American Colonies 5- Canada & Iroquoia Initialy the Indians pursued the fur trade within their own cultural parameters. Indians thought of all objects, material as well as living to posses spiritual powers (manitou). Originally traded for shiny objects. (Copper, beads, wampum or polished seashell beads.) Indian hunters offered attractive furs such as beaver, fox, otter, lynx, and martin.
American Colonies 5- Canada & Iroquoia Indians began o think of goods as commodities with negotiable prices. Natives appreciated the superior strength and cutting edge of metal arrowheads, axes, knives, and hatchets. By enhancing the Indians needs, trade increased their demands upon the environment. Fur trade pitted Indians against one another in destructive competition.
American Colonies 5- Canada & Iroquoia The French claimed he St. Lawrence Valley for 5 reasons: The valley was safe distant from Spanish power. The northern location meant especially thick and valuable furs. The resident natives were more skilled hunters than the southern people. St. Lawrence offered the deepest access westward into the continent. A place the French called Quebec the river narrowed to provide a good harbor for ships and high ground for ideal fortified posts.
American Colonies 5- Canada & Iroquoia Vicious cycle- every war party had casualties, which demanded more captives. War parties provoked retaliation and carrying away captives carrying death into Iroquois villages. Five Nations Iroquois were formidable enemies with the French. The best present of all was a war captive meant to replace the dead. Iroquois warriors conducted “mourning wars” in which they sought prisoners from their enemies.
AMERICAN COLONIES 16- FRENCH AMERICA End of the 17th century French founded a new colony named Louisiana. Colonies of New France and Louisiana stretched from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico. French presence depended more on Indian consent than French power. French crown ordered The Co. of New France to recruit more inhabitants. “Seigneurs” brought the first farm families to Canada.
AMERICAN COLONIES 16- FRENCH AMERICA During the 17th century fewer than 250 families emigrated to Canada. 12% of the emigrants were female. Most were single young men in search of work and food. Most urban laborers and artisans rather than rural peasants. Most female emigrants came from an orphanage in Paris. Most male emigrants arrived in servitude as either soldiers or indentured servants.
AMERICAN COLONIES 16- FRENCH AMERICA Population grew from 3,000 in 1663 to 15,000 in 1700, but were not able to compete with the English Colonists who numbered 234,000 whites and 31,000 enslaved Africans. Canada suffered as daunting reputation as immoral, cold, and unprofitable land. Due to short growing seasons the habitants raised European livestock and grains, especially wheat over warm climate European staples such as tobacco and sugar.
AMERICAN COLONIES 16- FRENCH AMERICA Most French who did emigrate to Canada and stayed significantly improved their status and standard of living. Due to small tight houses, and plentiful firewood New France habitants kept warmer in the winter. Canadian habitants enjoyed privileges of fishing and hunting, both environmentally and legally denied to the peasants in hierarchical France.
References Taylor, Alan. (2001). American Colonies: The Settling Of North America. New York, New York: Penguin Books.