Baylor Athletic Performance - Stress the Missing Link


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The effects of stress on performance for both athletes and coaches.

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Baylor Athletic Performance - Stress the Missing Link

  1. 1. The Missing Link Stress and Its Effects on Performance<br />Presented to you by:<br />Baylor Athletic Performance<br />
  2. 2. Stress<br />“What’s the big deal?”<br />
  3. 3. Why Stress Matters<br />Impacts Everything!<br />Short Term Performance<br />Long Term Health<br />
  4. 4. Why Stress Matters<br />It is our job to systematically apply stress to our athletes.<br />
  5. 5. Why Stress Matters<br />“No one can live without experiencing some degree of stress all the time. You may think that only serious disease or intensive physical or mental injury can cause stress. This is false. Crossing a busy intersection, exposure to a draft, or even sheer joy are enough to activate the body’s stress mechanism to some extent. Stress is not even necessarily bad for you; it is also the spice of life, for any emotion, any activity causes stress. But, of course, your system must be prepared to take it. The same stress that makes one person sick can be an invigorating experience for another.”<br />–Hans Selye<br />
  6. 6. The physical, mental, or emotional strain or tension which leads to a specific response by the body, that disturbs or interferes with the normal physiological balance of an organism.<br />This is more than simply being “stressed out” – The stress response is being carried out in some way, shape or form almost all the time.<br />Key Point:We identify stress not by the event, but by the body’s response<br />A Definition of Stress<br />
  7. 7. Stressful Events<br />
  8. 8. Stressful Events<br />
  9. 9. Stressful Events<br />
  10. 10. What Makes Us Define An Event As Stressful<br />
  11. 11. Stressful Events?<br />
  12. 12. Stress Response<br /><ul><li>General Adaptation Syndrome (Selye)</li></ul> 3 Stages:<br /> Alarm<br /> Resistance<br /> Exhaustion<br />
  13. 13. General Adaptation Syndrome<br /> Alarm<br />What is the alarm?<br />Stress Response<br />
  14. 14. Stress Response<br />
  15. 15. Stress Response<br /><ul><li>General Adaptation Syndrome</li></ul> Alarm<br /><ul><li>What is the alarm?
  16. 16. What happens when it goes off?
  17. 17. Fight or Flight</li></li></ul><li>Stress Response<br />
  18. 18. Stress Response<br /><ul><li>General Adaptation Syndrome</li></ul> Alarm<br /><ul><li>Pain is a specific response to a specific stressor
  19. 19. The associated release of adrenaline is part of the general response to all alarms</li></li></ul><li>Stress Response<br /><ul><li>General Adaptation Syndrome</li></ul> Alarm<br /><ul><li>The strength of the response will correlate to the perceived strength of the alarm</li></ul> Example:<br /><ul><li>House on Fire
  20. 20. Forest Fire
  21. 21. Catastrophic Event</li></li></ul><li>Stress Response<br /><ul><li>General Adaptation Syndrome</li></ul> Alarm<br /> Resistance<br /><ul><li>The body has the ability to build resistance to stress (same stressor creates a smaller response) </li></li></ul><li>Stress Response<br /><ul><li>General Adaptation Syndrome</li></ul> Alarm<br /> Resistance<br /> Exhaustion<br /><ul><li>Overtraining & Injury</li></li></ul><li>Great in theory, but what can I do with this on a daily basis?<br />Look at the Autonomic Nervous System balance<br />We use the OmegaWave<br />Many other methods/tests can do the same thing<br />Even if you do not dictate daily training on these findings, the trends in the information can be incredibly valuable<br />Stress Response<br />
  22. 22. Sympathetic = Fight or Flight (Gas Pedal)<br />Parasympathetic = Accumulation & Preservation (Brake)<br />Stress response is a sympathetic response that is classically characterized by hypothalamic/pituitary/adrenal activation and hormone release<br />Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic<br />
  23. 23. Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic<br /><ul><li>Sympathetic Response </li></ul> (What the body does when the alarm goes off):<br /><ul><li>Increase release of epinephrine / nor-epinephrine from adrenals
  24. 24. Divert blood flow away from internal organs to muscles
  25. 25. Mobilize energy stores for use at the muscle
  26. 26. Inhibit digestive and waste formation processes
  27. 27. Energy diverted from immune functions
  28. 28. All long term functioning and preservation is put on hold to overcome the immediate threat
  29. 29. When this is activated the body is breaking down in order to provide resources for overcoming the challenge</li></li></ul><li>Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic<br /> Most animals only turn it on when they physically need it – Humans consistently turn it on over minor situations, and it can have an enormous effect.<br />
  30. 30. Parasympathetic Response<br />Basically the opposite of previously listed. This is where the body repairs<br />Greater blood flow to the digestive system & surrounding organs<br />Replenish and build energy stores<br />Restore immune function<br />This branch needs to take over as soon as the obstacle is overcome <br />Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic<br />
  31. 31. Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic<br /><ul><li>Parasympathetic Response
  32. 32. When this system does not come back on in a timely manner the athlete:
  33. 33. Becomes more susceptible to injury
  34. 34. Breaks down muscle and stores more fat
  35. 35. Loses lean muscle mass (bad if you want to gain weight!)
  36. 36. Etc.</li></li></ul><li>Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic<br />The Autonomic Nervous System Balancing Act<br /><ul><li>Need to be able to activate and deactivate when </li></ul> necessary<br /><ul><li>Going too far in either direction can be detrimental </li></ul> for health and performance<br />
  37. 37. Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic<br />*Remember: When we talk stress – we are talking about the generic sympathetic response.<br />We are interested in the cumulative affect that these “stressors” have on Autonomic Balance.<br />
  38. 38. What Pushes You to Sympathetic or Parasympathetic Imbalance?<br />Sympathetic Imbalance<br /><ul><li>Heavy loads, high speeds (too much anaerobic work)
  39. 39. Emotional stressors
  40. 40. Lack of sleep
  41. 41. Poor diet
  42. 42. Unfamiliar stimuli</li></ul>Parasympathetic Imbalance<br /><ul><li>Endurance events (too much aerobic work)
  43. 43. Monotonous actions</li></li></ul><li>Effects of Stress on the Body-<br />Long Term Health<br />Parasympathetic Imbalance<br /><ul><li>Depression
  44. 44. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
  45. 45. Environmental and Food Sensitivities and Allergies
  46. 46. Increased Storage of Fat and Nutrients</li></ul>Sympathetic Imbalance<br /><ul><li>Heart Disease
  47. 47. Weakened Immune System
  48. 48. Infertility
  49. 49. Increased Inflammation: Arthritis, etc.</li></li></ul><li>Effects of Stress on the Body-Performance Implications<br />Sympathetic Imbalance<br />Quick to fatigue<br />Greater irritability<br />Slowed recovery between reps<br />Decreased coordination & fine motor control<br />Parasympathetic Imbalance<br />Decreased gross motor control (big movements)<br />Appearance of being apathetic<br />Maximal intensities are inhibited<br />
  50. 50. Stress & Performance<br />Arousal/Performance Curve<br />
  51. 51. Stress & Performance<br />A Different View…<br />
  52. 52. What We Do At Baylor<br />Attempt to recognize patterns that lead to over activity in either direction<br />Use specific measurements to prove or disprove our generalizations<br />Use specific measurements to identify autonomic imbalance in individuals as needed<br />Make adjustments as necessary <br />
  53. 53. When are we sympathetically overreached?<br />Incoming athletes<br />During Mid-terms in Winter program<br />During Finals<br />Patterns We See<br />
  54. 54. Where are we parasympathetically overreached?<br />Camp<br />Patterns We See<br />
  55. 55. OmegaWave<br />Other Testing Methods<br />Autonomic Nervous System<br />Heart Rate<br />Blood Pressure<br />Central Nervous System<br />Vertical Jump Test<br />Reaction Time Test (Ruler Drop)<br />Finger Tap Test<br />Measurements We Use to Examine Trends<br />
  56. 56.
  57. 57. Adjustments From OMW Results – Sympathetically Imbalanced<br />When: Start of Year, Mid-Terms during Winter training, Final Exams<br /><ul><li>Training Adjustments</li></ul>Reduce sport specific training loads<br />Increase low intensity components (cardio, calisthenics, rhythmic activities)<br />Add lowintensity recreational activities<br />Decrease high intensity and speed components<br /><ul><li>Nutritional Adjustments</li></ul>Consume foods rich in alkali (Fruits, Vegetables, Dairy Products, Mineral Water)<br />Increase consumption of Vitamins A, B and C<br />Eliminate stimulants (coffee, tea, caffeine)<br /><ul><li>Recovery Modalities</li></ul>Warm bath at night with Epsom salt<br />Swedish massage<br />Possible low temperature sauna<br />Sleep<br />
  58. 58. Non-Training Adjustments When Sympathetically Imbalanced<br />When: Start of Year, Mid-Terms during Winter training, Final Exams<br />Coaching strategies<br />Speak calmly<br />Give athlete the information they need and move on<br />Environmental strategies<br />Turn down music<br />Turn off lights<br />Scheduling strategies<br />Smaller/more training groups<br />Choice lifting times<br />Rotate coaches<br />
  59. 59. Adjustments From OMW Results – Parasympathetically Imbalanced<br />When: Pre-Season Camp<br />Parasympathetically overreached/over trained<br />Training Adjustments<br />Reduce training volume<br />Increase intensive elements (heavy loads, high speeds)<br />Avoid monotony and introduce variety<br />Be slow to return to highest training loads and activity levels<br />Nutritional Adjustments<br />Consume acidic foods (Cheese, Meat, Eggs, Carbs)<br />Increase consumption of Vitamins B and C<br />Permit stimulant usage (coffee, tea, caffeine)<br />Recovery Modalities<br />Contrast hot/cold showers<br />Vigorous Deep-Tissue massage<br />Contrast sauna/cold shower<br />
  60. 60. Non-Training Adjustments When Parasympathetically Imbalanced<br />When: Pre-Season Camp<br /><ul><li>Coaching strategies
  61. 61. Excited, high-energy coaching
  62. 62. Environmental strategies
  63. 63. Preferred music choice
  64. 64. New/modified exercises
  65. 65. Scheduling strategies
  66. 66. Team lifts or big groups
  67. 67. “Get in, Get out” type of lift</li></li></ul><li>Arousal Curve<br />Arousal/Performance Curve<br />
  68. 68. Stress & the Coach<br />
  69. 69. Ways to eliminate things that cause emotional stressors<br />Ways to counteract the physiological response<br />Stress & the Coach<br />
  70. 70. Possible Coach Stressors:<br />-lack of available funding to provide best possible service to athletes<br />-inadequate space/equipment for roster size<br />-size of staff<br />-pleasing sport coach<br />-constant need to provide protection and safety<br />-external factors that affect the athlete<br />Eliminating Emotional Stress for the Coach<br />
  71. 71. Plan, manage and remedy the situation<br />Emphasize fun, utilize assistants, Plan B<br />Focus on problems you can control instead of ones you cannot<br />Educate your athletes<br />Schedule groups in a manner that allows you to be an effective coach<br />Eliminating Emotional Stressors for the Coach<br />
  72. 72. Alter structure of strength staff<br />Delegate “departments” to assistant coaches<br />Olympic Sports<br />Quality Control<br />Nutrition<br />Finance<br />IT/Technology<br />Education<br />Facility<br />Eliminating Emotional Stressors for the Coach<br />
  73. 73. Take care of spouse and family so they can take care of you<br />Encourage staff to get away and develop interests outside of coaching<br />Maintain your conditioning<br />Allow time for adequate nutrition<br />Counteracting the Physiological Response to Stressors<br />
  74. 74. Special Thanks<br />Baylor Athletic Performance Staff Members<br />-Kaz Kazadi -Caleb Berg<br />-Chris Ruf -Ryder Weischedel<br />-Andy Althoff -Keith Belton<br />-Jeremy Weeks<br />Science of Sports Training - Thomas Kurz<br />Landon Evans<br />Bryan Mann<br />