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Climate smart agriculture
 

Climate smart agriculture

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    Climate smart agriculture Climate smart agriculture Presentation Transcript

    • Development of 'climate smart' cropping systems for southern Africa? Leonard Rusinamhodzi 26 March 2014 1400-1500 HRS (GMT + 1)
    • Presentation outline Context / issues in Southern Africa Highlights research experience New project
    • Maize based mixed crop-livestock systems are dominant • Crop residues are important for livestock feed • Manure is important for crop production Background - Farming systems of southern Africa
    • Conflicts of resource use………. Degraded pastures intensify the conflict for crop residue uses
    • Other systems/ conditions Extensification systems also exist…. Slash and burn Lack of inputs (manure, fertiliser, improved germplasm) Extension support is very weak charcoal
    • Soil fertility status…. Predominantly sandy soils (Arenosols) • Pockets of fertile red clays soils • Current crop production systems lead to accelerated loss of soil fertility Time of cultivation (years) 0 5 10 15 20 SOC(tha-1 ) 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Time of cultivation (years) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 0 20 40 60 80 Clay soil Sandy soil
    • Beyond farmers’ control - poor rainfall distribution Poor rainfal distribution Severe mid-season dry spells (b) Days after planting 0 50 100 150 200 Cumulativerainfall(mm) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 2007/08 season 2009/10 season 2010/11 Season (a) Cropping season 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 20010/11 Totalseasonalrainfall(mm) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Long-term average Average = 730 mm, CV = 9 %
    • Presence of different farm types • Differences in resource ownership, production orientation • Need specific targeting to specific constraints and opportunities
    • How do we intensify crop production? Basket of technologies exists but….. • mismatch between farmers’ objectives and technology outputs • Farmers are interested in technologies that ensure food security and cash income • Improving soil fertility is seldom mentioned
    • The approach -AfricaNUANCES Framework NUtrient Use in Animal and Cropping Systems - Efficiencies and Scales Used to analyse current livelihoods, explore options for their development and reveal trade-offs • Mainly relied on field based methods (interviews, transect walks, FGD) http://www.africanuances.nl/
    • Outputs and insights • Downloadable from Researchgate
    • Updated list Google scholar…………..
    • Literature review – what role for conservation agriculture? • Continuous maize • Early seasons lead to smaller yield • Overall, no yield advantage of CA • Maize-legume rotation • Yield advantage in the long-term NT, continuous maize Duration of study (years) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Weightedmeandiference(tha -1 ) -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 n = 364 NT with rotation Duration of study (years) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Weightedmeandifference(tha -1 ) -4 -2 0 2 4 6 n = 294
    • What is needed for CA………………. • Crop residues need to be retained in situ to reduce labour demands • need for fencing in combination with alternative feed • Integration of legume crops
    • Cotton-cowpea intercropping • Increases productivity, high LER, increased BNF • Increases productivity of rotational maize • Pesticide concerns on cowpea leaves • Cowpea in the middle of the rows hampers mechanical weeding
    • Maize pigeonpea intercropping……….. • Within row intercropping • Alternate hills in same row, 3 plants per hill • Distinct row intercropping • 2 rows of maize alternate with a row of legume
    • The beauty of maize-pigeonpea intercropping Early growth • Pigeonpea does not compete with maize Late growth • Maize does not compete with pigeonpea
    • Time (minutes) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Infiltrationrate(mmhr -1 ) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Continuous maize 1 year intercropping 3 year intercropping 5 year intercropping Duration of intercropping on rainfall infiltration • Long-term large biomass production in combination with reduced tillage
    • Pigeonpea vs. communal grazing • late maturity of pigeonpea delays free-grazing of cattle • allows farmers to retain crop residues as mulch if they choose to • use of ‘ratoon’ pigeonpea reduces costs of seed and the need for tillage
    • Relay intercrop vs. climatic risk Vunduzi (2009/10 season) Days after planting 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Cumulativerainfall(mm) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 54 Days • Relay intercropping reduces climatic risk of total crop failure
    • Pushing the envelope - where to apply cattle manure? Homefield Outfield Yield A B C Midfield D E • Should farmers maintain current status • Or they should rebuild fertility of the outfields at the expense of homefields • Manure quantities are often limiting at the farm level
    • Results – yield recovery potential • Application of 100 kg N ha-1 maintained yields below 1 t ha-1 in sandy homefields but approached zero in sandy outfields • Restoration of crop productivity in the degraded sandy soils was only relevant when a combination of mineral fertiliser and manure were used • Yields on outfields were significantly smaller than on homefields after nine seasons for both soil types.
    • Trade-off analysis on crop residue use suggested that… farmers who own cattle have limited scope to allocate crop residues for soil cover as it leads to significant loss in animal productivity and economic value e.g. retention of all crop residues in the field reduced farm income by US$937 and US$738 per year for RG1 and RG2 farmers respectively (a) crop versus animal productiviy Maize grain yield (t farm-1 ) 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 Cattlebodyweight(tfarm-1 ) 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.0 4.2 20% manure retention 40% manure retention 60% manure retention (b) crop yield versus milk produced Maize grain yield (t farm-1 ) 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 MIlkforhousehold(tfarm -1 ) 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6
    • Summary (a) Crop production intensification is needed but options need to be targeted for improved impact (a) There is limited scope for CA for most farmers in southern Africa - adoption currently does not exist (c) Maize–legume intercropping has potential to push the boundary of crop production and reduce the risk of total crop failure (d) Cattle manure need to be applied in combination with fertiliser and targeted to fields where crop responses are large (e) External ideas should be used to stimulate local innovations in search of locally adapted solutions for improved crop productivity
    • Climate smart cropping systems Climate Smart Cropping Systems (CSCS) must remain productive and profitable under variable weather circumstances, weather shock and projected climate conditions. High resource efficiency • Water • Nutrients CSCS should reduce GHG emissions (CO2).
    • Why Conservation agriculture?
    • Why intercropping? Vunduzi (2009/10 season) Days after planting 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Cumulativerainfall(mm) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 54 Days • Relay intercropping reduces climatic risk of total crop failure
    • Research objective To explore alternative cropping and farming systems for increased productivity, efficiency, resilience and adaptive capacity of smallholder farmers in SSA.
    • Framework to develop a climate smart cropping systems (CSCS).
    • Modelling approach…………. The seasonal analysis option of DSSAT model will be used to predict the response of maize and or legume under the three climate scenarios DSSAT - Simulates growth and development of a crop growing on a uniform area of land under prescribed management and soil conditions. Parameterization of the DSSAT crop growth model to explore scenarios of performance of maize-based cropping system under possible climate and weather pattern
    • Data sources – experimental data CIMMYT long-term on-farm and on-station trials under ‘CA’ in Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe Experiments been running since 2004/2005 season Tillage, mulching, fertility, rotation
    • Climate change scenarios - MarskSim • BCCR_BCM2.0, CNRM-CM3, CSIRO-Mk3.5, ECHam5, INMCM3.0, MIROC3.2 (medres) • AVERAGE (CNRM-CM3, CSIRO-Mk3.5, ECHam5, MIROC3.2 (medres))
    • Expected outputs Quantified impacts of climate change on the perfomance of current and novel farming systems Cropping systems and resource allocation domains for farming systems adapted to future climate conditions Several peer reviewed manuscripts Collaborations (SIMLESA, COMESA, ABACO, DREAM, CCAFS, UR SCA, UMR Innovation, GCAP-CIMMYT)
    • Who am I ? …………my family Dalitso Thabo 5 years Steve Melusi 8 weeks Grace