the purpose of his letter. 3. Clear thinking and precise expression go hand in hand. 4. As a rule, common expressions must be used in writing. BSPATIL 7
  8. 8. 5. Select the right medium of communication.6. Try to give sufficient information to avoid further clarifications.7. Try to create a cordial atmosphere.8. Couch the message in clear and unambiguous terms.9. Cultivate friendly personal relations adopting a friendly style.10. Do not write any wrong or misleading information. BSPATIL 8
  9. 9. Chapter II A GOOD BUSINESS LETTERImportance and Functions of Commercial CorrespondenceIn the field of trade and commerce, business letters of commercial correspondence have played asignificant role. Letters are the only channels which facilitate the firm to maintain a constant touch withthe other business. Easy and effective conveying of information is possible through letters.A good business letter, of course, is expected to invite new customers and retain the old ones, thuspromote the business. It creates a link between the buyers and sellers, who have never met nor are likelyto meet. It can maintain close business relations. Therefore, a business letter acts as a messenger.Effective e business letters are the “lifeblood” of modern business because expansion of business ormarket from one corner of the world to another is possible in the cheapest manner.In the business world, time is a precious factor. One cannot waste time by dealing with the person throughtalks, but can conclude through letters. Moreover, writhing makes a lot of difference when compared totalking because people woll have more faith in pen (letters) than in tongue (talks). Further, the possibilityto commit errors through letters is far less when compared to verbal dealings.A good business letter can: 1. Attract new customers. 2. Bring back lost customers 3. Sell goods and services 4. Adjust complaints 5. Open new markets 6. Encourage dealers 7. Create goodwill 8. Collect bad debts 9. Act as a messenger and III Chapter 10. Compromise disputes COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCEQUALITIES OF A GOOD BUSINESS LETTER 1. Language: Good composition is invaluable in commercial corre-spondence. A well-written letter will be effective on the reader. A personal meet can be substituted by a good letter written in good language. A letter must have a good start to create an impression on the reader. In a business letter, proverb, and poetry have no place. To be simple, idioms, long phrases etc. should be avoided. The main object of business correspondence is to communicate a definite message clearly, concisely and in an interesting manner. 2. Clarity: Literary language should be avoided to create a clear and straightforward meaning. A good letter shows its idea directly and clearly. Each sentence must be as simple as possible. Whatever BSPATIL 9
  10. 10. has to be communicated, must be stated clearly. Clarity can be attained only when we have a clear idea of what we want to say. “To convey your feelings as a writer you have to rely solely on the words you choose and the way in which you use them.”3. Coherence: (connection): A letter must be so well-planned that the reader is able to understand it even on the first reading. A lifeless business letter may not have any effect on the reader. If there are many subjects to be stated, the letter may be divided into paragraphs and written step by step. If the letter is confusing, the reader has to read the letter again and again.4. Completeness: The form of a business letter should be understood properly. (The form of business letter is dealt with separately). The form of a letter consists of the name of the firm, the name of the place, date, reference number, inside address, salutation, complimentary close, signature, etc. Enclosures, if any, must be properly mentioned in the letter and they must be securely attached. The body of the letter should give clear and complete information to the reader. The contents or the body of the letter must possess essential points that the reader has to know. If the letter gives only part information much time is wasted in clarification and explanations by additional correspondence. Hence while writing a letter, think properly and communicate to the reader all those points he needs to know. He should also understand the writer’s purpose clearly from the letter.5. Conciseness (brevity): A letter must be as simple and brief as possible. Time is valuable for both the writer and the reader. One should not beat about the bush in a business letter. Vague words and roundabout ways of expressions should be avoided. However, businessmen will always be busy. They may not generally waste time in going through long letters. What is superfluous should not be written. Completeness should never be sacrificed for brevity. The easiest and simplest way to write good letters is to write as if the reader is sitting at your table i.e as if you are speaking to him in person.6. Correctness: A good letter is always correctly written and is always in correct form. The letter must be free from mistakes, errors of punctuation, mis-spelling, grammatical incorrectness etc. The information you write must be accurate. Inaccuracy destroys confidence. Whatever is stated in a letter should be capable of being believed by the reader. “The pen is mightier than the sword”, is applicable in business and commercial correspondence.7. Courtesy: Commercial correspondence must be courteous. Courtesy costs nothing. In business, courtesy is a must. Courteous letters win friends, enroll new customers, retain old ones and win similar others favours. They also win sympathy, respect and mutual understanding. A discourteous letter is probably more detrimental than personal discourtesy because a written word is permanent. Courtesy can be shown in a variety of ways in the general tone of the letters, addressing a person by his proper title, making prompt reply, complying with his request etc. Phrases like, “we regret”, “I am sorry”, “please”, “may we”, “we appreciate”, etc. induce the reader to respond to the writer.8. Consideration: One correspondence expert says, “When writing a letter put yourself in your correspondent’s shoes, sense his feelings and anticipate his reactions”. The reader should know that the writer is aware of and is doing something for the reader’s needs and problems. A successful letter will naturally concentrate on the reader’s intere3sts and take into account his problems, and convenience. Consideration comes from courtesy.9. Concreteness: It mean s giving the fullest possible information consisting of facts and figures, correlated information, suffusion, experimental results, etc. It is very important in sales letters, letters of introduction, etc. The idea or the information you write in your letter must be unchangeable. One must be firm in one’s opinions. BSPATIL 10
  11. 11. 10. Character: The mark of individuality is called character. A business letter should possess character. A letter must be able to attract the attention of the reader. Letters lack originality, when proper attention is not given to their planning and composition. 11. Cheerfulness: In commercial correspondence negative or pessimistic approach should never be there. Letters aim at earning the goodwill of the reader. It is always possible when a letter is begun with positive and optimistic approach. The approach through the letters must always be friendly and convincing. As far as possible, avoid the use of foreign or unfamiliar words, insulting or flattering words, etc. 12. Convincing: The letter written should convince the reader as to the facts mentioned in it. When a new product is introduced in the market, the letter should say that the firm manufactured the product, after a couple of years of research: the quality has been approved by the Indian Standard Institute and a copy of the approval letter is enclosed. Each business letter asks the reader to take action. If it wins the confidence of the reader he will positively respond to the request. “A good open business letter serves as master key that opens locked doors. It opens the way for your goods or your services. It tells the story of the real character of the firm.” HN Casson. 13. Conversational: A letter clearly only when it is simple and natural. The whole secret of good business letter-writing is to write in an easy natural way. Make your letters sound as much as possible like good conversation. A good letter should not contain difficult words and obsolete usages. The letter’s tone should be friendly and natural. There was a time when ‘peculiar’ expressions were used in business letters, which made them stiff and formal. Now the tendency is to write in a simple, natural and almost conversational style. A business letter is nothing more than a conversation. Write the way you speak. For examples: Why say, “In compliance with your request” when you can say “as requested”? Similarly, why write “due to the fact that” when you can write “because”?The Characteristics of A Good Business Letter 1. Faultless composition is invaluable in commercial correspondence 2. A good letter should convey its idea directly and clearly. 3. The reader must be able to comprehend it on the first reading. 4. A letter must be as simple and brief as possible. 5. It must be accurate. 6. It must be courteous. 7. It must be reader oriented. 8. It must be free from vague and indefinite statements. 9. It must aim at earning goodwill of the reader. 10. It must be convincing. 11. Its tone should be friendly and natural.Writing Good Letters BSPATIL 11
  12. 12. The qualities of a good letter have been studied in the preceding section. In general, there is no methodwhich is applicable to all letters. There is also no universal system to be followed in business letters. Everywriter has his own method of writing letters. But the above said qualities are adopted in writing businessletters. The writer should try to improve his own way of writing, A business letter should possess sincerity, courtesy, tactfulness, straightforwardness, completeness,correctness etc. Unnecessary details of generalization will merely confuse the reader. The reader shouldnot say, “I do not know what he is writing about.” Therefore, every planning of the central theme isessential. It is also essential that all necessary information is included. The letter should present to thereader the writer’s idea at once. The reader should not have trouble to understand the letter. “Communication is effective only if the message received is understood in the sense intended by the writer.”The contents of a letter should be written in paragraphs, one by one linked to another by connectingthoughts. Paragraphing will help the reader to distinguish one piece of information from another.Good penmanship is an asset worth cultivating, because a great deal of clerical work in the office requiresto be done with pen and ink. Legible and clear hand writing will be valuable. Illegible letters may be leftunread. In general, a letter must be written in a clear handwriting.Well drafted letters addressed, in time, to the addressee are favourably appreciated. Businessmen areusually prompt in sending replies to letters. Personal attention given in replies naturally earns goodwill,which in turn, invites larger turnover. A well experienced businessman gives as much importance tobusiness letters as to his salesman. Because a businessman writes letters with the deliberate intention ofpersuading the addressee to respond positively, hence developing the ability to write good business lettersis of utmost importance. It is also a pointer to his competence as a businessman. A letter in fact takes theplace of a salesman and represents the firm sending it.Apart from the qualities of a business letters, the following guide-lines will help you to write effective andfruitful letters. The points are not explained as they are self explanatory. 1. Choose words that the reader can easily understand. 2. Use simple and everyday language. 3. Use appropriate and effective language. 4. Avoid jargons. 5. Prefer active verbs to passive ones. 6. Avoid redundant words. Verbosity repels readers. 7. Do not use clinches. 8. Avoid roundabout way of writing. 9. Avoid unnecessary repetition of thought 10. Avoid ambiguity; state the facts precisely. 11. A clear composition shows clear thinking. 12. Avoid excessive details. 13. Be courteous and considerate. 14. Always respect your reader 15. Do not write irrelevant ideas. 16. Do not write to a wrong person. 17. Goodwill must be generated. 18. A business letter must be brief. 19. A business letter must be complete. BSPATIL 12 20. Al the information that the addressee requires must be given.
  13. 13. HOW TO WRITE GOOD LETTERS ESSENTIALS OF GOOD BUSINESS LETTERS 1. Think about what you want to say 1. A business letter is an ambassador of before you start to write. the writer. So be courteous in writing. 2. Jot down all the points you wish to 2. Courtesy can further be shown by write: never mind the order. prompt reply. 3. Now rearrange the points in the logical 3. Precision and clarity must be order. maintained thought-out the letter 4. Have a clear ideal of the character of 4. The letter must facilitate to achieve the person you are going to write to. your objective. Clear objectives lead to easy writing. 5. Begin with a short paragraph stating 5. “You” attitude must be followed, why you are writing; you can refer to a instead of “I” and “We”. letter received by you and mentioned the subject of the correspondence. 6. The actual message can be written in 6. Confused thinking or mixing-up of the second paragraph. facts must be avoided. 7. The closing paragraph usually leads to 7. “Look before you leap and think before some action on the part of the reader, you speak”. Similarly, collect all it asks him to write back, or to place an essential facts and materials before order, or to write to someone, or to you reply letters. look into some complaint. 8. “You” attitude is the secret of effective 8. The letter must evoke a friendly letter. response from the reader. 9. The language must be friendly. 9. Good letters create goodwill and cement lasting associations. 10. Remembers, a short well-thought-out 10. The letter should have visual appeal. letter has life.After Writing a letter, ask yourself the following: 1. Does the letter SERVE its purpose? 2. Are the contents RELEVANT to the addressee’s need? 3. Does the letter carry ACCURATE facts? 4. Are the ideas CLEARLY expressed 5. Is the letter FREE from DISCOURTEOUS and UNPLEASANT LANGUAGE? 6. Does the letter RESPECT the reader? BSPATIL 13
  14. 14. 7. Does the letter convey the idea at FIRST READINMG? 8. Does the letter ensure the GOODWILL of the firm? 9. Does it perform the FUNCTION OF A SALESMAN? 10. Lastly, can the letter create DESIRED IMPRESSION on the reader? Chapter IV FORMAT OF BUSINESS LETTERSThe structure of business letters is somewhat different from the form of letters to relatives and friends.They are more formal in style and expression than friendly letters. The reader must know at a glancewhere the letter comes from, who wrote it and such other details.For the sake of convenience, let up split up a business letter into the following parts: 1. Heading 2. Date 3. Inside address 4. Attention line 5. Salutation 6. Subject and Reference 7. Body or substance of the letter 8. Complimentary close 9. Signature 10. Enclosure I. Intended Form/Stepped In FormBRIGHT TRADERSHussain Road, Lucknow – 226001 24th April, 2002Mr. Writer, Horby Street, New Delhi – 110040Dear Mr. Writer, This letter is written in intended form. It is important to note that the first line of each paragraphbegins after leaving considerable space from the left-hand. The inside address is also in intended form.This type gives a good view. Uniform space is provided to have a pleasing appearance.Five or ten spaces may be allowed from the margin for every new paragraph. BSPATIL 14
  15. 15. Your sincerely (S. Ramu) Manager II. Hanging Indent Form SCHOOL OF COMMERCE Marg Street, Allahabad – 211 033 24th April, 2002Mr. Writer,College of Economics,Chennai – 600010Dear Sir,In hanging indent form, the inside address and salutation are typed as in the block form. Thefirst line of each paragraph begins flush with the left-hand margin. The remaining lines of eachparagraph begin about five spaces away from left-hand margin.Double spacing is used between two paragraphs, but only single spacing between the lines.This form is convenient and is not in common use. However, in sales letters, it is preferred toattract the attention of customers. This form has no place in private letters. Yours sincerely, General Manager. III. Full Block Form THE CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOL M.G. Road, Coimbatore – 641 013 24th April 2002Mr. WriterHorby Street,Agra – 282 015Dear Mr. Writer,The block style of this letter is modern. This type is widely used in America. Every line of theletter begins from the left-hand margin without allowing space. Only essential punctuations aretyped. BSPATIL 15
  16. 16. The block type is preferred, because the carriage of the typewriter need not be adjusted. This saves time and it is easy for the typist. Remember that inside address, each paragraph, complimentary close, signature, etc., begin, from the left-hand margin. Remember, a generous margin avoids shabby appearance and gives clear view. Yours truly, (Manager) IV. Semi Block Form THE COMMERCIAL SCHOOL Gohala Road, Mumbai-400017 24th April 2002 Mr. Letter Writer, Great Mill Road, Kanpur. Dear Sir, The semi-block form is a combination of block and intended forms. The inside address is typed in block form, but the paragraphs are typed in intended form. In the body of the letter, the first line of every paragraph is intended five or ten spaces. The complimentary close, signature and the writer’s designation come at the right – hand corner, below the body of the letter. Allow four or five spaces for the writer’s signature. Yours sincerely, (Manager)Remember to Avoid: 1. expressions which insult the reader; 2. expressions which offend the reader; 3. expressions which irritate the reader; 4. expressions which are ambiguous in meaning; 5. expressions which are tactless; 6. expressions which are threatening; 7. expressions which beat about the bush; 8. expressions which have to meaning; BSPATIL 16
  17. 17. 9. expressions which are badly spelled; 10. expressions which are ungrammatical.While writing a business letter, remember, a businessman aims at the basic functions, such as: 1. To win the confidence of the reader 2. To get a thing done by the reader 3. To influence the reader 4. To show clarity and sincerity of purpose 5. To give importance to the addressee 6. To get goodwill from readers 7. To facilitate understanding of contents 8. To avoid confusions 9. To convey a concrete idea 10. To conclude a transaction favourably Essential Parts of a Business Letter Name of the firm with Phone: Address Gram: Date Code: Reference Inside Address Attention Salutation Introductory para Para, communicating the Concluding para Complimentary close Signature Post script, if any 17 BSPATIL Enclosures, if
  18. 18. BSPATIL 18
  19. 19. Chapter V CIRCULAR LETTERSCircular letters are the cycle of business dealings. A circular is a communication meant to conveyinformation of a business firm to customers, business friends etc. in the course of business occasions willarise to send out circular letters. The sender aims at giving certain information to the public. There arealso other ways to communicate or advertise in newspapers or journals.Generally printed or cyclostyled circular letters have a few advantages such as (a) less expenses, (b) anynumber of letters can be posted in a day, (c) to a certain extent the personal meet of the sales agents canbe substituted, and (d) the recipient, if interested, may call upon the firm or the sales agent, and so theagent need not wait to have an appointment.The objectives of circular letters are: 1. To obtain publicity for a merchandise. 2. To impress the readers with the facts about the firm and the products. 3. To make the readers more interested in their contents. 4. To attain the confidence of the readers. 5. To stimulate sales.Let us discuss a few examples of such circular letters: 1. Establishment of a firm. 2. Admission of a partner. 3. Retirement of a partner. 4. Death of a partner. 5. Shifting of a business to new premises or opening a new branch. 6. Conversion of firm e.g. Partnership firm into Limited Company. 7. Authorization of power. 8. Agency etc.A circular letters is one that carries a communication to a number of addresses. The basic differencebetween a circular and a general letter is that, whereas the former is addressed to many persons, the latteris addressed to only one person. Circular letters are to be read by a large number of people, whereasgeneral letters are personal and private in nature. Therefore, circular letters must be specially well writtenin clear and understandable language, for example, a company having a large numb er of shareholders hasto send frequent circulars to them for making calls on shares, dividend purpose, etc.Circulars have certain special characteristics. They are usually printed or cyclostyled. The inside address ofthe recipient of a circular letter is sometimes omitted, when the letter is under cover of an envelope. Asregards the salutation, general form is, Dear Sir/Madam. The Signature must appear in circulars, and itmay be facsimile. BSPATIL 19
  20. 20. Some Model Letters followModel 3 : Announcing the opening of new businessTes. 3242 Imports: Technical aids,Gram : NEW ENTER Technical Machine, GREAT ENTERPRISES Chamber Road, Sadar Street Mumbai – 400018 Dated 30th Aug. 2002Ref. Noi. Tax/Cir/24,……………………………………………………………………… Knitting MachinesDear Sirs,We are pleased to inform you that we have been appointed as the sole selling agents for the knittingmachines manufactured by the Indian Knitting Machinery, Company, Bombay who are specializedmanufacturers in this line.To give a clear understanding of products we enclose a brief description of machineries. You will also beglad to know that these machines are exported to foreign countries like Africa, Iran, Australia and manyother developed countries.We are confident that these machines will be quite interesting to you specially because they are designedto produce fully fashioned fabrics and all types of garment. Moreover, these machines are also capable ofgiving increased productivity and are simple to operate.We will be glad to supply you the complete literature about these on hearing from you. Yours faithfully, For Great Enterprises. While drafting the circular letters, the following points have to be remembered: 1. The letter must have a personal touch 2. The letter must be complete in all respects 3. Avoid promises which you cannot keep. 4. The language must be polite and attractive. 5. It should be free from errors. 6. The opening para should arrest the attention of the reader. 7. Body of the letter should arouse and sustain his interest BSPATIL 20
  21. 21. 8. The letter must have a beautiful get –up. 9. A warm and friendly tone may be used.Model 4: Announcing the formation of a limited company:Phone : 2542Gram : JAMESCO JAMES MORTON & COMPANY LTD. Church Gate,No. J4/Circular Manchester 30th Aug. 2002Dear Sir, On behalf of the Director of “James Morton & Company Ltd.”, I take this oppoprtunity to inform youthat the business of Morton Company will be-continued under the name and style of ‘James Morton &company Limited’ from today viz, 30th Aig. 2002 the family of the late Morton Esq. taking a large interestin the new concern and Mr. Smith, his son being one of the directors.Among several friends, who have also taken a large interest therein. In have great pleasure to inform youthat we formed an Advisory Board consisting of 12 members to make the produce cheap and useful.The directors have agreed to continue the business with the staff of the previous firm and they areexperienced in this particular line. We will be setting up a new factory by the beginning of September 2002.The company is prepared to execute all orders entrusted to them, with utmost care and on speciallyadvantageous terms.While thanking you, as one of the numerous friends of the late firm, I request you for a continuation ofyour confidence in the new company and assure you that all future orders and contracts will be executedwith the same care and promptness as hitherto. Yours faithfully (General Manager)Model 5: Circular letter of a retiring partnerPhone : 645Grams: RAMCORAMGOPAL & COMPANY Kali Temple Road Agra – 282001……………………..……………………..……………………..Dear Sirs, BSPATIL 21
  22. 22. It is with regret to inform you of my retirement from business on account of my old age and failing health.My retirement will not affect in any way the business of the firm with which I have been connected for somany years. My other partner4s have already made most satisfactory arrangements to carry on thebusiness under the same name and style. My nephew Mr. Paul who brings an additional capital of Rs.20,000 into the firm will be admitted as a new partner. His smartness and experience in the business line,combined with the experience of my old colleagues, I feel confident that the firm will succeed inmaintaining the fair name and reputation of the firm in future years. I trust, you will be so good as tocontinue to extend your patronage to the new firm in the future as you have done in the past.I shall always remember with feelings of satisfaction the friendly relations that have covered so many yearsbetween us.I wish you the continues prosperity. Yours sincerely, P.K. JohnModel 6: Expansion of business DE JOHN & COMPANY (Manufacturers of Steel Furniture) New Delhi – 110018 30th Aug. 2002Cir/56………………………………………………………………Dear Sir, The object of this letter is to inform you that we are aiming to start a branch of this firm in Maduraias we are receiving many enquiries and orders from that place. In order to give more satisfactory service toour valued customers of Madurai region, the firm will be situated in the heart of the city, with the followingaddress. DE JOHN & CO. Br. Office, College Road, Madurai-625001We are sure that you will appreciate our expansion of business. We invite you to pay a visit to our newbranch at your earliest convenience.Mr. Smith, who was at the Head Office for 10 years, in charge of the execution department, is the Managerof the Branch at Madurai. His personal attention and abilities will please the customers, in every respect.The branch will start functioning most probably by the 15th of Sept. 2002. Therefore all your enquiries infuture may please be sent to new branch. BSPATIL 22
  23. 23. We trust that the pleasant business relations, which have existed between us, will be continued with thenew firm, where direct relation is possible. Yours sincerely For De John & Co.Model 7 : Informing change in personal matter BEST GARMENT CENTRE Pattom Road Mumbai – 400012 30th Aug. 2002……………………………………………………………………………… Mr. Sethuram – Sales RepresentativeDear Sir,We regret to announce that Mr. R.M. Berry, our valued and energetic Sales Representative has tendered hisresignation with effect from 15th September 2002. Therefore, he will cease to be in our service from thesaid date.Arrangements have been made to transfer Mr. P. Sethiuram in his place. Mr. P. Sethuram, as some of ourcustomers will remember, has previously served in your area. Thus he is not a new representative. We aresure that he will enable us to maintain our best relations in a satisfactory manner.We take this opportunity to wish you and your firm a prosperous future. Yours sincerely For Best Garment CentreModel 8 : change of address EDWARD & COMPANY LIMITED Mincing Lane, London E.F. 2 20th Aug. 2002……………………..……………………..…………………….. Change of AddressDear Sir, BSPATIL 23
  24. 24. This is to inform you that owing to lack of spaces, we are compelled to seek for more commodiouspremises. Accordingly, we have decided to shift to Chruch Road, which is about 2 kilometres from theexisting firm.We therefore, request you to send all your communications, after 10th September 2002 to the new address: EDWARD & CO. LTD. CHURCH ROAD LONDON E.C. 2We trust that the new premises, being more commodious and central in position, wil certainly beconvenient to you.Yours faithfully,For Edward & Co. Ltd.Model 9 : Introduction of a Partner S. CHAND & COMPANY Ramnagar, New Delhi – 110055 Dated ………..………………………………………………………………………………………. Introduction of a new partnerDear Sir,We are pleased to inform you that we have this day admitted to our firm Mr. Banerjee who has greatexperience in this line.We are fully confident that Mr. Banerje will have keen interest in the welfare of our five and contribute toits further development.We thank you for the cooperation you have been extending to our firm in the past and earnestly hope thesame will be continued. Yours faithfully For S. Chand & Co.Model 10: Announcing price reductionGarment Palaced M.G. Road, Mumbai – 400109 7th July, 2002Dear Customer, BSPATIL 24
  25. 25. You will be pleased to know that during this month, we offer you at extra-ordinary REDUCED PRICES of allreadymade garments. The range of colour, designs and sizes takes you to a land of dreams.When?: This Reduction Sale begins from 8th July and ends on 31st JulyPlace: High Ground, Mumbai – 20Time : From 8.00 A.M. to 10.00 P.M. except Sundays.As a special offer, we shall make reductions from the regular prices that will show you a savings, in almostall the items, of 35-40%.So hurry up. Visit us soon.Delay may disappoint you.We have only limited stocks.Visit and select items without delayThanks Yours sincerely,Model 11 : Sale of a business RAM AND SONS East Car Street, Madurai – 625002 8th August, 2002………………………………………………………………Sir,Let us thank you for your confidence in us in the past.Owing to our old age and continued ill-health, it has become imperative on us that we should retire b ydisposing of our interest in the firm.We thank Mr. R. Gopal, who has been our Accountant for many years, for his offer to take over thebusiness from this day with all its assets and liabilities. By this act of takeover, Mr. R. Gopal becomes thesole proprietor of this firm. He will receive and disburse all dues and claims outstanding. You will be gladto find him highly efficient and a man of full knowledge of transactions concerning the business.We appreciate your patronage and relations existing between you and this firm. We fully hope that you willextend the same favour to Mr. R. Gopal, who is ready and competent enough to maintain the old traditionsof prompt and sincere service of this firm to all.Thanking you,Yours sincerely,(Old partners)Model 12: Clearance Sales TOPSONS LIMITED BSPATIL 25
  26. 26. Topson Buildings, Highway, Kanpur, 8th August 2002……………………….……………………….……………………….Dear Sirs,The purpose of this letter is to inform you that we propose to demolish our present building in order toreconstruct it to latest model. This will necessitate to remove the goods to a new building. In order tominimize the cost of removal, we have decided to have a clearance sale of stock at reduced prices-15%down from the listed prices of all goods.Therefore, we extend our invitation to you to visit our shop at an early date. This is a rare chance for youto make all possible purchases, enjoying this substantial reduction in prices. At the same time, it isneedless to say that our stocks are of the best quality.The clearance sale commences on the 15th of August. We will be glad to see you in our shop as early aspossible. This is a rare opportunity. Your early arrival will facilitate you to enjoy a wide selection of goods.Your early arrival is appreciated.Thanking you. Yours sincerely.Introducing a new productHints: 1. Give news of the new product that you have introduced. 2. Describe the use of the product. 3. Physical features are to be high lighted. 4. Create interest in the minds of people. 5. Proverbs, eye-catching words, striking statements can be given.Model 13: Circular letter, introducing a new product RAM ENTERPRISES LTD. Ran Nagar, Bangalore 560002 Dated……………….Sir,Fresh and pure – these are just two of the reasons why you should have our BABY BUTTER on your diningtable.Manufactured with the help of improved and up-to-date machinery. BABY BUTTER possesses genuineflavour and natural delicious taste. The installation of modern appliances enable us to prepare ituntouched by hands and this ensures its purity. BSPATIL 26
  27. 27. The BABY BUTTER is bottled in sterilized glass which containers are hygienically sealed to preventcontamination.Arrangements have been made for the delivery of BABY BUTTER to the door of our customers from ourown vans by our own men. This renders its adulteration in transit impossible.The enclosed phamplet will tell you what analysts think of BABY BUTTER. It is indeed after prolongedexperiments that we4 have been able to offer this butter to our customers.The demand for BABY BUTTER is continually increasing. The leading hotels and restaurants of Bangalorehave started using it. Very soon the demand of it will exceed the supply.Do you want pure and fresh BUTTER at reasonable prices? Kindly register with us your name andrequirements without delay by mailing us the enclosed proforma.Thank you for your immediate attention. Yours sincerely,Model 14: Obtaining an agency Ramco and company 179, Carbo Street, Cochin – 682001 10th Aug. 2002………………………………………………………Dear Sir,We are happy to announce that we have been entrusted with the task of marketing SPEEDO CYCLESthroughout Kerala State.These bicycles requires very little introduction to the market. It is needless to mention that SPEEDO CYCLESare world famous. The quality of the bicycles is above the average. The patrons of these bicycles areconvinced of their superiority in comparison with the similar products in the market.We have stored ample stock for immediate delivery and propose to offer you a liberal trade discount of10% from our catalogue price. We enclose a price list of all models for your ready reference.You have a great confidence in us for serving you to the best of our ability with promptness and superiorquality of goods. We feel sure that we are offering once more a commodity of unquestionable quality onthe most convenient terms.Let us look forward to you for an opportunity to prove that we are at your service with our presentstandards fully maintained.Thanking you. BSPATIL 27
  28. 28. Yours sincerely,For Ramco & Company(Sales Manager)Model 15 : Circular letter – acquisition of a firm RAMLAL AND SONS Main Road, Bilaspur – 484 001 Dated………….Sir,We take pleasure in informing you that the Modern Stores, 240 C Nagar, Bilaspur has been acquired by us.We shall starts transactions from Monday, the 5th August.Our long experience in the line and bigger investment place us in a position to offer better goods to thecustomers. We continue to trade under the old name and make effort to adhere to our predecessor’s policyof found service on which the goodwill of the firm has been built.We propose to offer the old stock in a bargain sale next week on attractive terms.We hope you will be kind enough to extend your usual cooperation. Thanking you.Yours sincerelyModel 16: Reduction Sale MADANLAL TRADING COMPANY Madan Road, Lal Bazar, New Delhi – 110 005 Dated …………..Sir,With a view to making room for new stocks for coming season, we have decided to effect a Clearance Saleof the present stock, commencing from 1st August. We have planned for you a Grand Clearance Sale of ourstock. Prices Marked D O W N by 50% on all items.Furry UP !! OFFER OPEN TILL 10TH OF AUGUST YOU GET GOODS WORTH RS. 100 JUST FOR A PAYMENT OF RS. 50 BSPATIL 28
  29. 29. The reduction sale will remain open till 10th of August. Hence you are requested to pay us a visit during theperiod.The goods offered in the sale are new and of good quality. You can take full advantage of this sale, just onyour visit to our shop.Your immediate attention is highly appreciated.Thanking you. Yours sincerelyModel 17 : Death of a Partner RAMDAS TRADERS Near Bus Stand, Virudhunagar ………………….…………………..…………………..………………….. Death of a PartnerDear Sirs, We regret to inform you that owing to the death of our beloved partner, Mr. Raman, we arecompelled to admit Mr. Lal as a new partner. He is fully conversant with the management of firm. Though the valuable services of Mr. Raman are lost the business will be conducted just as it hasbeen previously. There is no change in the firm’s name and in the constitution of the firm. We thank you for your confidence in the past and trust that you will give us an opportunity to provethat the present standard will be fully maintained. Yours faithfully, For Ramdas & Co. Ramdas (Partner)Apart from circulars, form letters are also used. A form letter is a kind of model letter and will be filled inappropriate blanks. These are used because it saves time from dictation and typing. If there are many formletters, they may be numbered. The typist has to type only the blank spaces.Model 18 : Dispatching as per order MURUGAN TRADING (Dealers in Type – writers) Mahal Road, Madurai – 625001 BSPATIL 29
  30. 30. Dated ……………………………………………………………Dear ………………..Thank you for your order dated ………… for supplying ……………. Portable typewriting machine.The machine has already been dispatched on …………… through ………….. (carrier).The way bill and other documents for Rs………… have been sent through our ……….. (bank) .Our Sales Representative Mr. ……….. will call upon you on …… to see the working condition. Yours sincerely, For Murugan Trading (Sales Manager) BSPATIL 30
  31. 31. Chapter VI SALES LETTERSPublicity has a very important role to play in a competitive society. No business can be done successfullywithout publicity in one or the other form. Publicity and advertising are impersonal form of salesmanship.A sales letter is just a part of publicity and advertisement. In the course of business, occasions arise whena seller wants to approach his customers in order to introduce a new item to promote sales, to push outone’s stock etc. letters sent out with this aim are known as sales letters. A sales letter is nothing but anadvertisement, aimed at a carefully selected group. A sales letter is a very useful instrument to call on aparticular group of customers.Sales letters are persuasive in nature. Many firms think every letter that goes out from the office is a salesletter, because every business letter aims at an opportunity to sell the firm’s product or earn goodwill forthe firm. To a certain extent the salesman is substituted by the sales letter, because the purpose of thesalesman and sales letter, is the same to push up sales. Therefore the function of a sales letter can becompared with that of the salesman. However, sales letter has certain advantages and disadvantages. SALESMAN SALES LETTER 1. It is expensive to appoint a salesman 1. It is very less expensive to operate 2. Sometimes the salesman has to make 2. It is sure that the letter will reach the repeated visits to the buyers for customers. But if a letter is drafted interviews. badly, it goes to the waste paper box 3. It is possible only in profitable 3. It is possible in all cases because of business. less cost. 4. It is evident that the salesman may fail 4. It is not so. Even if it fails, that costs if the customer is interruptive. nothing except the postage.In the modern trend all the business letters are sales-oriented. In a sales letter “you” attitude is alwayseffective. The letter must be viewed from the point of view of the reader. The tone and style of the lettermust be keyed to the reader’s interests and wishes. The aim of the letter must be to create an interest inthe mind of the reader and to convince him of the benefits.Drafting a sales letter will be in the forms of advertising, to create an interest in the mind of the reader. Ifa letter is effective, that ends in sales. The beginning and end of the letter will be attractive and areimportant.The first paragraph must catch the attention of the prospective buyers.e.g. Would you like to have an extra income of Rs. 2000 every month, in addition to your regular Pay. You can have a luxurious life, through the easiest jobs. You can have the answer against your question, in cash. The next paragraph will be produced with supports of facts and figures, guarantee and testimonials of the benefit.The next paragraph will be produced with supports of facts and figure, guarantee and testimonials of thebenefits.e.g. we are exporting the new products to Japan every year. The new technique of the products is highly appreciated. That is why the firm’s name is in its record performance.A sales letter may sometimes carry post cards or self-addressed covers which will persuade the reader toact upon.e.g. Tomorrow will never come. So why can’t you act now? Time is precious. Simply sign the form and mail it to us at once. BSPATIL 31
  32. 32. You may write a line in the enclosed post card as the day and time convenient to you to meet our salesman along with free samples at your office.The writer also knew that, for the letter to be successful, it would have to: 1. Attract the reader’s attention; 2. Stimulate the reader’s interest; 3. Stress the benefits of the offer to the reader; 4. Convince the reader to act immediatelyThe purpose of a good sales letter has the following effects: 1. To confer a faith in the product. 2. To get an enquiry letter from the reader; 3. To create an interest in the mind by exposing actual facts, tests, surveys, opinions, etc. 4. To create a goodwill and promote sales;Apart from the above: 1. It widens the market; 2. It helps the customer to remember the product; 3. It educates the customers; 4. It functions as a salesman; 5. If facilitates a constant touch between the customers and the firm; 6. It secures orders for a Mail Order Business House.Functions of a Sales letterA sales letter has the following functions: 1. Attracting attention; 2. Arousing interest; 3. Educating and convincing; 4. Stimulating desires; and 5. Securing actionThe last para of the sales letter must successfully turn the reader into a customere.g. “We would not like you to miss this golden opportunity”. “The attractive bonus is open only for a couple of weeks, so act now”.Model 19: Special offer to old customersDear Sir/Madam,You will b e interested to hear, that we have decided to clear the present stocks of books at bargain prices.Only the old customers like you can enjoy the advantage, as the letters are being sent to the old customersonly. A price list of the books that shows the original price and the special discounts allowed to them, isenclosed for your reference. The stocks of these books are already on sale and are limited for two moreweeks. You need only to pay a lesser amount than the cost. You can avail of this rare opportunity.If you can spare a few minutes, please fill in the enclosed order form and post it today; the postageexpenses will be free if your order is for more than Rs. 100.You can take full advantage of this special offer. Remember, this offer is specially ment for our oldcustomers only.Delay will disappoint us. BSPATIL 32
  33. 33. Yours sincerely, ………………..Encl : One bargained price list.Sales Promotion LettersThe aim of production is sales. Sales and promotion are two different words. Sales promotion is thecombination of these two words. Sales promotion increases the sales. Sales promotion methods aim tocapture the market and increase the sales volume. It is an important instrument in marketing to lubricatethe marketing efforts. Now – a – days sales promotion is necessary tool to boost sales. It aims in creatingdemand. It is right to say that sales promotion moves the product. A manufacturer must make thecustomers to know the product and he must influence them to buy that product. Unlike sales letters, theseletters effect indirect sale. The major objectives of sales promotion are: 1. To attract new customers 2. To simplify the job of middleman. 3. To create brand image. 4. To remove customer’s dissatisfaction, if any 5. To capture the major share of the market 6. To meet the competition of other firms 7. To create favourable attitude towards the product 8. To effect off season sales to boost sales 9. To build confidence about the product 10. To create buying impulse.Model 20: Sales letter to customers GHOSH BROTHERS LIMITED M.G. Raod, Madurai Tamil Nadu Dated …………………..M/s Vijay Kumar & SonsRam Nagar,Nagercoil 629 002Sirs,We are introducing a new line of watches. These are specially designed for young men and women who arejust starting out in life. We enclose a catalogue of the watches. I am sure that you will find them veryattractive.Our representative will call on you shortly to show you some samples and to give you promotional posters,stickers etc. kindly display them in your premises. We request you to place a trial order with us. Our pricesand terms are stated in the attached list.We are certain that a trial order will give you full satisfaction and we shall be glad to hear from you. BSPATIL 33
  34. 34. Thanking you. Yours sincerelyEncl. as aboveModel 21: Sales letter introducing a new productWe are pleased to inform you that after a lot of research, we have started to manufacture “SUPER WHITE”washing powder, which we are introducing in the market. The SUPER WHITE washing powder washes alltypes of clothes. The dirt is removed without rubbing or scrubbing. At the same time the original colour isretained by washing the clothes with the SUPER WHITE washing powder. It does not harm the hands whilewashing as it is free from injurious chemicals. It simply requires soaking of clothes for an hour and rinsethoroughly, will show the result.We are launching an advertising campaign in the mass media. We are sending samples of SUPER WHITEwashing powder in 50 gram packets for free distribution to the customers to enable them to find the truthof our claim about the quality of this powder. Our aim is to serve our customers to the best of our abilityand with goods of proven quality.We look forward for a trial order for SUPER WHITE washing powder which, we are sure, will give yoursatisfaction.Thanking you. Yours sincerelyModel 22: Sales letter by a Retail Merchant BABY STORES East Car Street, Calicut 10th January, 2002Mr. Sharma,48, North Car Street,Calicut.Dear Sir,Wish you a Happy New Year.You may be glad that you have settled down in Calicut. I am sure that you will find the climate good,people are friendly and surroundings healthy. People, who settle down here, do not generally wish to moveout of this pleasant place.You may be glad note that M/s Baby Stores, situated in the heart of this city, in 50 years old and hasearned a good name by supplying all types of standard goods – provisions, stationery items toys etc. atreasonable prices. The products are deal in are of reputed firms backed by guarantee.The motto of the store is to serve people like you. You need not waste your valuable time in collectingthings from us. You please inform your needs over the phone or through a messenger. You get the neededitems on the same day as per order i.e., free door delivery is arranged by our firm.You can test our dealings. If you happen to visit this area, kindly pay us a visit. You can well avail yourselfof the best service and we are sure that you will always cherish your dealings with us. BSPATIL 34
  35. 35. Thanking you,Yours sincerely(Manager)Model 23 : A Sales letter about steel tables K.K. STEEL FURNITURE K.P. Road Nagercoil, 629002 st 1 Aug. 2002The Principal,College of Commerce,Nagercoil 629 002Sir,Allow us to steal a few minutes of your valuable time.We deal in furniture items – specially tables. At present you can have a wide range of 20 different OFFICETABLES to suit budgets, storage needs, office layout, work areas etc. These tables are elegant, functionaland money saving and they fit well your office layout. Different jobs in an office call for different tablerequirements. The tables are designed to suit everyone – the Principal, Superintendent, Accountant,Cashier, Typist etc. The drawers of the tables can go where you want it – if you wish so. The table top,height of the table and drawers etc., are adjustable to suit everyone’s needs, irrespective of sizes, colours,shapes etc. A variety of tables are in ready stock and all are manufactured by us. We assure you that theyare of the best quality.An illustrated catalogue will be sent to you on request. All orders are executed at door delivery basis. Ourexpert staff will be happy to plan your office layout by saving space and money, free of cost.Remember us when you plan your OFFICE LAYOUT.Thanking youYours sincerely,For K.K. Steel Furniture(Sales Manager)Goodwill Letters BSPATIL 35
  36. 36. Effective business letters are the “life blood” of modern business because they help to expand business ormarket from one corner of the world to another in the cheapest manner. Apart from winning customers,business letters promote goodwill too. Courteous letters will friends, enroll new customers, retain old onesand win similar other favours. The best way to achieve a customer’s goodwill is to offer best services. Abusinessman who overlooks a customer’s letter of complaint is digging his own grave. Prompt replyfosters pleasant relations.Every letter of complaint received by a trader is an opportunity to make friends with and a chance to winover a customer. It is senseless to think that complaints are a nuisance. A trader should welcomereasonable dissatisfaction with his goods or services. If a businessman desires to keep his customer’sbusiness, it is very important for him to reply as soon as he receives the complaint. He should satisfy thecustomer with a suitable reply if mistakes can be rectified without delay. In other cases, if time is requiredfor investigation, immediate acknowledgement of his letter of complaint is essential. One should have a constructive approach towards business. Goodwill letters are written, sometimes, whenthere is no need for doing so. A friendly approach undoubtedly wins customers. For egs. Imagine you areentering a shop. Immediately the shop – keeper or a salesman greets you, “Good morning, Sir.” Heenquires what you want and invites you to select your requirements. After making purchases, you pay thebill and the cashier tells you “Thank you, Sir”. When you approach the packing section, the packer gives thepacked items by saying. “Thank you Sir”, please come again.” You will be immensely pleased and you willmake it a habit to visit the shop again and again. Such pleasing manners cost the trader nothing but winhim friends.Note: “As a rule all business correspondence should aim at creating goodwill. But there are someletters-like letters of thanks or appreciation-that are written explicitly for builing goodwill Gratitude,sympathy, encouragement and appreciation all have goodwill at their base. Those of congratulation,welcome, condolence and show of interest also fall in the same category. The thing to be rememberedmost in the case of all kinds of goodwill letters is the importance of the element of sincerity, which mustcome out as a genuine feeling.”Following this manner “we write goodwill letters”. Please see the model 24.Model 24: Sales – cum – Goodwill letter J.K. PAPERS Chennai – 600 012 10th April 2002Mr. Krishnan,General Merchant,Chennai – 600 010Dear Sir,Our Sales Representative, Mr. Gopal, has informed us that you have not given any orders for the comingseason. This is perhaps due to the fact that there was some delay on our part in sending the ordered itemslast month. The delay happened because of workers strike which was beyond our control. I have alreadyinformed you of this and expressed my regret.Now it is the time to give orders for the coming season – educational institutions are going to reopen afterthe summer holidays. Paper cost is increasing day-by-day. As a friend I suggest you rush you demandwithout delay. Delay will result in paying higher prices. Timely action will help you to earn a good profitout of the season.The price-list is enclosed alongwith samples. Generally, we do not send sample unless asked for. You willobserve that the prices quoted are exceptionally low and we suggest you, in your interest, place orders asearly as possible. You are most welcometo visit our shop, whenever you can. If there is anything more, wecould to for you, please do not hesitate to inform us.We await your orders.Thank you. Yours sincerely, BSPATIL 36
  37. 37. Encl : as above“Most business letters have two objectives : to promote a particular transaction and to build goodwill. Theycan be as brief and simple as you wish, but they should express what you feel in terms that are warm andsincere.”Model 25 : Approaching new customers JAY ENGINEERING COMPANY Chowringhee Road, Kolkata – 13 10th June, 2002M/s Raj Kamal & Sons,Flora Fountain,Mumbai – 400113 Electric FansDear Sirs, In 1970 we manufactured only 500 fans per month. In the year 1980 we manufactured more than10,000 fans every month, during the 90’s we were making over 30,000 fans every month, now 50,000fans every month. This is the finest example of determination, combined with latest techniques and know-how. Wehave still higher plans to make more fans and create new standards in quality and design.Ours is the biggest single unit fan factory in the world. “JAY” fans are exported to almost all the countriesin the world where fans are used.If you think of installing fans in your factory, we suggest you to buy JAY fans. Ours in quick service atreasonable price.Let JAY fans convince you how you can get good air. Yours truly, For JAY Engineering Cp., BSPATIL 37
  38. 38. CHAPTER VII FOLLOW UP LETTERSEvery businessman tries to increase his business through various methods, which are suitable to him. If aman visits your shop (you being a businessman) try to give him maximum information about hisrequirements. If an item is not satisfactory to your customer, you will immediately switch on to thesubstitution. The inherent policy is to increase the sales.Mere advertisement for the sale of goods may not produce the desired result. Some other steps may benecessary to obtain real benefit. One of such steps is technically known as FOLLOW UP system. This is asystem in which approaches to prospective customers are made through letters. Follow-up letters areusually sent out in a standard form. Each successive letter is worded in a more intimate language. In orderto be successful, the letter should be pleasant reading, courteous, suggestive and full of confidence.Follow up letters are more or less circular in nature. Follow up letters mean, approaching the party again incontinuation of a previous trade letter or circular letter which contains sales promotion methods as themain theme. This is maintained when the customers are outsiders.After receiving enquiries, a businessman sends replier. If he does not find any reaction on his replies, hemay wait for 10 or 15 days, then he sends another letter of a re- approaching nature in order to attract theattention of the customers. If the customer is silent he once again writes follow up letters to him. Until anorder is received, he may go on. Follow up letter will be sent on the presumption of getting orders. If thebusinessman thinks, that a particular customer is not interested, he may not send unnecessary follow upletters.In mail order business, follow up letters are important, as there are no middlemen to approach the buyer.An index card can be kept in order to make the entries of enquiry and the replier sent. Customer’s replierare also entered in it. By seeing an index card, businessmen know to whom follow up letters are to be sent.Index card contains the details of the prospective buyers with date of letters sent and received.The enquiry letter is first replied in a general way. If it does not draw the attention of the customer, asecond letter follows with more information. Again, if he does not respond, a third one is written with afresh argument. This may be done after a gap of 10 or 15 days.Follow up letters are printed or cyclostyled. The addresses are filled in by the typist and signature is eithercyclostyled or handwritten. The letter must be very courteous, pleasant in nature and must express fullconfidence. An order form is to be attached to every letter. Hints for such letters 1. Draft the letter in such a way as to suit the needs, desires and the way of thinking of the particular class of customers. 2. Make an appeal by telling him how the product benefits him. 3. Highlight the plus points – economy, durability, low price, pride in possession, satisfactory performance etc. 4. Convince the reader by giving evidence. 5. It is not a letter of circular type. Use new arguments. Close the letter by telling exactly what to do and how to do it so that action becomes easy.Model 26 : First Follow up letter JOHNSON RADIO CO. LTD. 28 Dadabhai Road, Mumbai – 400 001 10th June, 2002Mr. Roshanlal Sharms,1273, Civil Line,Mumbai – 400 023Dear Sir, BSPATIL 38

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