Sample Exercises for use with Graphic OrganisersProduct Life Cycle - Chain of linked eventsArrange these stages in the correct order on the chainSaturationDeclineIntroductionMaturityGrowthWrite the correct explanation under each stage in the chainIf a new product is successful sales grow quickly as a result of advertising and salespromotion. Many consumers wish to have this latest product as it becomes knownand popular.The product is now quite well known and in common use. Most consumers thatwant one have one. Consumers are beginning to look towards new products. Theprice drops and sales revenues begin to declineThe new product is introduced to the market. There is usually a major promotioncampaign to get consumers to know about the product. Initial sales begin to asconsumers get to know of the products existenceNew improved products are introduced to the market and competitors begin todevelop new products so sales of the old product start to decline as it reaches the endof its life cycle.The rate of growth levels off. Sales are steady but are not increasing. Sales continueto remain high but they have stopped growing
Arrange these stages in the correct order on the ladder aboveShortlistJob descriptionInterviewPerson SpecificationInduction trainingJob advertisementSelectionWrite the correct explanation beside each step on the ladderThe new employee is introduced to the company and is given initial training in howto carry out the duties involved in the new job.Those kept on the shortlist are invited to interview where they will be askedquestions to determine which candidate has the best skills and is most suitable forthe job.Describes the skills, qualities and qualifications that the candidate needs to have tobe considered for the job.Combines the Job Description and Person Specification and places them inNewspapers, Journals, Noticeboards, Websites etc where they will be seen by thoseinterested in applying for the job.Describes all the duties and responsibilities attaching to the job. It clarifies foremployees what the job entailsIf a large number of candidates apply some are eliminated on the basis of theirapplication forms. They receive letters of refusal without being called to interview.The best candidate for the job is chosen by the interviewer after the interview hasbeen completed.
Stages in Developing a New Product or ServicePrototype developmentConcept DevelopmentMarket testingScreeningIdea GenerationFull scale LaunchFeasibility StudyTest MarketingThis step involves market research to test consumer reaction to the product.Potential sales, costs and possible profits need to be examined to see if it is possibleto make a profit from the venture The best ideas that have most potential forsuccess are kept and the others are screened out and discarded.All good ideas need to be transformed into reality. This is called conceptdevelopment. The product / service needs to be able to satisfy consumer needs at arealistic price and with satisfactory quality.Full scale manufacture and sales begin if test marketing has been successful.Advertising and sales promotion campaigns accompany the launchIndustrial Relations – Dispute ResolutionA business needs to regularly develop new ideas to satisfy consumer needs. Thereare many ways to generate ideas. Some methods are internal to the company -Brainstorming , Research and Development, Salespersons reports; others areexternal – Competitors ideas, Foreign travel, Customer complaintsOne unit of the product needs to be manufactured so that it can be test marketed.Potential problems come to light at this stage, costs are finalized and selling price isdecided.A small number of products are manufactured in one production run. These arethen tested on the market. Final decisions re the 4 p’s are made at this stage.
Steps in Resolving Industrial Relations Disputes – Arrange these steps in order fromthe first step to be taken to the final stage.Labour Court, Employment Appeals TribunalSenior management negotiates with Union HQDisputant negotiates with immediate SupervisorShop Steward negotiates with immediate managerLabour Relations Commission, Rights Commissioner, Equality OfficersMatch each explanation with the term aboveA dispute should be resolved in the first place by negotiation if possible with onesimmediate supervisor whether it is a dispute involving all workers or an individualworkerWorkers approach the shop steward to resolve a dispute if they have beenunsuccessful in attempts to negotiate a solution with their immediate supervisor.Shop steward negotiates with management in an attempt to resolve a disputeSenior Management negotiate with Union Head Office to find a resolution to adisputeThe dispute is referred to the Labout Relations Commission if it involves allworkers of a large group of workers. It is referred to a Rights Commissioner if itinvolves one worker or a small group of workers. It is referred to an EqualityOfficer if it involves equality issues.The dispute is referred to The Labour Court if it has not been resolved at an earlierstage. The Labour Court decision is binding. If an individual feels that theirstatutory employment rights have been infringed they may take their case to theemployment Appeals Tribunal Its decision is binding.
Place the term Negotiation, Conciliation, Arbitration beside the relevant stepNegotiationThe parties to the dispute sit down together and attempt to resolve their disputeConciliation / MediationA third party (an outside person) sits with the disputing parties and helps them toresolve their dispute. Responsibility for resolving the dispute rests with thedisputing parties. The conciliator dose not impose a solutionArbitrationA third party (a Judge) listens to both sides of the dispute and makes a bindingdecision / Recommendation for resolution. Decisions of the Labour Court are notlegally binding, they are binding in the sense that both parties agree to be bound bythe decision before the Labour Court agrees to hear the case. Decisions of theEmployment Appeals Tribunal are legally binding.InternalDispute is resolved within the companyExternalDispute is taken to a body outside the company for resolutionLegislative ResolutionWhen a Statutory body is used to resolve the dispute and/or when a law is relied onto resolve the disputeNon LegislativeWhen the dispute is resolved voluntarily without recourse to any law or StatutorybodyStairs can also be used to teach the Steps involved in Forming a Company