American Colonies: Prelude to Revolutions B. Scott Tucker
Revolutions: Dominion King James II (New King) took particular interest in reducing New England to obedience. The King consolidated the 8 northern colonies (All 5 in New England, New York, East & west New Jersey) into a supercolony known as the Dominion of New England. Sir Edmond Andros, a military officer and dictatorial governor of New York was appointed the office of governor-general. Taxes were increased, land titles that were issued by the old town governments were challenged, and property taxes were enforced. King James II Sir Edmond Andros
Revolutions: Pirates During the late 16th and early 17th century, relatively poor country with limited navy, England found piracy useful for attacking more powerful Spanish Empire. By attacking Britain’s foreign trading partners, pirates disrupted global reach of British merchants. Piracy invited offended sailors to strike back against the owners and operators of merchant ships. Pirates were equal risk-sharing and loot-dividing partners. Operated as democracies, majority vote determined who commanded, where to sail, and what to attack. Most infamous convicted pirate was Captain William Kidd, who was executed on May, 23 1701.
The Atlantic: Trade 18th century trade with the empire became increasingly complex. Introduced multilateral trading system that used bills of exchange drawn on London merchant firms to balance regional credits and debts. Increased mainland colonists debt, their voracious demands as consumers exceeded their means as producers and formidable ingenuity as traders. The Navigation Acts locked the Chesapeake and the West Indies into shipping their tobacco and sugar directly to England. The growing economy endowed free colonists with a higher standard og living than their counterparts in Europe and gave them a larger disposable income.
The Great Plains: Horses and Guns Late 17th century the pueblo and Apache acquire horses from the New Mexicans, by a mixture of illicit trade and night raids. Could cover far more ground in les time, see farther, finding herds more easily. Horse could haul loads four times larger than a dog. During the 18th century people also acquired firearms to defend their villages and raid their enemies. Guns were beneficial over bow and arrows because they had longer range, inflicted gaping wounds, and they conveyed great spiritual terror.
Great Plains: Comanche and Apache The 18th century was a period of violent flux as native peoples competed to exploit the buffalo and to steal horses and women. Southern Plains the Comanche prevailed, with stealing or trading for Hispanic horses, they obtained the means to migrate farther south and east. Comanche fluid and independent, cooperated to raid the Apaches to take horses, women, children, and buffalo territory. By allying with the Wichita the Comanche gained access to French traders. The Apaches were pushed northwest and south raiding the Pueblos to supplement losses at the hands of the Comanche. Comanche Warrior Apache Warrior
The Pacific: Kamehameha After 1786 maritime contact with the Hawaiian Islands became annual and increasing. European mariners deserted their ships to enter service of Hawaiian chiefs. During 1780’s and 90’a Chief Kamehameha won the local arms race and became the dominant chief of the Islands. Kamehameha united his Island, Hawaii, and in 1795 conquered in quick succession Maui, Molokai, Oahu, Lanai, Kahoolawe. In 1810 Kauai submitted. Like other Polynesians, the Hawaiians experienced the shocks of European encounter: germs, livestock, weeds, weapons, and missionaries.