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Abstraction• Abstraction is the process or result of generalization by reducing the information content of a concept or an observable phenomenon, typically in order to retain only information which is relevant for a particular purpose
Functional Abstraction vs. Data Abstraction• Functional abstraction means that a function can be used without taking into account how the function is implemented.• Example-• <iostream.h>: cin, cout, endl, setprecision( ), setw( )• <string.h>: strcat( ), strcmp( ), strcpy( ), strlen( )• <math.h>: ceil( ), sin( ), exp( ), log( ), pow( ), sqrt( )
• Data Abstraction means that data can be used without taking into account how the data are stored.• Example-when we make use of data types ,we don’t care how the data are stored, but only what operations are provided and what properties are supported.• int i, j, k;• Float y,l;
Encapsulation• it is a process of binding or wrapping the data and the codes that operates on the data into a single entity. This keeps the data safe from outside interface and misuse. One way to think about encapsulation is as a protective wrapper that prevents code and data from being arbitrarily accessed by other code defined outside the wrapper.
• Encapsulation defines the access levels for elements of that class. These access levels define the access rights to the data, allowing us to access the data by a method of that particular class itself, from an inheritance class, or even from any other class. There are three levels of access:• public: functions of all classes may access the data or methods of a class that is defined with the public access level. This is the lowest level of data protection• protected: data access is restricted to functions of inheritance classes, i.e. member functions of that class and all sub-classes• private: data access is restricted to methods of that particular class only. This is the highest level of data protection
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