Andragogy & pedagogy ppt @ bec doms bagalkot


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Andragogy & pedagogy ppt @ bec doms bagalkot

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  • thnak s friend....................... i had no u mind friend ..... for me u lernt something thats enough ....................
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  • Dear Babasab, I find your ppt on andragogy very informative and I have learnt alot. Could I just adapt the slides to give to my teachers as I am training them to train teachers
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  • Campaigns – we stick to people like us, and avoid people with another opinion.Republicans listen to republicans, democrats to democratsHow to overcome?
  • Andragogy & pedagogy ppt @ bec doms bagalkot

    1. 1. ANDRAGOGY & PEDAGOGY Presented By Babasab patil 2-1
    2. 2. Learning as a ProcessLearning is defined as the process ofacquiring , assimilating, and internalizingcognitive, motor or behavioral inputs fortheir effective and varied use when |required, leading to an enhanced capabilityfor further self monitored learning. 2-2
    3. 3. Learning process• Acquiring of new input terms of knowledge• Assimilation• Internalization• Available for effective use• Development of creativity• Increase person’s capability 2-3
    4. 4. Stimulus Response Theories• Classical Conditioning• Instrumental conditioning• Operant Conditioning 2-4
    5. 5. Behaviorism Classical Conditioning - Pavlov A stimulus is presented in order to get a response: S R 2-5
    6. 6. Behaviorism Classical Conditioning - Pavlov S US UR CS US CR 2-6
    7. 7. Behaviorism Operant Conditioning - Skinner The response is made first, then reinforcement follows. 2-7
    8. 8. Pedagogy 2-8
    9. 9. Meaning• Pedagogue is defined as “a schoolteacher. One who instructs in a pedantic or dogmatic manner”. In the pedagogic model, teachers assume responsibility for making decisions about what is learned, and how and when something will be learned. 2-9
    10. 10. Constructivist Theory• Formalization of the theory of constructivism is generally attributed to Jean Piaget, who articulated mechanisms by which knowledge is internalized by learners.• He suggested that through processes of accommodation and assimilation, individuals construct new knowledge from their experiences.• Constructivism is often associated with pedagogic approaches that promote active learning, or learning by doing. 2-10
    11. 11. Pedagogies based on constructivism• Learners learn by experimentation, and not by being told what will happen.• They are left to make their own inferences, discoveries and conclusions.• It also emphasizes that learning is not an "all or nothing" process but that students learn the new information that is presented to them by building upon knowledge that they already possess.• It is therefore important that teachers constantly assess the knowledge their students have gained to make sure that the students perceptions of the new knowledge are what the teacher had intended. 2-11
    12. 12. Pedagogies based on constructivism• The teachers role is not only to observe and assess but to also engage with the students while they are completing activities, wondering aloud and posing questions to the students for promotion of reasoning.• The teacher, after reading a story, encourages the students to write or draw stories of their own, or by having the students reenact a story that they may know well, both activities encourage the students to conceive themselves as reader and writers. 2-12
    13. 13. Cognitive Theory• Grew in response to Behaviorism• Knowledge is stored cognitively as symbols• Learning is the process of connecting symbols in a meaningful & memorable way• Studies focused on the mental processes that facilitate symbol connection 2-13
    14. 14. Cognitive Learning Theory  Discovery Learning – Jerome Bruner  Meaningful Verbal Learning - David Ausubel 2-14
    15. 15. Cognitive Learning Theory Discovery Learning 1. Bruner said anybody can learn anything at any age, provided it is stated in terms they can understand. 2-15
    16. 16. Cognitive Learning Theory Discovery Learning 2. Powerful Concepts (not isolated facts) a. Transfer to many different situations b. Only possible through Discovery Learning c. Confront the learner with problems and help them find solutions. Do not present sequenced materials. 2-16
    17. 17. Cognitive Learning Theory Meaningful Verbal Learning Advance Organizers:New material is presentedin a systematic way, and isconnected to existingcognitive structures in ameaningful way. 2-17
    18. 18. Cognitivism in the Classroom• Inquiry-oriented projects• Opportunities for the testing of hypotheses• Curiosity encouraged 2-18
    19. 19. Cognitive Dissonance Theory• Comes from social psychology• One of the most famous and influential theories• Proposes that people have a motivational drive to reduce dissonance• By changing their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors, or• By justifying or rationalizing their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors 2-19
    20. 20. Cognitive Dissonance• Cognitive Dissonance: The distressing mental state caused by inconsistency between a two beliefs or a belief and an action.• Assumption: Humans are consistent. Must find a resolution when beliefs conflict, or actions don’t match beliefs.• Example: Slavery and Democracy 2-20
    21. 21. Reducing Dissonance• Whenever there is dissonance, we seek to reduce it.1. Selective Exposure: The tendency to avoid information that creates cognitive dissonance and seek out information, people who support our beliefs.• How to overcome persuasively? – Avoid the hard sell – Warm personal relationships – Example: racial discrimination and my brother 2-21
    22. 22. Postdecision DissonanceStrong doubts experienced after making an important, close-call decision that is difficult to reverse. – “buyers remorse”• Motivates us to seek reassurance, support for our decision.• Afterwards, tend to rate our choice higher – Example: Sour Grapes 2-22
    23. 23. 3. Minimal Justification for Action Induces Shift in Attitude• The best way to change attitudes is to get someone to behave in a way dissonant with their beliefs with the least amount of incentive. – If there isn’t significant external incentive, people tend to change attitudes to justify their behavior – If external incentive too high, merely achieve compliance (behavioral conformity without attitude change)• Example: Would I lie for a dollar? 2-23
    24. 24. Adult Learning Theories 2-24
    25. 25. Andragogy Rewriting and experience repeating Reflection &Applying sharing Generalizing Interpretin Exp g 2-25
    26. 26. 2-26
    27. 27. Androgogy By definition of an adult is someone who has achievedthe self concept of being responsible for their own life. Adult Learning: Theories, Assumptions, and Perspectives “The art and science of helping adults learn” 2-27
    28. 28. Cont….,• ANDRAGOGY• Adults are Autonomous and Self -Directed.• Adults Have Accumulated a Foundation of Life Experiences and Knowledge.• Adults are Relevancy-oriented• Adults are Goal-oriented• Adults are practical Implication for Training 2-28
    29. 29. Cont….,• Adults are likely to resist learning conditions that conflict with their self concept.• Adults need to be free to direct themselves.• Trainer must actively involve adult participants in the learning process and serve as facilitators for them. 2-29
    30. 30. History of Adult Learning Theory: From “Whatagogy?” to Andragogy• The Meaning of Adult Education by Eduard Lindeman in 1926 marked the beginning of adult education as a field• Adult educators began to look for a unique adult education knowledge base• European adult educators began to use the term andragogy in the 1950s• Andragogy finally surfaced and became part of the educational language in 1967 with Malcolm Knowles, a prominent scholar in the field of adult education. 2-30
    31. 31. Andragogy Defined• The term andragogy is based on the Greek work aner (with the stem andr-) meaning „man not boy‟ (Plato‟s idea that adults continue to learn• The Modern Practice of Adult Education: Andragogy versus Pedagogy (1970) Malcolm Knowles• Knowles defines andragogy as the art and science of helping adults learn in contrast with pedagogy, which concerns helping children learn• Is Andragogy a learning theory or a set of assumptions? 2-31
    32. 32. Assumptions of Andragogy• Adults need to know why they need to learn something• Adults need to learn experientially• Adults approach learning as a problem solving• Adults learn best when the topic is immediate value 2-32
    33. 33. The principles of andragogy• Adults need to be involved in the planning & evaluation of their instructions• Experience provides the basis for learning activities• Adults are most interested in learning subjects that have immediate relevance to their job or personal life• Adult learning is a problem centered rather than content oriented 2-33
    34. 34. Malcolm Knowles• In the minds of many around the adult education field, andragogy and the name of Malcolm Knowles have become inextricably linked. For Knowles, andragogy is premised on at least four crucial assumptions about the characteristics of adult learners that are different from the assumptions about child learners on which traditional pedagogy is premised. A fifth was added later. 2-34
    35. 35. Cont……• Self-concept: As a person matures his self concept moves from one of being a dependent personality toward one of being a self-directed human being• Experience: As a person matures he accumulates a growing reservoir of experience that becomes an increasing resource for learning.• Readiness to learn. As a person matures his readiness to learn becomes oriented increasingly to the developmental tasks of his social roles. 2-35
    36. 36. Cont……• Orientation to learning. As a person matures his time perspective changes from one of postponed application of knowledge to immediacy of application, and accordingly his orientation toward learning shifts from one of subject- centeredness to one of problem centeredness.• Motivation to learn: As a person matures the motivation to learn is internal 2-36
    37. 37. Four Supporting Assumptions according to Dirkx, Lavin, and Pelavin (1995)• Diverse, active learners: wealth of experiences• Problem-oriented: pragmatic learners, seeking to improve their performance• Control of their own learning: voluntary learners who take seriously their decision to return to school.• Strong sense of self: varying degrees of self-efficacy, but sense of self plays a major role in their learning 2-37
    38. 38. A comparison of the assumptions of Pedagogy and Andragogy ANDRAGOGY PEDAGOGY• A comparison of the • A comparison of the assumptions of pedagogy assumptions of pedagogy and andragogy and andragogy• Of little worth. Hence • A rich resource for learning. Hence teaching teaching methods are methods include didactic discussion, problem-solving etc. 2-38
    39. 39. Cont.,… ANDRAGOGY PEDAGOGY• People learn what society • People learn what they need to expects them to. So that the know, so that learning curriculum is standardized. programmes organized around• Acquisition of subject matter. life application. Curriculum organized by • Learning experiences should subjects. be based around experiences, since people are performance centered in their learning 2-39
    40. 40. Kolb’s Learning Cycle– David Kolb, Professor of Organizational Behaviour, Weathered School of Management, Cleveland 2-40
    41. 41. EXPERIENCINGImmersing yourself in the task 2-41
    42. 42. REFLECTION What did you notice? EXPERIENCINGImmersing yourself in the task 2-42
    43. 43. CONCEPTUAL- ISATION What does it mean? REFLECTION What did you notice? EXPERIENCINGImmersing yourself in the task 2-43
    44. 44. CONCEPTUAL- ISATION What does it mean? REFLECTION PLANNING What did you What will notice?you do next? EXPERIENCING Immersing yourself in the task 2-44
    45. 45. CONCEPTUAL- ISATION What does it mean? REFLECTION PLANNING What did you What will notice?you do next? EXPERIENCING Immersing yourself in the task Activist 2-45
    46. 46. CONCEPTUAL- ISATION What does it mean? REFLECTION PLANNING What did you What will notice?you do next? Reflector EXPERIENCING Immersing yourself in the task Activist 2-46
    47. 47. CONCEPTUAL- ISATION What does it mean? Theorist REFLECTION PLANNING What did you What will notice?you do next? Reflector EXPERIENCING Immersing yourself in the task Activist 2-47
    48. 48. CONCEPTUAL- ISATION What does it mean? Theorist REFLECTION PLANNING What did you What will notice?you do next? Reflector Pragmatist EXPERIENCING Immersing yourself in the task Activist 2-48
    49. 49. CONCEPTUAL- ISATION What does it mean? Theorist REFLECTION PLANNING What did you What will notice? you do next? Reflector Pragmatist EXPERIENCING Immersing yourself in the task ActivistDave Watts 2003 2-49
    50. 50. Concrete Experience Active ReflectiveExperimentation Observation Abstract Conceptualization 2-50
    51. 51. Concrete Experience• Laboratories • Films/Videos• Observations • Readings• Text Readings • Problem Sets• Simulations/Games • Examples• Field Work 2-51
    52. 52. Reflective Observation• Logs • Thought Questions• Journals • Rhetorical Questions• Discussion • E-Mail List Serves• Brainstorming • On Line Discussion Forums 2-52
    53. 53. Divergers Ask: “What is it?” 2-53
    54. 54. Abstract Conceptualization• Lecture • Projects• Papers • Analogies• Model Building 2-54
    55. 55. Assimilators ask: “What does it mean?” 2-55
    56. 56. Active Experimentation• Simulations • Field work• Case Studies • Projects• Laboratories • Homework 2-56
    57. 57. Convergers ask: “What can I do?” 2-57
    58. 58. Accommodators ask: "How can I do it?” 2-58
    59. 59. 2-59