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Ruf - Strength Training for Sprinters


Strength training for track sprinters.

Strength training for track sprinters.

Published in Sports , Education
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  • Try to add Steve Nash video?
  • examples
  • What general qualities?
  • Put in pix of a couple diff sports


  • 1. In-Season Strength Training for Multi-Sport Sprinters
    Chris Ruf
    Baylor Athletic Performance
  • 2. Multi-Sport/Multi-Lateral Training
    Develop wide range of motor abilities
    Can still improve physically in multiple seasons
    When athlete specializes at an appropriate age, will have a larger “tool box” to succeed at chosen sport
  • 3. General vs. Specific
    Principle of Dynamic Correspondence
    Verkoshansky & Siff
    Sport Specificity
    Must meet following criteria
    Amplitude & direction of movement
    Accentuated region of force production
    Dynamics of the effort
    Rate and time of maximum force production
    Regime of muscular work
  • 4. General vs. Specific
    Nearly all training for HS athletes is general
    Sport practices
    HS athletes’ physical capabilities can be improved for a long period through general means
  • 5. General vs. Specific
    Sprint training can have a high transfer to the sprinting needs of other sports
    Majority of other sports require some elements of sprinting
    Because of this, some elements of sprint training can be considered a “sport-specific” training means for other sports
    Sprinting is also a powerful developer of general qualities
  • 6. Biomotor Abilities
    Questions to ask: “How much?” and “What types?”
  • 7. Biomotor Abilities
    These 5 abilities can be improved through sound sprint-based training
    Speed, Endurance, Flexibility (to some degree) and Coordination improved directly
    Flexibility required by some sports may not be trained to the necessary levels by sprint training alone
    Strength will be improved indirectly
    Chicken or the egg?
  • 8. Speed is Feared!
    Speed is most feared ability in most team sports
    How often is maximum speed reached in traditional team sport training and competition??
    Conditioning vs. Speed Training
  • 9. Speed is Feared!
    Sprinters train/compete at maximum speed on a frequent basis
    Can be the single greatest benefit for team sport athletes
    Any strength training performed must help support this ability
  • 10. Schedule
    Evaluate meet schedule
    Identify important meets
    Deload weeks
    Emphasis on explosive movements instead of strength
    Coordinate goals of your strength program with sprinting goals for each part of the season
  • 11. Schedule
    Weekly schedule
    Most meets run on Fri/Sat
    Many different combinations for lifting schedules
    Depends on many factors
    Time you have with athletes each day
    Sprint program
    Weight room set-up
    Number of athletes
  • 12. Schedule
    High/Low Sequencing
    Charlie Francis – Training For Speed
    Beneficial to lift on your “hardest” days on the track
    Keep 1 day in between lifts if possible
    More time to recover, better sprint session on the following “hard” day
    2 days of lifting/week can support needs
    3 days/week can be utilized depending on programming and schedule
  • 13. Schedule
    Preferable to lift following sprint training
    Recovery between sessions
    If not possible to lift following sprinting, 4+ hours prior to practice is the next best option
    May have to alter programming
    Do not want to compromise the quality of sprint training
  • 14. Needs Analysis
    Have to consider needs of different sports
    Keep in mind you are training to improve athleticism
    Priority goes to the sprint program
    After that, consider the next highest priority sport for the athlete
  • 15. Needs Analysis
    Sprinting needs
    Lower body strength & power
    Eccentric hamstring strength
    Ability to hold torso posture during all 3 phases
    Flexibility to achieve optimal stride length
    Upper body strength more important than most think, but don’t sacrifice other areas for it
  • 16. Needs Analysis
    Other sports’ needs largely depends on the sport
    Many team sports share the same following needs with sprinting
    Lower body strength & power production
    Eccentric hamstring strength
  • 17. Needs Analysis
    Some needs may not be met by sprint training alone
    Many due to change of direction needs of team sports
    Increased flexibility of lower body
    Eccentric strength of lower body extensors
    Ability to hold posture
    Upper body strength and power
    Shoulder stability
  • 18. Program Design
    Technique first
    Get the most out of the movements you are using
    Basic movements with great technique will fix a lot of physical deficiencies
    Don’t try to fit a round peg into a square hole
  • 19. Program Design
    Slow Cook ‘Em
    Plan and train with the end goals in mind
    For a HS multi-sport sprinter, what is more important?
    Setting an ugly 40# PR in the squat tomorrow?
    Setting a PR in the 100M at the end of track season?
    Developing someone into the best athlete they can be when they reach their senior year?
  • 20. Program Design
    Great athletic benefit from sprint work
    Want to accentuate this
    Majority of lifting will be at submaximal intensities
    Too many stressors will stagnate development and performance
    Helps the lifting to support the sprint work rather than compete with it
    Can still make great strength gains
    Higher intensity work can be utilizedif organized wisely
  • 21. Program Design
    Need for explosive work will depend on sprint program
    If a high volume of accel. and max vel. is done, less explosive work may be needed
    Plyometrics, various jumps & bounds, med-ball throws
    Oly lifts, DE BB lifts
  • 22. Program Design
    Lower Body Push
    We primarily use back and front squat
    3 keys – Hips Back, Chest Up, Knees Out
    Will occasionally vary foot width and depth
    With HS athletes, get them proficient at basic parallel FS & BS
    If technique is poor, find another way to develop lower body strength while improving squat technique
  • 23. Program Design
    Hamstring Development
    Repeatedly sprinting in a dehydrated, malnourished, or fatigued state will result in hamstring strains
  • 24. Program Design
    Hamstring Development
    Proper firing patterns during squats & explosive movements
    Sit back when squatting & to good depth
    Athletes should finish with their hips through when squatting
    Get full hip extension in explosive movements
  • 25. Program Design
    Hamstring Development
    Glute-Ham Raise
    Glutes contracted, no hyperextension
    Slow eccentric
    Reverse Hypers
    Single Leg Curls (physioball or machine)
    Higher rep
    Prefer physioball version due to glute involvement
  • 26. Program Design
    Upper Body Push/Pull
    One area to place more emphasis depending on the athlete’s other sport(s)
    Also want to keep shoulder health in mind
    Good posture
    Has implications for the sprinter as well
    Good balance of pressing to pulling
    Good technique and full ROM in presses & pulls
    Get good at push-ups and chin-ups
    Shoulder stability exercises
  • 27. Program Design
    Torso Training
    Plank progression
    Front plank (or push-up hold)
    Front plank w/one limb in the air
    Front plank w/opposite arm/leg in the air
    Reverse Crunch
    Strengthen external obliques, helps prevent excessive anterior pelvic tilt
    General sit-up and crunch variations
  • 28. Program Design
    Exercise Rotation
    We will try to limit switching exercises during the season
    Leads to soreness/stiffness
    Changes in lower body exercises will be gradual and progressive in nature
    Be aware of the effects
  • 29. Program Design
    Weekly Schedule
    LB Speed-Strength movement superset w/LB Mobility
    Squat Variation superset w/LB Mobility
    Hip dominant hamstring superset w/UB Pull
    Low intensity single leg knee dominant hamstring superset w/UB Press
  • 30. Program Design
    Weekly Schedule
    LB Strength-Speed movement superset w/LB Mobility
    Squat Variation or Single Leg superset w/Shoulder Stability
    UB Press superset w/Hypers or Reverse Hypers and UB Pull
  • 31. Program Design
    Weekly Schedule
    Friday of Non-Meet Weeks
    Explosive MB Throw superset w/LB Mobility
    Squat Variation or Single Leg superset w/Shoulder Stability
    UB Press superset w/UB Pull
  • 32. Program Design
    Training Blocks
    We will construct our training into blocks
    Each block characterized by it’s central training focus
    Will still train other qualities
    Each block should build on the qualities developed in the previous training block
  • 33. Program Design
    In-Season Training Blocks
    Work Capacity (Accumulation)
    Focus is on use of volume to prep for future training
    Low volume of strength and power development work
    Work at 55-70% on core strength movements for 4-6 sets of 3-6 reps
    Work at 65-75% on Olympic movements for 3-4 sets of 2-3 reps
    Some work done on landing skills to prep for jump/plyo exercises
    This block should only need to be performed once
  • 34. Program Design
    In-Season Training Blocks
    Focus is on developing maximal strength
    Frequency of strength work can aid in this
    Low volume of power development work
    Work at 70-85% on core strength movements for 2-4 sets of 1-3 reps
    Work at 70-80% on Olympic movements for 4-5 sets of 2-3 reps
    Begin introducing some jump training
  • 35. Program Design
    In-Season Training Blocks
    Focus is on power development
    Low volume of strength development work
    Work at 70-85% on core strength movements for 1-3 sets of 1-2 reps
    Work at 75-90% on Olympic movements for 4-8 sets of 1-2 reps
    Continue with jump training and can begin introducing some plyometric exercises (provided athletes are prepared for it)
  • 36. Program Design
    Prilepin’s Chart
  • 37. Program Design
    Prilepin’s Chart
    In-Season we will rarely go above 80%
    Olympic Lifts
    Stay in the lower half of the ranges
    Strength Lifts
    55-75% - Stay in the very lowest end of the recommendations
    75+% - Cut recommendations in half
    Auxiliary lifts will generally be in the 6 to 15 rep range for multiple sets depending on needs
  • 38. Program Design
    Will typically load for 2 or 3 weeks followed by a 1 week deload
    Deload for important meets
    10-20% deload of intensity and volume from peak week
  • 39. References/Recommended Readings
    Francis, C. (1997) The Charlie Francis Training System. Faccioni Speed and Conditioning Consultant
    Issurin, V. (2008) Block Periodization. Grand Rapids, MI: Ultimate Athlete Concepts.
    Rippetoe, Mark & Kilgore, Lon. (2005) Starting Strength: A Simple and Practical Guide for Coaching Beginners. Wichita Falls, TX: The Aasgaard Company.
    Siff, M. (2003) Supertraining (6th ed.). Denver: Mel C. Siff.
    Smith, J. (2008) Accumulating, Concentrating, and Intensifying the Training Load Lecture DVD. Grand Rapids, MI: Ultimate Athlete Concepts
  • 40. Thank You!
    Coaches in attendance - Continue to be great leaders
    Baylor Athletic Performance Staff
    Andrew Althoff & Tyson Brown – Assist w/T&F
    Baylor Track & Field Program
    Baylor Athletic Performance Clinic – Sat., June 5th
    Chris Ruf