Bec doms ppt on theories of management

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Bec doms ppt on theories of management

Bec doms ppt on theories of management

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Transcript

  • 1. Theories of Management
  • 2. Management Theories Theorists Skinner Rogers Kounin Kohn Gibbs Brophy Wong Jones Mendler and Curwin Glasser Gordon Hewitt Canter Dreikurs Bennett
  • 3. Classroom Management as Reaction to Discipline Problems
    • Skinner’s Behavioural Management Theory
  • 4. Skinner – Behavioural Management
    • Definition: The practice of providing consequences for both positive and negative behaviour.
    • The teacher develops a process of systematically applying rewards (reinforcements) and consequences for behaviour.
  • 5. Skinner – Behavioural Management
    • This model of classroom management is also known as:
    • behaviourism
    • behavioural techniques
    • behaviour modification
    • social-learning theory
  • 6. Classroom Management with a Preventative Approach
    • Carl Rogers
    • Jacob Kounin
    • Alfie Kohn
    • Jeanne Gibbs
    • Jere Brophy
    • Harry Wong
  • 7. Carl Rogers
    • Experiential Learning and Self-Actualization
    • Experiences need to be relevant, non-threatening and participatory
    • Teachers need to be real, empathetic, understanding, and prize students
    • All students strive for self-actualization and self-fulfillment
  • 8. Jacob Kounin
    • Effective Teaching includes group alerting and accountability, high participation and smooth transitions
    • Effective teachers are ‘with it’, use the ripple effect, overlapping, and they don’t ‘dangle’, ‘flip flop or get distracted
  • 9. Alfie Kohn
    • Beyond Discipline: From Compliance to Community”
    • There is a difference between ‘working with’ and ‘doing to’ classes
    • ‘ Doing to’ classes include compliance, punishment and rewards, grading and reliance on marks or test results
    • ‘ Working with” classes include active participation, high interest, discovery, and love of learning
  • 10. Jeanne Gibbs
    • “ Tribes” theory includes an emphasis on active listening, appreciation, mutual respect, the right to pass, a helping attitude, setting goals, monitoring progress and celebrating accomplishments
    • Tribes’ focus is on learning (incl. social learning), a caring culture, a community of learners and student-centredness
    • Tribes training includes various school groups including parents and administrators
  • 11. Jere Brophy
    • “ Classroom Strategy Study”
    • Good teaching includes enthusiasm, instructional goals, organization, and teacher as problem-solver
    • Good teachers present the concepts, include discussions and activities and give tasks to practise working with new knowledge
    • Assessments are used to provide feedback, to note the zone of proximal development and to develop/revise the curriculum
    • Students need to see the purposefulness of the curriculum
  • 12. Harry Wong
    • ‘ The Effective Teacher’ videos and ‘The First Days of School’ book
    • The first impressions are lasting
    • Classes need only 3-5 rules and the size of groups is determined by the roles to be assumed
    • Important aspects of a class are teacher readiness, meeting students, a seating plan, ‘bell work’ and immediate feedback
  • 13. Preventative and Reactive Strategies
    • Richard Mendler and Allen Curwin
    • William Glasser
    • Fred Jones
    • Thomas Gordon
    • Jean Hewitt
  • 14. Mendler and Curwin
    • “ Motivating Students Who Don’t Care”
    • ‘ Discipline with Dignity’
    • To motivate students: be a role-model. nurture responsibility not obedience, be fair, give natural and logical consequences, be private, try for win-win situation, control anger, diffuse power struggles and develop a plan
  • 15. William Glasser
    • Reality Therapy -Control/Choice Theory
    • All humans have a need for love a feeling of self-worth
    • Steps: build a relationship, focus on behaviour not person, give student responsibility and evaluation, develop a plan, student commits to plan, follow-up and follow-through, move beyond class if necessary
    • Emphasize effort (redo, retake, revise), create hope, respect power, build relationships and express enthusiasm
  • 16. Fred Jones
      • “ Positive Classroom Discipline”
      • The teacher systematically strengthens desired behaviour while weakening inappropriate behaviour by using proximity control, negative reinforcement, incentives, body language and peer pressure.
  • 17. Jones’ Four Step Model
      • Classroom Structure: setting up classroom rules, routines and the physical environment
      • Limit Setting: rule reinforcement through the use of body language, and low-key responses
      • Responsibility Training: establishment of group rewards or incentives to create group responsibility and accountability for behaviour
      • Back-up System: hierarchic organization of negative sanctions, a) Private with Student, b) Public within Classroom, c) Public with Two Professionals
  • 18. Thomas Gordon
    • Teacher Effectiveness Training (T.E.T.)
    • Based on philosophy of Carl Rogers, I.e., children are inherently rational and, if directed and forced by teachers, will be stifled
    • Assumptions: student is intrinsically motivated to be good, should be supported by an accepting relationship and is capable of solving own problems
    • Teachers are taught to observe the behaviour, identify who owns the problem, demonstrate understanding, confront if necessary and use win-win problem-solving
    • Curriculum design involves structured activities, student ownership, communication and analysis of learning
  • 19. Jean Hewitt
    • “ Playing Fair”
    • Based on the society’s concept of “fair “ behaviour
    • Steps: create positive environment, support student efforts for self-control,deal with problems immediately and monitor the class
    • All consequences should create learning
    • Have specific rules that consider safety and well-being of others
    • Avoid confrontations, power struggles or rumours
  • 20. Reactive Strategies
    • Lee and Marlene Canter
    • Rudolf Dreikurs
    • Barrie Bennett and Peter Smilanich
    • B.F.Skinner
  • 21. Canters’ Assertive Discipline
    • Definition: The teacher’s response style sets the tone of the classroom as well as impacting on the student’s self-esteem and success.
    • The Canters identified three basic response styles used by teachers when interacting with students
  • 22. Canters’ Assertive Discipline
    • Nonassertive Teachers
    • These teachers fail to make their needs or wants known. They appear indecisive which confuses students. They threaten but students know there will be no follow through.
    • Assertive Teachers
    • These teachers clearly and firmly express their needs. They have positive expectations of students. They say what they mean, and mean what they say. They are consistent and fair.
  • 23. Dreikurs’ Logical Consequences
    • Definition: The teacher considers the motivation and goals of the student behaviour in the development of a management plan.
    • A more humanistic approach than just focusing on discipline.
    • The teacher then applies Logical Consequences to assist students in taking responsibility for their actions and behaviours.
  • 24. Dreikurs’ Goals of Misbehaviour
    • Based on Alfred Alder’s concept that all behaviour had a purpose or goal, Dreikurs identified 4 student goals of misbehaviour:
    • To seek attention
    • To gain power
    • To seek revenge for some perceived injustice
    • To avoid failure
  • 25. Dreikurs’ Logical Consequences
    • Must be tied directly to the misbehaviour
    • Must not involve moral judgments
    • Must distinguish between the deed and the doer
    • Must be applied in a non-threatening manner
    • Must present choice for the student
  • 26. Barrie Bennett and Peter Smilanich
    • “ The Bumping Model” of the teacher’s responses to student misbehaviour
    • Increasingly severe responses by the teacher based on the degree of the student’s BUMP.
    • Implies that teacher must take more drastic measures as behaviour persists
  • 27. The Bumping Model
    • Bump 1: Prevent misbehaviour by low-key response
    • Bump 2: Square off Response
    • Bump 3: Give choice
    • Bump 4: Implied choice
    • Bump 5: Diffuse the Power Struggle ( ignore, use humour…)
    • Bump 6: Informal Agreement
    • Bump 7,8, 9,10: Informal contracts with other persons involved
  • 28. Common Elements of “Theories”
    • What do the theories have in common as prerequisites to good classroom management?
    • What are the features that differ among the theories?
  • 29. Ultimately…
    • The teacher is responsible for establishing a community and for maintaining classroom control
    • The teacher is the difference between a chaotic or caring classroom
    • Effective classroom management includes: planning and implementing teaching strategies thoroughly , keeping students actively engaged in meaningful learning, and preventing disruptions through proactive management strategies.
    • When a teacher needs to react to misbehaviour, careful thought should be applied to the situation to ensure that the self-esteem of the student is respected and to ensure that the consequences are realistic and appropriate
  • 30. Good luck!