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statements , functions & joins


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statements , functions & joins

statements , functions & joins

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  • 1. ManeeshaK K 7559813984 SQL STATEMENTS , FUNCTIONS & JOINS
  • 2. Disclaimer: This presentation is prepared by trainees of baabtra as a part of mentoring program. This is not official document of baabtra –Mentoring Partner Baabtra-Mentoring Partner is the mentoring division of baabte System Technologies Pvt . Ltd
  • 3. SQL STATEMENTS A query/command to perform a task in a database.
  • 4. CREATE ALTER Data Definition Language(DDL) DROP INSERT UPDATE Data Manipulation Language (DML) DELETE GRANT REVOKE Data Control Language(DCL)
  • 5. DDL - Data Definition Language 1. Create To Create a Database. Syntax : create database databasename; Eg : create database student; 2. Use Syntax : use databasename; Eg : use student;
  • 6. To Create Table Syntax : create table <TableName> ( ColumnName1 Datatype(Size) Constraint , ColumnName2 Datatype(Size) Constraint , ------------------------------------------------------- ); Eg : create table tbl_student ( pk_int_roll_no int(4) not null primary key, vchr_name varchar(20), char_gender char(2) );
  • 7. 3. Alter Table To change the structure of the table. alter table tbl_student add (int_marks int(2)); alter table tbl_student drop column char_gender; alter table tbl_student change vchr_name vchr_name varchar(30); 4. Drop Table To remove the tables. Syntax : drop table tablename; Eg : drop table tbl_student;
  • 8. DML - Data Manipulation Language 1. Insert To insert rows into a table. Syntax : insert into tablename(columnname1,columnname2,…)values(value1,value2,…); Eg : insert into tbl_student(pk_int_roll_no,vchr_name,int_marks)values(1,’Anu’,96);
  • 9. 2. Select To extract data from the database. (SELECT identifies what columns FROM identifies which table) Syntax : select * / [distinct]column_name from table_name where [condition]; Eg : •select * from tbl_student; •select pk_int_roll_no,vchr_name from tbl_student; •select vchr_name from tbl_student where int_marks>80;
  • 10. 3. Update To change the contents(rows /columns) of the table. Syntax : update tablename set columnname=values where condition; Eg : update tbl_student set int_marks=89 where pk_int_roll_no=2;
  • 11. 4. Delete To delete rows from the table. Syntax : delete from tablename where [condition]; Eg : delete from tbl_student where int_marks<40;
  • 12. DCL - Data Controll Language 1. Grant Syntax : grant privilage_type on tablename to ‘user_name'@'localhost'; Eg : grant all on tbl_student to ‘manu’@’localhost’;
  • 13. 2 . Revoke Syntax : revoke privilege_type on table_name from ‘user_name'@'localhost'; Eg : revoke select on tbl_student from ‘manu'@'localhost';
  • 15. SQL - Functions SQL functions are used for performing calculations on data. Types of Functions Aggregate Functions Scalar Functions
  • 16. Aggregate Functions •The functions that can be applied to all rows in table or to a subset of the table specified by the where clause. •Functions return single value for a group of rows in the table. •Sum() •Avg() •Min() •Max() •Count()
  • 17. pk_int_roll_no vchr_name int_marks 1 Anu 96 2 Veena 89 3 Amal 79 4 Reema 92 •select max(int_marks),min(int_marks),avg(int_marks) from tbl_student; Max(int_marks) min(int_marks) avg(int_marks) 96 79 81.7
  • 18. •select count(pk_int_roll_no)as total_students from tbl_student; total_students 4
  • 19. Group By To group the result set by one or more column. Often used in conjunction with aggregate function. Syntax : Select column_name, aggregate_function(column_name) from table_name group by column_name; Eg : Select vchr_name,sum(int_marks) from tbl_student group by vchr_name;
  • 20. Scalar function These functions return a single value for each values of a particular column given as input. •Lcase() •Ucase() •Round() Eg : Select ucase(vchr_name) from tbl_student; Select lcase(vchr_name) from tbl_student; Select round(int_marks) from tbl_student where pk_int_roll_no=3;
  • 21. JOINS
  • 22. JOINS To combine rows from two or more tables. Types of Joins :: 1. Inner join 2. Outer join a) Left join b) Right join
  • 23. INNER JOIN Returns all rows when there is at least one match in BOTH tables. Syntax : select column_name(s) from table1 join table2 on table1.column_name=table2.column_name;
  • 24. select stud_name,dept_name from tbl_student join tbl_dept where dept_id=fk_int_dept_id; stud_id stud_name fk_int_dept_id 1 Anu 1 2 Veena 3 3 Abhi 2 4 John 1 dept_id dept_name 1 CS 2 EC 3 QS stud_name dept_name Anu CS Veena QS Abhi EC John CS I n n e r j o i n
  • 25. LEFT OUTER JOIN Returns all rows from the left table (table1), with the matching rows in the right table (table2). Syntax : select column_name(s) from table1 left join table2 on table1.column_name=table2.column_name;
  • 26. select stud_name,dept_name from tbl_student left join tbl_dept where dept_id=fk_int_dept_id; stud_id stud_name fk_int_dept_id 1 Anu 1 2 Veena 3 3 Abhi 4 4 John 1 dept_id dept_name 1 CS 2 EC 3 QS l e f t j o i n stud_name dept_name Anu CS Veena QS Abhi NULL John CS
  • 27. RIGHT OUTER JOIN Return all rows from the right table, and the matched rows from the left table. Syntax : select column_name(s) from table1 right join table2 on table1.column_name=table2.column_name;
  • 28. select stud_name,dept_name from tbl_student lright join tbl_dept where dept_id=fk_int_dept_id; stud_id stud_name fk_int_dept_id 1 Anu 1 2 Veena 3 3 Abhi 4 4 John 1 dept_id dept_name 1 CS 2 EC 3 QS R i g h t j o i n stud_name dept_name Anu CS Veena QS Abhi NULL John CS
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