The English in North America<br />B. Scott Tucker<br />
American Colonies 6- Virginia<br />The Mid- Atlantic seaboard was neglected by the French and The Spanish, open to English colonization during the 1580’s.<br />Virginia was named for Queen Elizabeth I, a supposed virgin. Applied to the Atlantic coast between Florida and Acadia (Nova Scotia).<br />English crown lacked men and ships<br /> for risky adventures far from home, <br /> subcontracted colonization by issuing <br /> licenses and monopolies to private<br /> adventurers. <br />
American Colonies 6- Virginia<br />1585, Sir Walter Ralegh sent 100 colonists, all men, to settle Roanoke, a small island on the North Carolina coast.<br />The shoals and sands made it difficult for English ships to land to load and unload supplies. Sandy, infertile soil produced scanty crops. Roanoke abandoned after the Native Algonquian Indians refused to feed them anymore. <br />2nd attempt in 1587, 94 colonists (the first English families to settle in the Americas) were hastily dropped. Upon return of the ships all that wasfound was the word CROATOAN carved in a tree.<br />
American Colonies 6- Virginia<br />Powhatan led the largest and most powerful chiefdom the English found along the Atlantic seaboard. <br />He inherited power over six tribes which increased to thirty through diplomacy, intimidation, and war.<br />Large entourage of servants, forty bodyguards, and 100 wives<br />Lacking property to plunder primarily fought for scalps and captives.<br />
American Colonies 6- Virginia<br />Established Jamestown (for which was named after their new king James I) in 1607.<br />Between 1607 and 1622 the Virginia Co. had transported over 10,000 people to the colony but only 20% were still alive in 1622.<br />Jamestown lay next to a broad swamp, which was good for defense but not good for the health of the colonists.<br />Hot humid summers bred millions of mosquitoes, carriers of malaria. Shallow wells were contaminated with brackish water that carried salt poisoning.<br />
American Colonies 7- Chesapeake Colonies<br />2 Chesapeake colonies: Virginia and Maryland<br />The Chesapeake had only 2 towns: Jamestown and St. Mary’s City. Neither possessed even 500 inhabitants. <br />The colonists relied on, larger territories, counties for their local governments.<br />County courts held trials, executed sentences, licensed taverns and ferries, collected local taxes, and supervised the county militia. <br />
American Colonies 7- Chesapeake Colonies<br />Chesapeake demanded much labor for too few colonists. During nine moths of the year tobacco required attention. <br />African slaves were to expensive for their short life expectancy. Most planters bought indentured servants who would mortgage 4-7 years of their life for transatlantic passage.<br />At the end of their term they were supposed to be given “freedom dues” which included up to 50 acres of land.<br />
American Colonies 7- Chesapeake Colonies<br />Mid century, Chesapeake became healthier and more servants lived longer to claim their freedom and farms. <br />Plantations expanded upstream to get away from the low level stagnant water supplies. <br />“Seasoned” population acquired a higher level of immunity which was passed to their offspring.<br />Survival rate climbed from 1 in 4 in the first year, to 1 in 9.<br />
American Colonies 7- Chesapeake Colonies<br />At the end of the 17th century there was a decline of white laborers and servants. <br />African slaves became a better investment. Numbers surged from 300 in 1650 to 13,000 in 1700.<br />Planters acquired another reason to cultivate young white men. Instead of a threat to social order , the armed whites defended against slave rebellion. <br />Colonial laws did not forbid black progress, which allowed them the same abilities as their white neighbors.<br />
References<br />Taylor, Alan. (2001). American Colonies: The Settling Of North America. New York, New York: Penguin Books.<br />
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