Althoff and Tamporello - Long Term Athlete Development

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Considerations for long term athletic development.

Considerations for long term athletic development.

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  • 1. Long Term Athlete Development Andrew Althoff Anne Tamporello
  • 2. Outline
    • Important Concepts
    • Myths
    • Phases of Development
      • Ages/Grades
      • Means of Training
  • 3. The Importance
    • School aged youth need 60 minutes of moderate-vigorous exercise each day
    • 5 components of fitness
      • Cardiorespiratory (CR) endurance
      • Muscular strength
      • Muscular endurance
      • Flexibility
      • Body composition
    • The type of activity appropriate for performance enhancement is based off of age
  • 4. The Importance
    • Learn about bodies
    • Feel good while doing it
    • Engaging
    • Fun
    • Improve self efficacy
    • Reduce feelings of anxiety and depression
    • Improvement in classroom
    • Influence aerobic fitness, body comp, blood lipids, bone mineral density, motor performance skills.
  • 5. The Importance
    • Sports related injuries in young athletes is on the rise
      • Unprepared for the demands of practice and competition
      • 15-50% of injuries in youth sports could have been prevented
      • If more emphasis was placed on fundamental fitness abilities risk of injury would decrease
  • 6. Myths
    • Myth
      • Strength training causes most overuse injuries
    • Myth Busted
      • Blame can be placed on the following
        • Growth
        • Improper footwear
        • Hard playing surfaces
        • Poor Coaching
          • Lack of emphasis on technique
          • Lack of supervision
            • Roll ball coaching
          • Improper application of science and theory
  • 7. Myths
    • Myth
      • Children should not train with resistance before puberty
    • Myth Busted
      • Resistance training is universally accepted by medical and fitness organizations
        • Muscular strength and endurance are two fitness components that should be addressed for physically well rounded kids
        • Different combinations of sets and reps have been proven to be safe and effective. 2-3 days a week, non consecutive days, major muscles.
  • 8. Myths
    • Myth
      • Children cannot achieve gains
    • Myth Busted
      • When gains are based of % they are similar to adults and adolescents
  • 9. Myths
    • Myth
      • Resistance training will stunt growth
    • Myth Busted
      • It will actually have a favorable influence on bone growth and density
      • No evidence of a decrease in stature because of resistance training.
  • 10. Myths
    • Myth
      • Resistance Training is Unsafe
    • Myth Busted
      • It is effective and safe means of exercises when adhering to guidelines
      • Weight training in pre-pubescent children found that weight training is, in fact, safer than many other sports and activities
  • 11. Take home message #1
    • Resistance training can be used to improve overall physical fitness in children before puberty
      • This does not mean it should
      • Must have appropriate supervision to develop proper motor patterns in young children
  • 12. Take home message #2
    • The intensity (% of weight on the bar) is typically what increases the injury potential
    • Different combinations of sets and reps have been proven to be safe and effective
  • 13. Take home message #3
    • Resistance training is essential for growth and development of bones and muscles
    • Resistance training can be found in everyday activities
      • Walking up steps, push ups and carrying a sport bag are all `resistance` that you wouldn`t stop children from doing.
  • 14. Phases of Development
    • 6 Stages
      • Istvan Balyi / Ann Hamilton
        • 8-12 years of training for a talented player/athlete to reach elite levels
          • Ten-year or 10,000 hour rule
          • Three hours of practice daily for ten years
        • Most parents and coaches approach training with an attitude best characterized as "peaking by Friday”
          • Short-term approach is taken to training and performance with an over-emphasis on immediate results
        • Be patient!
  • 15. Phase 1
    • AGE:
      • Males = 6–9 years, Grades 1-4
      • Females = 6-8 years, Grades 1-3
    • GOAL:
      • Learn fundamental motor patterns
        • Skip, jump, run, kick, throw
  • 16. Phase 1
    • AGE:
      • Males = 6–9 years, Grades 1-4
      • Females = 6-8 years, Grades 1-3
    • MEANS:
      • Warm up for reps
      • Games / Recess
        • Tag – COD, acceleration/deceleration
        • Leap frog - Low level jumping
        • Kickball – Throwing, running, kicking, jumping, catching
        • Dodgeball – Spacial awareness, catching, depth perception, throwing
  • 17. Phase 1 – Take home message
    • Keep it fun
    • Keep it simple
    • This is your base
    • Get your money worth
  • 18. Phase 2
    • AGE:
      • Males = 9–12 years, Grades 4-7
      • Females = 8–11 years, Grades 3-6
    • GOAL:
      • Build on base of motor patterns
        • Learn fundamental sports skills
          • Coach Weeks and Coach Bradd
  • 19. Phase 2
    • AGE:
      • Males = 9–12 years, Grades 4-7
      • Females = 8–11 years, Grades 3-6
    • MEANS:
      • MB Circuits (Video)
      • Plate Circuits (Video)
      • Mobility + Stability + Flexibility
  • 20. Phase 2 – Take home message
    • Teach them how to train
      • “ Light” resistance
      • Maintain body control despite changes in center of gravity
    • Crucial point in an athlete’s development
    • Make workouts challenging, but fun is still a major objective
  • 21. Phase 3
    • AGE:
      • Males = 12–16 years, Grades 7-11
      • Females = 11-15 years, Grades 6-10
    • GOALS:
      • Build
        • Aerobic base
        • Strength towards the end of the phase
        • Continue to develop sport-specific skills
  • 22. Phase 3
    • AGE:
      • Males = 12–16 years, Grades 7-11
      • Females = 11-15 years, Grades 6-10
    • MEANS:
      • Initiate front squat progression (Video)
      • Begin teaching Olympic lifts (Coach Lansky)
      • Low-Medium level plyometrics
  • 23. Phase 3 – Take home message
    • Lift progressions set stage for increased intensities in subsequent phases
    • Do not be tempted to load-up the bar, motor patterns are still priority
  • 24. Phase 4
    • AGE:
      • Males 16–18 years, Grades 11-Fr
      • Females 15-17 years, Grades 10-12
    • GOALS:
      • Fitness and sport preparation
      • Develop specific performance and skills
  • 25. Phase 4
    • AGE:
      • Males 16–18 years, Grades 11-Fr
      • Females 15-17 years, Grades 10-12
    • MEANS:
      • Squat
      • Bench
      • Olympics
      • Medium+ level plyometrics
  • 26. Phase 4 – Take home message
    • Training to Compete
    • If you have laid the base and done your homework this is the fun part
      • Find out how good your earlier phases are working
    • Begin a more intensive manipulation of sets/reps/intensity
      • Coach Melton’s Presentation
    • Keep the workout fun by being organized, intense and time conscious.
  • 27. Phase 5
    • AGE:
      • Males = 18+, Grades Fr+
      • Females = 17+, Grades 12+
    • GOALS:
      • Maximize fitness and sport preparation
        • Individual and position specific
  • 28. Phase 5
    • AGE:
      • Males = 18+, Grades Fr+
      • Females = 17+, Grades 12+
    • MEANS:
      • Train appropriate energy systems for the sport
        • Coach Davis, Ruf, Melton
      • Increases in intensity and complexity as appropriate
  • 29. Phase 5 – Take home message
    • Train for success not competition
    • Stick to your principles
      • Never compromise technique for weight moved
      • Make sure weights, sets and reps are appropriate for objective of workout
  • 30. Conclusion
    • Kids begin playing sports because they are fun
      • They will stop playing when they are not
    • Know your goals for each phase
      • Choose activities accordingly
      • Make sure exercise selection is age appropriate
    • Increase dialogue with other coaches/teachers at your school/college/university
  • 31. References
    • American Academy of Pediatrics. Strength training by children and adolescents. Pediatrics, 107: 1470-1472. 2001.
    • American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription, 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2006.
    • Balyi, Istvan & Hamilton, Ann. LONG-TERM ATHLETE DEVELOPMENT: TRAINABILITY IN CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE, Windows of Opportunity, Optimal Trainability
    • Blimkie, C. Resistance training during preadolescence. Issues and Controversies. Sports Med. 15: 389-407. 1993.
    • British Association of Exercise and Sport Sciences. BASES position statement on guidelines for resistance exercise in young people. J Sports Sci. 22:383-390, 2004.
    • Chan K, Micheli L, Smith A, Rolf C, Bachl N, Frontera W, Alenabi T, eds. F.I.M.S. Team Physician Manual, 2nd ed. Hong Kong: CD Concept; 555-572, 2006.
    • Chu D, A. Faigenbaum, J. Falkel. Progressive Plyometrics for Kids. Monterey, CA: Healthy Learning, 2006.
    • Falk, B., and G. Tenenbaum. The effectiveness of resistance training in children. A metaanalysis. Sports Med. 22: 176-186, 1996.
    • Falk, B, and A. Eliakim. Resistance training, skeletal muscle and growth. Pediatr EndocrinolRev. 1:120-127, 2003.
  • 32. References
    • Faigenbaum, A. Youth Resistance Training. President’s Council on Physical Fitness And Sports Research Digest, 4(3): 1-8, 2003.
    • Faigenbaum, A., Kraemer, W. Cahill, B. Chandler, J., Dziados, J., Elfrink, L., Forman,
    • Faigenbaum, A. Resistance training for children and adolescents: Are there health outcomes? American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 1, 190-200, 2007.
    • Faigenbaum, A., Kraemer, W. Cahill, B. Chandler, J., Dziados, J., Elfrink, L., Forman, E.,Gaudiose, M., Micheli, L., Nitka, M., and Roberts, S. Youth resistance training: Position statement paper and literature review. Strength Conditioning, 18, 62-75, 1996.
    • Faigenbaum, A., L. Milliken, L. Moulton, and W. Westcott. Early muscular fitness adaptations in children in response to two different resistance training regimens. Ped ExercSci. 17: 237-248, 2005.
    • Faigenbaum A, W. Westcott, R. Loud, and C. Long. The effects of different resistancetraining protocols on muscular strength and endurance development in children. Pediatrics.104: e5, 1999.Youth Resistance Training
    • Faigenbaum, A and W. Westcott. Strength and Power Training for Young Athletes.Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers, 2000.
    • Guy, J., and L. Micheli. Strength training for children and adolescents. J Am Acad Ortho Surg. 9, 29-36, 2001.
  • 33. References
    • Hamill, B.P. (1994) Relative safety of weightlifting. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 8(1), 53-57.
    • Kraemer W., and S. Fleck . Strength training for Young Athletes, 2nd ed. Champaign, IL:Human Kinetics; 2005.
    • Mediate, P., and A. Faigenbaum. Medicine Ball for All Training Handbook. Healthy Learning, Monterey, CA, 2004.
      • Micheli, L. Overuse injuries in children’s sports: The growth factor. Ortho Clinics N Am.114, 337-360, 1983.
    • Micheli L, Glassman R, Klein M. The prevention of sports injuries in youth. Clin Sports Med. 19:821-834, 2000.
    • Micheli L. Preventing injuries in sports: What the team physician needs to know. In: Chan K,Micheli L, Smith A, Rolf C, Bachl N, Frontera W, Alenabi T, eds. F.I.M.S. Team Physician Manual, 2nd ed. Hong Kong: CD Concept; 555-572, 2006.
    • National Association for Sport and Physical Education. Moving Into the Future: NationalStandards for Physical Education. (2nd ed.). Reston, VA: Author, 2004.
    • Outerbridge, A ., and L. Micheli. Overuse injuries in the young athlete. Clin. Sports Med. 14: 503-516, 1995.
  • 34. References
      • Pfeiffer, R., and R. Francis. Effects of strength training on muscle development in prepubescent, pubescent and postpubescent males. Phys Sports Med.14: 134-143, 1986.
    • Strong, W.B, Malina, R.M, Blimkie, C.J., Daniels, S.R., Dishman, R.K., Gutin B., Hergenroeder, A., Must, A., Nixon, P.A., Pivarnik, J., Rowland, T., Trost, S., Trudeau, F. Evidence based physical activity for school-age youth. J Pediatrics, 146, 732-737, 2005.
      • Sale, D. Strength training in children. In Gisolfi, G, Lamb, D, (eds): Perspectives in Exercise Science and Sports Medicine. Indianapolis: Benchmark Press, 12: 1453-1462, 1989.
    • Vicente-Rodriguez, G. How does exercise affect bone development during growth? Sports Med. 2006;36:561-569, 2006. Youth Resistance Training www.nsca-lift.org