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Slides that accompany Bristol Science Cafe - 31 Oct 2011

Slides that accompany Bristol Science Cafe - 31 Oct 2011

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Biofuels Science Cafe main presentation 2008 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Biofuels – A solution for a low carbon future
    • Stuart W. Shales
    • School of Life Sciences
    • University of the West of England, Bristol
    • [email_address]
    The current biofuels controversy: The issues and the answers
  • 2. ‘ The Times’ (26/02/2008)
  • 3. The Need For Biofuels
    • Fossil fuels are limited – ‘peak oil’
    • Concern over carbon dioxide emissions
    • Reduce imports of oil into UK
    • New sustainable fuel sources required
    • Stimulation of the rural economy
  • 4. UK Motor Fuel Usage
    • Total: 38.1 million tonnes/year
    • Petrol: 18.7 million tonnes/year
    • DERV: 19.4 million tonnes/year
    • (Source: DTI, 2005 data)
  • 5. UK Motor Fuel Usage Data source: DTI/BERR
  • 6. Renewable Transport Fuels Obligation Department for Transport - 10 November 2005 “ 5%* of all UK fuel sold on UK forecourts to come from a renewable source by 2010” * On energy basis (5.75% by volume)
  • 7. EU Fuels and Energy Targets 2020 Announced 9 March 2007
    • 20% reduction in greenhouse gases (from 1990 levels) but could be increased to 30% if USA etc come on board
    • 20% EU energy to come from renewable sources
    • 10% of transport fuels to be biofuels
  • 8. First Generation Biofuels
    • Bioethanol (petrol substitute)
      • Produced by fermentation and distillation
    • Biodiesel (diesel substitute)
      • Produced by transesterification of vegetable oils
  • 9. First Generation Biofuels: Bioethanol Brazilian Alcohol Programme Active since the mid 1970s E out / E in ~ 4.0
  • 10. First Generation Biofuels: Bioethanol Ethanol from grain E out / E in ~ 1.5
  • 11. First Generation Biofuels: Biodiesel: produced from vegetable oils by transesterificaion
  • 12. Biodiesel Production Rapeseed oil + Methanol Methyl ester + Glycerol Catalysts: Sodium hydroxide Sulphuric acid Lipase enzymes
  • 13. Biodiesel: oilseed rape E out / E in ~ 2.3
  • 14. Biodiesel: sunflower
  • 15. European Biodiesel Production Source: EBB
  • 16. European Biodiesel Production Country 2005 Actual 2006 Actual 2007 Actual (‘000 Tonnes) (‘000 Tonnes) (‘000 Tonnes) Germany 1,669 2,662 2,890 France 492 743 872 Italy 396 447 363 Spain 73 99 168 UK 51 192 150 Total-EU 3,184 4,890 5,713 Source: European Biodiesel Board (EBB)
  • 17. First Generation Biofuels The land use for food versus land use for biofuels controversy
  • 18. Land Required for Biofuel Production (% total UK agricultural land) % Fuel Substitution (by volume) 5% 10% 100% Bioethanol a 2.3% 4.6% 46% Biodiesel b 5.2% 10.4% 104% Total: 7.5% 15% 150% (set aside land was ~ 3.7% of total UK agricultural land in 2006/2007 but now returning to zero with Single Farm Payment) a Petrol substitute, b Diesel substitute
  • 19. Crop Prices Source: Farmers Weekly Interactive
  • 20. Crop Prices Source: Farmers Weekly Interactive
  • 21. First Generation Biofuels
    • Use annual crop plants (eg Wheat, Rape)
    • Lower biomass yields than perennial crops such as Miscanthus
    • Waste a large proportion of the crop
      • Rape: for every tonne of rapeseed oil produced there are 2 tonnes of rape meal and 3.1 tonnes of rape straw produced
  • 22. Biodiesel - Alternative Crops: Jatropha
    • Grows in warm climates (eg India and Africa) on marginal land
    • Produces 1,590 kg oil/hectare (cf Rape 1,000 kg oil/hectare )
    • Harvesting is intensive and needs cheap labour
  • 23. Biodiesel - Alternative Crops: Oil Palm
    • Grows in tropics (eg Malaysia and
    • Indonesia)
    • Produces 5,000 kg oil/hectare (cf
    • Rape 1,000 kg oil/hectare )
    • Harvesting is intensive and needs
    • cheap labour
    • Involves destruction of tropical
    • rainforests and reduction in
    • biodiversity
    • Particular threat to the Orang-Utan
  • 24. Second Generation Biofuels
    • Bioethanol & biobutanol produced from biomass (saccharification of lignocellulose)
    • Fischer-Tropsch oils (eg synthetic diesel)
      • SunDiesel™ (Choren Industries & DaimlerChrysler)
    • Use perennial crop plants
      • Miscanthus
      • Short rotation coppiced Willow
    • Higher biomass yields than annual crops
    • Use complete biomass rather than part of it
  • 25. Second Generation Biofuel Crops: Miscanthus (Elephant Grass)
  • 26. Second Generation Biofuels: Fischer-Tropsch Oils Biomass Gasification Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Synthetic Hydrocarbons Oil Yield ~ 3-7 x higher per hectare compared to oilseed rape
  • 27. Third Generation Biofuels: Microalgal Biodiesel
    • Microalgae have a high photosynthetic efficiency
    • Greater biomass production per hectare
    • Are photosynthetic and fix carbon dioxide; some can also grow on organic wastes (sewage, food processing wastes etc)
    • Can produce 50 to 100 times as much oil per hectare per annum compared to oilseed rape
  • 28. Third Generation Biofuels: Microalgal Biodiesel
  • 29. Third Generation Biofuels: Microalgal Biodiesel Production* *Based on 30% oil content and 23-38 tonnes algae (dry wt) produced/ha/year Motor fuel replaced Motor fuel replaced (% total use) Land required (m Ha) Land required (% UK agricultural) CO 2 saved (m Tn/year) CO 2 saved (% UK emissions) Diesel 50% 0.5-0.8 2.7-4.4% 64.6 12.2% Diesel & Petrol 100% 1.0-1.6 5.6-8.9% 129.2 24.4%
  • 30. Conclusion and Targets
    • Use first generation biofuels to meet RTFO
    • Plant biomass crops for second generation biofuels schemes
    • Invest in research and development for third generation biofuels
    • Improve vehicle fuel economy
    • Use vehicles less
  • 31. Biofuels – A solution for a low carbon future End of Presentation Thank you for Listening