Bec doms ppt on theories of management
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Bec doms ppt on theories of management

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Bec doms ppt on theories of management

Bec doms ppt on theories of management

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    Bec doms ppt on theories of management Bec doms ppt on theories of management Presentation Transcript

    • Theories of Management
    • Management Theories Theorists Skinner Rogers Kounin Kohn Gibbs Brophy Wong Jones Mendler and Curwin Glasser Gordon Hewitt Canter Dreikurs Bennett
    • Classroom Management as Reaction to Discipline Problems
      • Skinner’s Behavioural Management Theory
    • Skinner – Behavioural Management
      • Definition: The practice of providing consequences for both positive and negative behaviour.
      • The teacher develops a process of systematically applying rewards (reinforcements) and consequences for behaviour.
    • Skinner – Behavioural Management
      • This model of classroom management is also known as:
      • behaviourism
      • behavioural techniques
      • behaviour modification
      • social-learning theory
    • Classroom Management with a Preventative Approach
      • Carl Rogers
      • Jacob Kounin
      • Alfie Kohn
      • Jeanne Gibbs
      • Jere Brophy
      • Harry Wong
    • Carl Rogers
      • Experiential Learning and Self-Actualization
      • Experiences need to be relevant, non-threatening and participatory
      • Teachers need to be real, empathetic, understanding, and prize students
      • All students strive for self-actualization and self-fulfillment
    • Jacob Kounin
      • Effective Teaching includes group alerting and accountability, high participation and smooth transitions
      • Effective teachers are ‘with it’, use the ripple effect, overlapping, and they don’t ‘dangle’, ‘flip flop or get distracted
    • Alfie Kohn
      • Beyond Discipline: From Compliance to Community”
      • There is a difference between ‘working with’ and ‘doing to’ classes
      • ‘ Doing to’ classes include compliance, punishment and rewards, grading and reliance on marks or test results
      • ‘ Working with” classes include active participation, high interest, discovery, and love of learning
    • Jeanne Gibbs
      • “ Tribes” theory includes an emphasis on active listening, appreciation, mutual respect, the right to pass, a helping attitude, setting goals, monitoring progress and celebrating accomplishments
      • Tribes’ focus is on learning (incl. social learning), a caring culture, a community of learners and student-centredness
      • Tribes training includes various school groups including parents and administrators
    • Jere Brophy
      • “ Classroom Strategy Study”
      • Good teaching includes enthusiasm, instructional goals, organization, and teacher as problem-solver
      • Good teachers present the concepts, include discussions and activities and give tasks to practise working with new knowledge
      • Assessments are used to provide feedback, to note the zone of proximal development and to develop/revise the curriculum
      • Students need to see the purposefulness of the curriculum
    • Harry Wong
      • ‘ The Effective Teacher’ videos and ‘The First Days of School’ book
      • The first impressions are lasting
      • Classes need only 3-5 rules and the size of groups is determined by the roles to be assumed
      • Important aspects of a class are teacher readiness, meeting students, a seating plan, ‘bell work’ and immediate feedback
    • Preventative and Reactive Strategies
      • Richard Mendler and Allen Curwin
      • William Glasser
      • Fred Jones
      • Thomas Gordon
      • Jean Hewitt
    • Mendler and Curwin
      • “ Motivating Students Who Don’t Care”
      • ‘ Discipline with Dignity’
      • To motivate students: be a role-model. nurture responsibility not obedience, be fair, give natural and logical consequences, be private, try for win-win situation, control anger, diffuse power struggles and develop a plan
    • William Glasser
      • Reality Therapy -Control/Choice Theory
      • All humans have a need for love a feeling of self-worth
      • Steps: build a relationship, focus on behaviour not person, give student responsibility and evaluation, develop a plan, student commits to plan, follow-up and follow-through, move beyond class if necessary
      • Emphasize effort (redo, retake, revise), create hope, respect power, build relationships and express enthusiasm
    • Fred Jones
        • “ Positive Classroom Discipline”
        • The teacher systematically strengthens desired behaviour while weakening inappropriate behaviour by using proximity control, negative reinforcement, incentives, body language and peer pressure.
    • Jones’ Four Step Model
        • Classroom Structure: setting up classroom rules, routines and the physical environment
        • Limit Setting: rule reinforcement through the use of body language, and low-key responses
        • Responsibility Training: establishment of group rewards or incentives to create group responsibility and accountability for behaviour
        • Back-up System: hierarchic organization of negative sanctions, a) Private with Student, b) Public within Classroom, c) Public with Two Professionals
    • Thomas Gordon
      • Teacher Effectiveness Training (T.E.T.)
      • Based on philosophy of Carl Rogers, I.e., children are inherently rational and, if directed and forced by teachers, will be stifled
      • Assumptions: student is intrinsically motivated to be good, should be supported by an accepting relationship and is capable of solving own problems
      • Teachers are taught to observe the behaviour, identify who owns the problem, demonstrate understanding, confront if necessary and use win-win problem-solving
      • Curriculum design involves structured activities, student ownership, communication and analysis of learning
    • Jean Hewitt
      • “ Playing Fair”
      • Based on the society’s concept of “fair “ behaviour
      • Steps: create positive environment, support student efforts for self-control,deal with problems immediately and monitor the class
      • All consequences should create learning
      • Have specific rules that consider safety and well-being of others
      • Avoid confrontations, power struggles or rumours
    • Reactive Strategies
      • Lee and Marlene Canter
      • Rudolf Dreikurs
      • Barrie Bennett and Peter Smilanich
      • B.F.Skinner
    • Canters’ Assertive Discipline
      • Definition: The teacher’s response style sets the tone of the classroom as well as impacting on the student’s self-esteem and success.
      • The Canters identified three basic response styles used by teachers when interacting with students
    • Canters’ Assertive Discipline
      • Nonassertive Teachers
      • These teachers fail to make their needs or wants known. They appear indecisive which confuses students. They threaten but students know there will be no follow through.
      • Assertive Teachers
      • These teachers clearly and firmly express their needs. They have positive expectations of students. They say what they mean, and mean what they say. They are consistent and fair.
    • Dreikurs’ Logical Consequences
      • Definition: The teacher considers the motivation and goals of the student behaviour in the development of a management plan.
      • A more humanistic approach than just focusing on discipline.
      • The teacher then applies Logical Consequences to assist students in taking responsibility for their actions and behaviours.
    • Dreikurs’ Goals of Misbehaviour
      • Based on Alfred Alder’s concept that all behaviour had a purpose or goal, Dreikurs identified 4 student goals of misbehaviour:
      • To seek attention
      • To gain power
      • To seek revenge for some perceived injustice
      • To avoid failure
    • Dreikurs’ Logical Consequences
      • Must be tied directly to the misbehaviour
      • Must not involve moral judgments
      • Must distinguish between the deed and the doer
      • Must be applied in a non-threatening manner
      • Must present choice for the student
    • Barrie Bennett and Peter Smilanich
      • “ The Bumping Model” of the teacher’s responses to student misbehaviour
      • Increasingly severe responses by the teacher based on the degree of the student’s BUMP.
      • Implies that teacher must take more drastic measures as behaviour persists
    • The Bumping Model
      • Bump 1: Prevent misbehaviour by low-key response
      • Bump 2: Square off Response
      • Bump 3: Give choice
      • Bump 4: Implied choice
      • Bump 5: Diffuse the Power Struggle ( ignore, use humour…)
      • Bump 6: Informal Agreement
      • Bump 7,8, 9,10: Informal contracts with other persons involved
    • Common Elements of “Theories”
      • What do the theories have in common as prerequisites to good classroom management?
      • What are the features that differ among the theories?
    • Ultimately…
      • The teacher is responsible for establishing a community and for maintaining classroom control
      • The teacher is the difference between a chaotic or caring classroom
      • Effective classroom management includes: planning and implementing teaching strategies thoroughly , keeping students actively engaged in meaningful learning, and preventing disruptions through proactive management strategies.
      • When a teacher needs to react to misbehaviour, careful thought should be applied to the situation to ensure that the self-esteem of the student is respected and to ensure that the consequences are realistic and appropriate
    • Good luck!