Guide to making a new standard - Standards & Standardization - Making a New Work Proposal

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Standards & Standardization - Making a New Work Proposal
In the following exercise, you are going to simulate a committee meeting at BSI’s Chiswick building and write a new proposal for a standard

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Guide to making a new standard - Standards & Standardization - Making a New Work Proposal

  1. 1. Standards & Standardization Standards andStandardization Newell Hampson-Jones Education Sector Representative BSI Group 389 Chiswick High Road, London W4 4AL T: +44 (0)20 8996 7227 M: +44 (0)7767 886 713 E: newell.hampson-jones@bsigroup.com W: www.bsigroup.com W: www.bsieducation.org © The British Standards Institution 2011 1
  2. 2. Standards & StandardizationContentsContents .............................................................................................................................................................. 2Standards & Standardization – What Are Standards?............................................................................ 3Before Standardization ................................................................................................................................... 3The Birth of Standardization........................................................................................................................... 3History of BSI ..................................................................................................................................................... 4European Committee for Standardization (CEN)........................................................................................ 9International Organization for Standardization (ISO) ............................................................................10Types of Standard ........................................................................................................................................... 5The Standardization Process .......................................................................................................................... 9The Economic Impact of Standardization ...................................................................................................11The Impact of Using Standards ....................................................................................................................11Testing and Certification ...............................................................................................................................12CE and Kitemark® ...........................................................................................................................................12Standards & Standardization- How to Get Involved ..............................................................................14Standards & Standardization- Making a New Work Proposal ........... Error! Bookmark not defined.Standards Relevant to Digital Inclusion ..................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.Standards & Standardization- Further Reading.......................................................................................17 2
  3. 3. Standards & StandardizationStandards & Standardization – What Are Standards?Before StandardizationHumans have understood a need for creating measurement systems from early civilization. Theearliest found example of measurement systems were found with the Indus Valley Civilization of3000-1500 BC. Their measurements-for length, mass and time-have been described as veryprecise, in fact their “chert” weights weighed approximately 28 grammes, making them similar tothe Imperial ounce. But it’s important to note that a comparison of various objects across the Industerritories have shown large scale variations in the systems used.Fast forward a few hundred years andMarcus Vitruvius Pollio, usedcontemporary measurement units toassist his work which led to him beingcommonly known as ‘The World’s FirstEngineer’. His writings inspired DaVinci’s Vitruvian Man, seen here, whichalso shows the contemporarymeasurement units that Vitruvius used;the span, the cubit, the yard and thefathom.Even in the Magna Carta, you can seethe government attempting to createconsistent and unified measurements ofcertain items. Clause 35 states:“There shall be standard measures of wine, ale, and corn (the London quarter), throughout thekingdom. There shall also be a standard width of dyed cloth, russet, and haberject, namely twoells within the selvedges. Weights are to be standardized similarly.”(source: http://www.bl.uk/treasures/magnacarta/index.html)The Birth of StandardizationThe concept of standardization existed a long time before the first standards were written, butthere were no formal standards or standards writing bodies. The need to standardize grew out ofthe Industrial Revolution. Sir Joseph Whitworth can be considered one of the true innovators ofstandardization, even though he was not ultimately involved in the process. In 1841, Sir Whitworthinvented a standard for screw threads which some consider to be the first nationally standardizedsystem. Known as the Whitworth screw thread, railway companies across the nation adopted thisinnovation over the years and decades that followed. Some disagree with this assertion, however,believing this is not a formalised standard, but an invention that was adopted by the railwaycompanies who saw the advantages that using it would bring. In short, this is an example ofcompanies working in their best interests by using an industry leading product. The fact that theindustry and economy reaped benefits as well is coincidental. With both points considered, it iscertainly fair to say that this invention was a pre-curser to formal standardization, at the veryleast.From 1850 onwards, the emerging British rail network changed the face of trade in the countryand exacerbated the need to formally standardize. Markets were previously local and the raillines offered producers the ability to transport goods into different markets and collaboratenationally with other suppliers. As Woodward points out:“Now the engineering shops of Birmingham, the steel mills of Sheffield, the cotton looms ofManchester had all Britain on their doorsteps — and beyond England there were further markets 3
  4. 4. Standards & Standardizationto conquer in all the other countries of Europe which, with England, were thrusting forward withtheir own railway networks and industrial development.”(Woodward, 1972, p.7)The emergence of the rail lines created a number of problems:• The diversity of the sizes and quality of products made in different regions increased the risk for businesses to order from outside their locality and damaged competition and efficiency.• Matching components bought from different regions together to form a whole unit could very rarely be done without costly adjustment.A letter to The Times in 1895, presenting the example of a contractor who had to procure irongirders from Belgium to complete an order, encouraged London iron merchant Henry Skelton towrite:“Rolled steel girders are imported into Britain from Belgium and Germany because we have toomuch individualism in this country, where collective action would be economically advantageous.As a result, architects and engineers specify such unnecessary diverse types of sectional materialfor given work that anything like economical and continuous manufacture becomes impossible…notwo professional men are agreed upon the size and weight of girder to employ for given workand the British manufacturer is everlastingly changing his rolls or appliance, at greatly increasedcost, to meet irregular unscientific requirements of professional architects and engineers.”(Woodward, 1972, p. 8) In 1900, Skelton was asked to present these views at a meeting of the British Iron Trade Federation where a prominent member of the Council of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Sir John Woolfe-Barry, took interest. Sir Wolfe-Barry was a famed engineer and the architect of Tower Bridge and used his influence to persuade the Institution to appoint a committee of leading civil engineers to consider standardizing iron & steel sections. On April 26th 1901, this committee met and founded the EngineeringStandards Committee, with two representatives each from the Institution of Civil Engineers,Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Institution of Naval Architects and the Iron & Steel Institute.History of BSIIn 1903 the first standard, written for steel sections, was released and the concept of a kite markwas first considered. The results of this standard were nothing short of impressive. The number ofstructural steel sections in common use reduced from 175 to 113. Tramway rails in use at the timereduced from 75 to 5. Most importantly, the estimated cost of production reduced across theeconomy, by £1m. That is worth, approximately, £91m today.On March 21st, 1929, the Royal Charter was granted to what was then known as the BritishEngineering Standards Association. The charter turned the Association from a collection ofindividuals into a single legal entity and established a council as the governing body of theAssociation. Two years later, in 1931, the Association changed their name to the British StandardsInstitution (BSI). 4
  5. 5. Standards & StandardizationBetween 14th and 26th of October, 1946, BSI became one of the founders of the InternationalStandardization Organization (ISO) at a meeting hosted in London. ISO publishes and managesinternational standards, which are developed through the collaboration of global experts. Theorganization is comprised of 162 national bodies including BSI, which is the second most activemember, with experts on 709 ISO committees. In 1951, The Women’s Advisory Committee wasfounded with the purview of advising committees on issues related to the consumer instandardization. This committee still exists today as BSI’s Consumer & Public Interest Network,which coordinates consumer input to and representation on all BSI’s technical committees forconsumer products and services. The CPIN also feeds into work in European and internationalcommittees, via a seat on those, or through the mirror UK committee, or via ANEC (‘The Europeanvoice of the consumer in standardization’) or ISO/COPOLCO (the consumer policy committee ofISO). Finally, CEN, the European Committee for Standardization, was established in 1964, whenBSI was — again — one of the founding members. CEN is similar to ISO in that it is officiallyrecognised as the European standards body.Types of StandardThere are 6 commonly considered levels of standardization, the first 2 of which are not producedby BSI but by individual companies. Corporate Technical Specifications are explicit sets ofrequirements to be satisfied by a material, product, or service. An example could be the productspecifications of your laptop or iPod. These standards are quick to write because they are highlycontrolled by the company producing them. As we move up the diagram below, you’ll notice thateach level takes longer to write as it requires consensus from a wider spectrum of stakeholders.Private standards are private documents owned and written by an organization or corporation.These are used and circulated as they determine necessary or useful. A simple example of thiscould be a company’s branding guidelines or the equality/health & safety policies which add alevel to previously existing legislation or standards, tailored to the explicit needs of the company.The Publicly Available Specification (PAS) is a consultative document where the developmentprocess and written format is based on the British Standard model. Any organisation, associationor group who wish to document standardized best practice on a specific subject, can commission aPAS, subject to the BSI acceptance process. The main difference is in the area of consensus; aBritish Standard must reach full consensus between all stakeholders on technical content, whilst aPAS invites comments from any interested party but does not necessarily incorporate them. Thismeans that the timescale for the development of a PAS can be shorter, typically around 8 months. 5
  6. 6. Standards & StandardizationBritish Standards are the formally produced standards from BSI, the UK’s National StandardsBody. The standards are written by consensus with input from industry, experts and otherstakeholder groups like consumer representatives and academia where required. The differenttypes of British Standards available (Specification, Code of Practice, Test Method, Guide, etc.)are detailed in the tables with your handouts. As, I said in the previous slide, there are alsoEuropean and International standards bodies and these bodies produce, respectively, Europeanstandards and international standards. BSI, like most NSBs, adopts the standards at Europeanand International level, so that these are effectively British standards as well (e.g. BS EN, BS ISO).In the case of European standards, we are obliged to adopt these and any UK work must stop (at‘standstill’) if equivalent European work commences. This is why, for example, the internationalstandards for quality management systems’ full registration in the UK is BS EN ISO 9000. 6
  7. 7. Standards & Standardization 7
  8. 8. Standards & Standardization 8
  9. 9. Standards & StandardizationThe Standardization Process The BSI process for standardization is quite simple; based on consensus between stakeholders. The process starts with the proposal of a new work item. Most work items may be born within the committee, but new work can be proposed by anyone and I’ll be explaining how you can do this later. Once a proposal is received, a business case is made for it, to fulfill acceptance criteria and the proposal is entered into the formal acceptance process.If it is accepted, a small group of experts will draft the standard and then present the draft to thetechnical committee for wider consultation. Once the committee has approved the draft, it goesout for public comment — this is when anyone is free to propose changes or additions to thedraft document. The public comment stage ensures that every national, European andinternational standard is transparent and accepted by the wider public.Once the public comments have been considered and appropriate actions taken, the draft goesforward for final approval. At the national level, this would be done by committee consensus;however European and international standards are also subject to voting by the member bodiesof the organizations. The secretary or chairperson of the committee then gives endorsement topublish and the standard becomes available to the public.Standards are not just one-off declarations. They are reviewed at least once every 5 years andone of 5 decisions is made: confirmed without change, confirmed after minor amendment,confirmed after major amendment, withdrawn or declared obsolescent.European Committee for Standardization (CEN)The European Committee for Standardization (Comité Européen de Normalisation; CEN) is theEuropean standards body, comprising of member states in Europe. CEN is the only recognizedEuropean organization according to Directive 98/34/EC for the planning, drafting and adoptionof European Standards (EN) in all areas of economic activity with the exception of electrotechnology (CENELEC) and telecommunication (ETSI).These standards are also national standards in each of the 31 Member countries, with anyconflicting national standard withdrawn. This approach helps stimulate innovation; a product canreach a far wider market with much lower development and testing costs by following Europeanstandards during the design and management process. More than 60,000 technical experts aswell as business federations, consumer and other societal interest organizations are involved in theCEN network that reaches over 480 million people.There are differences in the standardization process from the BSI process. There is still the publicconsultation process after which, taking into consideration the resulting comments, a final version isdrafted. This draft is then submitted to the CEN Members for a weighted formal voting.After ratification by CEN, each of the National Standards Bodies adopts the European Standardas an identical national standard and withdraws any national standards which conflict with the 9
  10. 10. Standards & Standardizationnew European Standard. Hence oneEuropean Standard becomes the nationalstandard in the 31 member countries ofCEN.For example, the European Standard ontoy safety, EN 71, has been adopted asNF EN 71 by AFNOR in France, EVS EN71 by EVS in Estonia and BS EN 71 in theUnited Kingdom. These standards aremade available by the NationalStandards Body in each country which is,in the case of the UK, BSI.International Organization forStandardization (ISO)ISO (International Organization forStandardization) is the worlds largestdeveloper and publisher of InternationalStandards. The organization isa network of national standards bodiesfrom 163 countries, one member percountry, with a Central Secretariat inGeneva, Switzerland, that coordinates thesystem.ISO is a non-governmentalorganization that forms a bridge between the public and private sectors. On the one hand,many of its member institutes are part of the governmental structure of their countries, or aremandated by their government. On the other hand, other members have their roots uniquely in the private sector, having been set up by national partnerships of industry associations. Therefore, ISO enables a consensus to be reached on solutions that meet both the requirements of business and the broader needs of society. Decisions are taken within ISO on the basis of votes cast by ISO member bodies, on the basis of one country, one vote. The ISO standardization process is also slightly different to both the CEN and ISO processes. A draft International Standard (DIS) is made available, at the enquiry stage, to all ISO member bodies. They are then all entitled to vote and comment on the document during a five month period. If the DIS receives 100% approval, it may proceed directly to publication once any comments received have been addressed. Otherwise, a final draft International Standard (FDIS) is sent to all ISO member bodies for voting for a period of two months, together with the report of voting on the DIS which includes all the comments received and how these have been addressed. 10
  11. 11. Standards & StandardizationThe Economic Impact of StandardizationThese final written standards have a big impact on national and global economies. • In the UK, standards make an annual contribution of £2.5bn to the UK economy • The economic benefits of standardization represent 1% of German GDP. • 9% of the economic growth in Canada between 1981 and 2004 was attributed to standardization. • Electrical and water industry standards alone contribute to AUD 1.9bn to the Australian economy. • Globally, MPEG standards have created a massive USD 2.5tr worth of business • International crane maintenance standards have saved global industry USD 3bn.The Impact of Using StandardsCompanies find that using standards can reap great benefits as well, as the examples belowshow: • Mercedes GP Petronas attributed their F1 Championship win partly to the way BSOL was able to give them a competitive advantage over other teams during design • The train company, First Group, used Environmental Management standard ISO 14001 to reduce energy consumption. • LG Electronics India estimated that EN 16001, a European energy Management standard, reduced their energy consumption. It’s useful to note that, even though this is a European standard, it was still applicable and useful to a company outside the territory. Knowledge of national standards can give you a competitive advantage. • Another Indian company, Shree Cement, used the same standard to reduce energy usage and cost by 2 %. • The quarry firm, Ennstone, used BSI’s integrated management software, Entropy, to reduce insurance costs by a significant amount. • Finally, Amba Reseach cut information security costs by a massive 33 % using information security standard ISO/IEC 27001. 11
  12. 12. Standards & StandardizationTesting and CertificationTwo aspects of implementing standards mayinvolve testing and certification.Testing has a number of issues that must beconsidered before going down that route.Firstly, testing is a snap shot in time. Asample might work at that moment, in thoseconditions, but will they work in a year’s time?You will also need to re-test if you make anydesign or operational changes to the product.Test subjects can also susceptible to golden sampling, so a company can choose its best productsto go through the testing process, already assured it will pass. These issues mean that the wordingof the final certificate is very specific, saying not that the product meets a standard, but instead,“The sample submitted complied with the requirements of EN XXXX”.Certification is a system of continual assessment to the standard, which means that any issues thatmight arise in testing are removed. This means that certification is more than just a test and morethan just a quality control system. There are a number of certification bodies in the UK, but Imust emphasise that, if you are interested in getting your products or services certified, you shouldcheck whether the company has been accredited by the United Kingdom Accreditation Service.This will give you and your stakeholders peace of mind over the results.CE and Kitemark®Both the CE mark and Kitemark are widely recognized symbols of standardization, however thereare many misconceptions about bothThe CE mark demonstrates compliance to the EU New Approach Directives, which is a legalrequirement for all products sold within the EU. As the CE mark shows compliance with the law,rather than working to an industry standard, it is fair to say that it is not a quality mark.Standards bodies like BSI do not have the authority to give the CE marking; in some cases acompany can self-declare that a product conforms to these Directives. They have to carry out a1st Party conformity assessment (self-conformity) and keep documentary proof for authorities toaccess as and when they wish.The Kitemark is a term and mark owned by BSI which is issued under license and, unlike the CE,is a mark of certified quality and safety.The process for obtaining a Kitemark is much more stringent than the CE mark, as it involves 3rdParty assessment. There are a number of schemes, but not one for every standard, so thecompany will need to choose the correct scheme that applies to them. A pre-audit visit isrequired, which is followed up by an initial assessment visit. The product is then type testedagainst the relevant standard, followed by a review by that specific Kitemark scheme manager.Once all these stages are passed, the Kitemark is awarded. That’s not where the process ends,though. There are continuing assessment visits and audit testing to ensure that the requirementscontinue to be met. 12
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  14. 14. Standards & StandardizationStandards & Standardization- How to Get InvolvedThere are a variety of ways to become involved with standardization beyond the level of beinga standards user. One could become: • A committee member There are currently 1,350 BSI committees with approximately 10,000 Members. All Committee Members give their time and expertise on a voluntary basis often with the support of their employer or trade association. The commitment required varies between and within committees, depending on the current work programme and the level of participation. Most committees only meet a few times each year but some members also represent the national view at European and international meetings abroad. BSI provides training in standardization issues, processes and bodies for all Committee Members and Chairs. There are teams of BSI staff supporting the work of all committees and dedicated meeting facilities at BSI’s headquarters in Chiswick, London. BSI also provides extensive online systems to support committee working. Visit the Committee Members microsite for more information. It is a requirement of BSI’s bye-laws that all national committees are representative of the interests of users, manufacturers, government departments and other bodies concerned with their work. • A Consumer & Public Interest Representative All standards affect the public directly or indirectly, even though most are produced to serve the immediate needs of business and industry. Many, though, have a direct and beneficial impact on the general public. These include ‘traditional’ consumer related standards such as those for domestic appliances, or signs and symbols, as well as those newer types of standard for sustainability, social responsibility or services. 14
  15. 15. Standards & Standardization BSI is committed to trying to ensure that representation on its technical committees and access to the standards-making process is as wide as possible and maintains a Consumer and Public Interest Network (CPIN), responsible for coordinating the participation of those stakeholders who would not otherwise normally be involved at a day-to-day level, e.g. consumers and individual specialists in subjects such as child safety or ergonomics. The objective is to influence the content of standards to reflect the needs and proper expectations of the general public with regard to factors such safety and security, labeling, accessibility, fairness and redress. Very many subjects are covered by the CPIN, but current priorities are in the areas of sustainability, security, accessibility, and the new and expanding field of services standardization. We also continue to cover important ongoing work on product safety, child safety and symbols, where our expertise and contribution are crucial. Representatives are recruited and supported by BSI. They come from diverse backgrounds and have a range of high quality expertise and experience. Those who are unfamiliar with standardization are given suitable training and guidance in the standardization process, including specific skills required for researching, reporting and attendance at meetings both here and abroad.• A BSI Member Our Membership is made up of 21,000 organizations and individuals across the UK and overseas. Members come from a range of professions, including: government industrial and commercial organizations institutes, associations and professional bodies local authorities, police and fire services sole traders. Standards are a powerful business tool. They define crucial aspects of safety, reliability and quality, and enable UK businesses to operate in global markets. Use of standards sends a valuable message to your customers, demonstrating your commitment to product quality and customer service. Read about how standards help.• A British Standards Society member The British Standards Society (BSS) is the UK standard users’ organization. Joining BSS will help you to keep up to date with standards development and implementation, and you can also benefit from guidance, support and practical experience of others in the application of standards. BSS feeds back users views to BSI and operates via an online forum. Membership is for individuals only and differs from BSI Membership. Benefits include a network of contacts across a wide range of industrial, commercial, educational and public sector interests, and the opportunity of gaining practical advice and guidance on standards application. BSS is the UK member of the International Federation of Standard Users (IFAN), an association of national user groups, multinational companies and other industrial and professional bodies concerned with the use of standards. 15
  16. 16. Standards & Standardization The Building Standards Group (BSG) is the UK standards users’ organization for those interested in construction standardization. The BSG hold monthly meetings in central London. All BSS members are welcome to the meetings, where a wide range of matters related to standardization in the construction industry are debated.• An author for BSI BSI publishes books, guidance and online self-assessment products to support the standards and their users and regularly has opportunities for writers to develop supporting guidance for standards and reviewers to peer review products under development. 16
  17. 17. Standards & Standardization Standards & Standardization- Further ReadingIf you, like me, are now excited about standardisation and want to read more, I recommend the followingresourcesBooksDouglas Woodward, C. (1972). BSI: The Story of Standards, London, British Standards Institution.McWilliam, R. C., (2001) BSI: The First Hundred Years, 1901-2001. London, British Standards InstitutionJournal articlesKemenade, E.A. van, Hardjono, T.W. & Vries, H.J. de (2011). The willingness of professionals to contributeto their organisations certification. The International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management, 27-42.Oshri, I., Vries, H.J. de & Vries, H.J. de (2010). The rise of Firefox in the web browser industry: The role ofopen source in setting standards. Business History, 52(5), 834-856.Pedersen, M.K., Fomin, V. & Vries, H.J. de (2009). Open Standards and Government Policy. In K. Jakobs(Ed.), Information Communication Technology Standardization for E-Business Sectors (pp. 188-199).Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.Vries, H.J. de (2008). Best Practice in Company Standardization. In Kai Jakobs (Ed.), StandardizationResearch in Information Technology - New Perspectives (Advances in IT Standards and StandardizationResearch (AISSR) Book Series) (pp. 27-47). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.Swann, G.M.P.(2007)., "Standards are Central to Wealth Creation", Wissenschaftsmanagement,Vol.2007/2, pp. 26-27.Swann, G.M.P.; Temple, P.; Shurmer, M.(1996)., "Standards and Trade Performance: The BritishExperience", Economic Journal, Vol.106 (438), pp.1297-1313.Swann, G.M.P.; Temple, P.(1995)., "BSI Standards and Trade Performance", BSI (British StandardsInstitution) News.Swann, G.M.P.; Shurmer, M.(1994)., "The Emergence of Standards in PC Software: Who Would Benefitfrom Institutional Intervention?", Information Economics and Policy, Vol.6 (3/4), pp.295-318.Chapters in BooksLoya, T. A., Boli, J. (1999)., “Standardization in the World Polity: Technical Rationality Over Power”, inBoli, J. and Thomas, G.M. (eds.) Constructing World Culture International Non-Governmental OrganizationsSince 1875, Palo Alto, Stanford University Press.Swann, G.M.P.; Temple, P.; Shurmer, M.(2005)., "Standards and Trade Performance: The BritishExperience", in Henson, S.; Wilson, J.S. (ed) The WTO and Technical Barriers to Trade, Cheltenham,Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.Swann, G.M.P.(1997)., "Quality and British Industrial Competitiveness", in Buxton, A.; Chapman, P.; Temple,P. (ed) British Economic Performance, (2), pp.117-140, Routledge.Swann, G.M.P.(1994)., "Reaching Compromise in Standards Setting Institutions", in Pogorel, G. (ed) GlobalTelecommunications Strategies and Technological Change, pp.241-253, Elsevier. 17
  18. 18. Standards & StandardizationSwann, G.M.P.(1993)., "Standards, Beneficial Competition, and Market Failure", in The Value ofCompetition, Milan, Observatory Giordano DellAmore.Swann, G.M.P.(1993)., "User Needs for Standards: How Can We Ensure that User Votes are Counted?", inB. Meek et al (ed) User Needs in Information Technology Standards, Butterworth/Heinemann.Swann, G.M.P.(1990)., "Standards in Information and Communications Technology: Consensus, Institutionsand Markets", in Locksley, G. (ed) Information and Communication Technologies and the Single EuropeanMarket, Frances Pinter Publishers.Swann, G.M.P.(1990)., "Resources for Standardisation", in Berg, J.; Schumny, H. (ed) An Analysis of the ITStandardisation Process, Amsterdam, Elsevier Science Publishers.Swann, G.M.P.(1990)., "Standards and the Growth of a Software Network", in Berg, J.; Schumny, H. (ed)An Analysis of the IT Standardisation Process, Amsterdam, Elsevier Science Publishers.ReportsTemple, P.; Witt, R.; Spencer, C.; Blind, K.; Jungmittag, A.; Swann, G.M.P., 2005, "The Empirical Economicsof Standards", in DTI Economics Paper no. 12, London, Department of Trade and Industry.Swann, G.M.P., 2000, "The Economics of Standardization", in Report for Department of Trade andIndustry, Standards and Technical Regulations Directorate, p.90,http://www.dti.gov.uk/strd/fundingo.htm#swannrep.Websiteswww.bsigroup.comwww.bsieducation.orghttp://standardsdevelopment.bsigroup.com/http://standardsproposals.bsigroup.com/https://bsol.bsigroup.comwww.cen.euwww.iso.orghttp://www.bis.gov.uk/policies/innovation/standardisationhttp://bis.ecgroup.net/Publications/Innovation/Standardisation.aspx 18

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