Androgogy final ppt Human Resource Management


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Androgogy final ppt Human Resource Management

  1. 1. ANDRAGOGY & PEDAGOGY Presented By Babasab patil 4/10/2013 B
  2. 2. Learning as a Process | Learning is defined as the process of acquiring , assimilating, and internalizing cognitive, motor or behavioral inputs for their effective and varied use when required, leading to an enhanced capability for further self monitored learning. 4/10/2013
  3. 3. Learning process • Acquiring of new input terms of knowledge • Assimilation • Internalization • Available for effective use • Development of creativity • Increase person’s capability 4/10/2013
  4. 4. Stimulus Response Theories • Classical Conditioning • Instrumental conditioning • Operant Conditioning 4/10/2013
  5. 5. Behaviorism  Classical Conditioning - Pavlov S R A stimulus is presented in order to get a response: 4/10/2013
  6. 6. Behaviorism  Classical Conditioning - Pavlov S US UR CS US CR 4/10/2013
  7. 7. Behaviorism  Operant Conditioning - Skinner The response is made first, then reinforcement follows. 4/10/2013
  8. 8. Pedagogy 4/10/2013
  9. 9. Meaning • Pedagogue is defined as “a schoolteacher. One who instructs in a pedantic or dogmatic manner”. In the pedagogic model, teachers assume responsibility for making decisions about what is learned, and how and when something will be learned. 4/10/2013
  10. 10. Constructivist Theory • Formalization of the theory of constructivism is generally attributed to Jean Piaget, who articulated mechanisms by which knowledge is internalized by learners. • He suggested that through processes of accommodation and assimilation, individuals construct new knowledge from their experiences. • Constructivism is often associated with pedagogic approaches that promote active learning, or learning by doing. 4/10/2013
  11. 11. Pedagogies based on constructivism • Learners learn by experimentation, and not by being told what will happen. • They are left to make their own inferences, discoveries and conclusions. • It also emphasizes that learning is not an "all or nothing" process but that students learn the new information that is presented to them by building upon knowledge that they already possess. • It is therefore important that teachers constantly assess the knowledge their students have gained to make sure that the students' perceptions of the new knowledge are what the teacher had intended. 4/10/2013
  12. 12. Pedagogies based on constructivism • The teacher's role is not only to observe and assess but to also engage with the students while they are completing activities, wondering aloud and posing questions to the students for promotion of reasoning. • The teacher, after reading a story, encourages the students to write or draw stories of their own, or by having the students reenact a story that they may know well, both activities encourage the students to conceive themselves as reader and writers. 4/10/2013
  13. 13. Cognitive Theory • Grew in response to Behaviorism • Knowledge is stored cognitively as symbols • Learning is the process of connecting symbols in a meaningful & memorable way • Studies focused on the mental processes that facilitate symbol connection 4/10/2013
  14. 14. Cognitive Learning Theory  Discovery Learning – Jerome Bruner  Meaningful Verbal Learning - David Ausubel 4/10/2013
  15. 15. Cognitive Learning Theory  Discovery Learning 1. Bruner said anybody can learn anything at any age, provided it is stated in terms they can understand. 4/10/2013
  16. 16. Cognitive Learning Theory  Discovery Learning 2. Powerful Concepts (not isolated facts) a. Transfer to many different situations b. Only possible through Discovery Learning c. Confront the learner with problems and help them find solutions. Do not present sequenced materials. 4/10/2013
  17. 17. Cognitive Learning Theory  Meaningful Verbal Learning Advance Organizers: New material is presented in a systematic way, and is connected to existing cognitive structures in a meaningful way. 4/10/2013
  18. 18. Cognitivism in the Classroom • Inquiry-oriented projects • Opportunities for the testing of hypotheses • Curiosity encouraged 4/10/2013
  19. 19. Cognitive Dissonance Theory • Comes from social psychology • One of the most famous and influential theories • Proposes that people have a motivational drive to reduce dissonance • By changing their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors, or • By justifying or rationalizing their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors 4/10/2013
  20. 20. Cognitive Dissonance • Cognitive Dissonance: The distressing mental state caused by inconsistency between a two beliefs or a belief and an action. • Assumption: Humans are consistent. Must find a resolution when beliefs conflict, or actions don’t match beliefs. • Example: Slavery and Democracy 4/10/2013
  21. 21. Reducing Dissonance • Whenever there is dissonance, we seek to reduce it. 1. Selective Exposure: The tendency to avoid information that creates cognitive dissonance and seek out information, people who support our beliefs. • How to overcome persuasively? – Avoid the hard sell – Warm personal relationships – Example: racial discrimination and my brother 4/10/2013
  22. 22. Postdecision Dissonance Strong doubts experienced after making an important, close- call decision that is difficult to reverse. – “buyers remorse” • Motivates us to seek reassurance, support for our decision. • Afterwards, tend to rate our choice higher – Example: Sour Grapes 4/10/2013
  23. 23. 3. Minimal Justification for Action Induces Shift in Attitude • The best way to change attitudes is to get someone to behave in a way dissonant with their beliefs with the least amount of incentive. – If there isn’t significant external incentive, people tend to change attitudes to justify their behavior – If external incentive too high, merely achieve compliance (behavioral conformity without attitude change) • Example: Would I lie for a dollar? 4/10/2013
  24. 24. Adult Learning Theories 4/10/2013
  25. 25. Andragogy experience Reflection & sharing Interpretin g Generalizing Exp Applying Rewriting and repeating 4/10/2013
  26. 26. 4/10/2013
  27. 27. Androgogy By definition of an adult is someone who has achieved the self concept of being responsible for their own life. Adult Learning: Theories, Assumptions, and Perspectives “The art and science of helping adults learn” 4/10/2013
  28. 28. Cont…., • ANDRAGOGY • Adults are Autonomous and Self -Directed. • Adults Have Accumulated a Foundation of Life Experiences and Knowledge. • Adults are Relevancy-oriented • Adults are Goal-oriented • Adults are practical Implication for Training 4/10/2013
  29. 29. Cont…., • Adults are likely to resist learning conditions that conflict with their self concept. • Adults need to be free to direct themselves. • Trainer must actively involve adult participants in the learning process and serve as facilitators for them. 4/10/2013
  30. 30. History of Adult Learning Theory: From “Whatagogy?” to Andragogy • The Meaning of Adult Education by Eduard Lindeman in 1926 marked the beginning of adult education as a field • Adult educators began to look for a unique adult education knowledge base • European adult educators began to use the term andragogy in the 1950s • Andragogy finally surfaced and became part of the educational language in 1967 with Malcolm Knowles, a prominent scholar in the field of adult education. 4/10/2013
  31. 31. Andragogy Defined • The term andragogy is based on the Greek work aner (with the stem andr-) meaning „man not boy‟ (Plato‟s idea that adults continue to learn • The Modern Practice of Adult Education: Andragogy versus Pedagogy (1970) Malcolm Knowles • Knowles defines andragogy as the art and science of helping adults learn in contrast with pedagogy, which concerns helping children learn • Is Andragogy a learning theory or a set of assumptions? 4/10/2013
  32. 32. Assumptions of Andragogy • Adults need to know why they need to learn something • Adults need to learn experientially • Adults approach learning as a problem solving • Adults learn best when the topic is immediate value 4/10/2013
  33. 33. The principles of andragogy • Adults need to be involved in the planning & evaluation of their instructions • Experience provides the basis for learning activities • Adults are most interested in learning subjects that have immediate relevance to their job or personal life • Adult learning is a problem centered rather than content oriented 4/10/2013
  34. 34. Malcolm Knowles • In the minds of many around the adult education field, andragogy and the name of Malcolm Knowles have become inextricably linked. For Knowles, andragogy is premised on at least four crucial assumptions about the characteristics of adult learners that are different from the assumptions about child learners on which traditional pedagogy is premised. A fifth was added later. 4/10/2013
  35. 35. Cont…… • Self-concept: As a person matures his self concept moves from one of being a dependent personality toward one of being a self-directed human being • Experience: As a person matures he accumulates a growing reservoir of experience that becomes an increasing resource for learning. • Readiness to learn. As a person matures his readiness to learn becomes oriented increasingly to the developmental tasks of his social roles. 4/10/2013
  36. 36. Cont…… • Orientation to learning. As a person matures his time perspective changes from one of postponed application of knowledge to immediacy of application, and accordingly his orientation toward learning shifts from one of subject- centeredness to one of problem centeredness. • Motivation to learn: As a person matures the motivation to learn is internal 4/10/2013
  37. 37. Four Supporting Assumptions according to Dirkx, Lavin, and Pelavin (1995) • Diverse, active learners: wealth of experiences • Problem-oriented: pragmatic learners, seeking to improve their performance • Control of their own learning: voluntary learners who take seriously their decision to return to school. • Strong sense of self: varying degrees of self-efficacy, but sense of self plays a major role in their learning 4/10/2013
  38. 38. A comparison of the assumptions of Pedagogy and Andragogy ANDRAGOGY • A comparison of the assumptions of pedagogy and andragogy • Of little worth. Hence teaching methods are didactic PEDAGOGY • A comparison of the assumptions of pedagogy and andragogy • A rich resource for learning. Hence teaching methods include discussion, problem-solving etc. 4/10/2013
  39. 39. Cont.,… ANDRAGOGY • People learn what society expects them to. So that the curriculum is standardized. • Acquisition of subject matter. Curriculum organized by subjects. PEDAGOGY • People learn what they need to know, so that learning programmes organized around life application. • Learning experiences should be based around experiences, since people are performance centered in their learning 4/10/2013
  40. 40. Kolb’s Learning Cycle – David Kolb, Professor of Organizational Behaviour, Weathered School of Management, Cleveland 4/10/2013
  41. 41. EXPERIENCING Immersing yourself in the task 4/10/2013
  42. 42. EXPERIENCING Immersing yourself in the task REFLECTION What did you notice? 4/10/2013
  43. 43. EXPERIENCING Immersing yourself in the task REFLECTION What did you notice? CONCEPTUAL- ISATION What does it mean? 4/10/2013
  44. 44. EXPERIENCING Immersing yourself in the task REFLECTION What did you notice? CONCEPTUAL- ISATION What does it mean? PLANNING What will you do next? 4/10/2013
  45. 45. EXPERIENCING Immersing yourself in the task Activist REFLECTION What did you notice? CONCEPTUAL- ISATION What does it mean? PLANNING What will you do next? 4/10/2013
  46. 46. EXPERIENCING Immersing yourself in the task Activist REFLECTION What did you notice? Reflector CONCEPTUAL- ISATION What does it mean? PLANNING What will you do next? 4/10/2013
  47. 47. EXPERIENCING Immersing yourself in the task Activist REFLECTION What did you notice? Reflector CONCEPTUAL- ISATION What does it mean? Theorist PLANNING What will you do next? 4/10/2013
  48. 48. EXPERIENCING Immersing yourself in the task Activist REFLECTION What did you notice? Reflector CONCEPTUAL- ISATION What does it mean? Theorist PLANNING What will you do next? Pragmatist 4/10/2013
  49. 49. EXPERIENCING Immersing yourself in the task Activist REFLECTION What did you notice? Reflector CONCEPTUAL- ISATION What does it mean? Theorist PLANNING What will you do next? Pragmatist Dave Watts 2003 4/10/2013
  50. 50. Concrete Experience Reflective Observation Abstract Conceptualization Active Experimentation 4/10/2013
  51. 51. Concrete Experience • Laboratories • Observations • Text Readings • Simulations/Games • Field Work • Films/Videos • Readings • Problem Sets • Examples 4/10/2013
  52. 52. Reflective Observation • Logs • Journals • Discussion • Brainstorming • Thought Questions • Rhetorical Questions • E-Mail List Serves • On Line Discussion Forums 4/10/2013
  53. 53. Divergers Ask: “What is it?” 4/10/2013
  54. 54. Abstract Conceptualization • Lecture • Papers • Model Building • Projects • Analogies 4/10/2013
  55. 55. Assimilators ask: “What does it mean?” 4/10/2013
  56. 56. Active Experimentation • Simulations • Case Studies • Laboratories • Field work • Projects • Homework 4/10/2013
  57. 57. Convergers ask: “What can I do?” 4/10/2013
  58. 58. Accommodators ask: "How can I do it?” 4/10/2013
  59. 59. 4/10/2013