BSI Biometrics Standards Presentation

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BSI Biometrics Standards Presentation.
View BSI’s presentation about biometric standards, and get an overview of biometrics and identity management, and standards development for biometrics.


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  • BSI Biometrics Standards Presentation

    1. 1. Biometric standards An overview of biometrics and identity management February 2010 Read more at BSI’s Biometrics website www.bsigroup.com/biometrics
    2. 2. The need to identify <ul><li>Every day we are required to identify ourselves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using a bank card with a PIN at a cash machine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A password to log on to a computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using a key to open a door </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Punching a code into a keypad to enter the workplace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using passwords on the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing a passport and driving licence as proof of identity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We need to be able to accurately IDENTIFY an individual to minimize current issues and threats </li></ul>
    3. 3. Current attributes used to identify <ul><li>Name </li></ul><ul><li>Address </li></ul><ul><li>Postcode </li></ul><ul><li>Date of Birth </li></ul><ul><li>Account no. </li></ul><ul><li>Passwords </li></ul><ul><li>PINs </li></ul><ul><li>Phone no. </li></ul><ul><li>Mother’s maiden name </li></ul><ul><li>Passport </li></ul><ul><li>Birth certificate </li></ul><ul><li>Driving licence </li></ul><ul><li>Credit cards </li></ul><ul><li>Utility bills </li></ul><ul><li>Membership cards </li></ul><ul><li>Salary slip </li></ul>
    4. 4. Is biometrics the answer? <ul><li>A biometric is part of the person and is not easily compromised through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simplifies user management resulting in cost savings </li></ul><ul><li>Users do not need to remember passwords </li></ul><ul><li>Users do not need to remember PINs </li></ul><ul><li>User accounts cannot be shared </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to use </li></ul>
    5. 5. Biometric definition <ul><li>The automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioural and biological characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The general meaning of biometrics encompasses counting, measuring and statistical analysis of any kind of data in the biological sciences including the relevant medical sciences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The term is derived from the Greek words “bios” meaning life and “metron” meaning measure </li></ul>
    6. 6. Biological and behavioural <ul><li>Biological </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fingerprint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Face (2D & 3D) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vein pattern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hand geometry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavioural </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gait </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keystroke dynamics </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Iris <ul><li>Captures the pattern of flecks on the iris </li></ul><ul><li>Uses conventional cameras </li></ul><ul><li>Average 2 seconds for identification </li></ul><ul><li>No physical contact between user and reader </li></ul>Read more about BSI’s biometrics standards development at the Biometrics website www.bsigroup.com/biometrics
    8. 8. Face <ul><li>Based upon the geometric shape and position of features of the face </li></ul><ul><li>Resistant to changes in skin tone, facial hair, hair style, and eyeglasses </li></ul><ul><li>No active user involvement required in order to perform identification/verification </li></ul><ul><li>Limited success in practical applications </li></ul>
    9. 9. Voice <ul><li>Analyses voice patterns and characteristics of speech e.g. pitch, tone, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>High user acceptance – perceived as least intrusive biometric technology </li></ul><ul><li>Easy for end users to implement </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal for telephone systems/mobile environments </li></ul>
    10. 10. Hand geometry <ul><li>Measures the physical characteristics of the user’s hand and fingers </li></ul><ul><li>Low level infrared light and camera used to capture an image </li></ul><ul><li>Suited to applications where there is a large user base or users access the system infrequently </li></ul><ul><li>Systems are easy to use and robust </li></ul>
    11. 11. Signature <ul><li>Based on analysis of the dynamics of a handwritten signature e.g. shape, speed, stroke order, pen pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Generally use pressure sensitive tablets or wired pens </li></ul><ul><li>User friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Non intrusive – minimal public acceptance issues </li></ul><ul><li>Captured signature can be used for digitally signing documents </li></ul>
    12. 12. Keystroke dynamics <ul><li>Monitors rate of typing and intervals between letters </li></ul><ul><li>Verification based on typing rhythm – intruders may guess password but fail to key in with correct rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>Neither enrolment nor verification disturbs the regular flow of work </li></ul><ul><li>Low cost – only hardware required is keyboard </li></ul>
    13. 13. Fingerprint <ul><li>Variety of fingerprint devices available (silicon and optical) </li></ul><ul><li>Template constructed by analysing patterns that make the fingerprint (minutiae) </li></ul>
    14. 14. DNA <ul><li>Forensic genetics use deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) profiling in a number of important human identity applications </li></ul><ul><li>0.01% of a person's entire genome is unique to each individual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This represents 3 million base pairs of DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>95% of the human genome are non-coding sequences (called junk DNA) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standard profiling systems only exploit the junk DNA to maintain the privacy and civil rights of the donor </li></ul>
    15. 15. Multimodal <ul><li>Combination of one or more biometrics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Algorithmic level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multimodal is the fusion of results with logic applied </li></ul>
    16. 16. Key multimodal facts <ul><li>Can be used to: </li></ul><ul><li>Improve reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Make forgery more difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Make systems more flexible to user characteristics (decreases failure to enrol) </li></ul><ul><li>Make systems more complex </li></ul><ul><li>Promote inclusivity </li></ul>Input Device Matching Result Input Device Matching Result Fusion Fusion Fusion
    17. 17. Verification versus Identification <ul><li>“Are you who you say you are?” </li></ul>“ Who are you?” NOT
    18. 18. Verification and Identification <ul><li>Verification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves confirming or denying a person’s claimed identity – Are you who you claim to be? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biometric sample captured and compared with the previously stored template for that user </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One-to-one comparison </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are you who you say you are? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I am who I say I am” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Means establishing a person’s identity from an already established list – Who are you from this list? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biometric sample presented to a system which searches the existing (enrolled) subjects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One-to-many comparison </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do I know you? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I am not known to you already” </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Identification before verification <ul><li>To establish a ‘clean’ database of individuals each individual first needs to be identified </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One-to-many match is performed against the central database to ensure the individual does not already exist under correct name or any other aliases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Once identity is established it can be sufficient to verify the individual as proof of identity only </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One-to-one match is performed at the point of interface without the need to check back to the central database </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Key Consideration in a biometric system Current & Future Technology Risk & Requirement Analysis Research & Development User Perception Accuracy & Throughput Integration Performance Business Process Strategy
    21. 21. Considerations of adding a biometric system <ul><li>Not all biometrics technologies suit all people </li></ul><ul><li>In many cases additional hardware is required </li></ul><ul><li>User co-operation is usually necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy concerns must be addressed </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of personal devices in large systems can be significant </li></ul><ul><li>User education is required </li></ul><ul><li>Biometric revocation must be considered as biometric data is not secret </li></ul>
    22. 22. Capture the legal and political imperatives <ul><li>Ask what additional considerations are there with a biometric application as opposed to any other IT deliverable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data access considerations (who and why)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensitivity of data? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislative limitations? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User acceptance? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standards compliance? </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. ISO/IEC JTC1 SC 37 Biometrics <ul><li>Currently 25 participating countries and 7 observer countries </li></ul><ul><li>Liaisons with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>JTC 1/SC 17 Cards and Personal Identification. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JTC 1/SC 24 Computer Graphics and Imaging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JTC 1/SC 27 Information Technology Security Techniques. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JTC 1/SC 29 Coding of Audio, Picture and Multimedia and Hypermedia Information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JTC 1/SC 31 Automatic Identification and Data Capture Techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JTC 1/SC 32 Data Management and Interchange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JTC 1/SC 36 Information Technology for Learning, Education and Training. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ITU-T SG17 Telecommunication Standardization Sector Study Group on Data Networks and Telecommunications Software. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BioAPI Consortium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IBIA International Biometrics Industry Association (IBIA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ILO International Labour Office of the UN </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. The benefits of standards for biometrics <ul><li>They foster wide spread utilization of the technology </li></ul><ul><li>They are a sign of industry maturity </li></ul><ul><li>They reduce time-to-market </li></ul><ul><li>They facilitate interchange and/or interoperability </li></ul><ul><li>They reduce risk to integrators and end users </li></ul><ul><li>They reduce vendor “lock-in” effect </li></ul>
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