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Block 5 SP 14

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  • One of the primary purposes of the Superpave asphalt binder testing is to use that data for the development of a purchase specification for asphalt binders.
  • These are the general references for all asphalt binder and HMA related topics. Websites for each of these organizations can be found using any search engine.
  • The PG Binder binder designation is based on expected extremes of hot and cold pavement temperatures.
  • This is the asphalt binder specification - it is defined by AASHTO T 312.
  • The approach to the PG system represents a change in philosophy. The specification requirement does not change; the temperature which the value has to meet changes with grade.
  • The high temperature stiffness is measured with the DSR using the asphalt binder in two different aging conditions. The non-aged condition is checked in case the asphalt binder is not sufficiently aged in the plant. The RTFO-aged residue is checked to ensure that the material has sufficient stiffness after mixing with the aggregate in the plant.
  • These values are minimums.
  • For fatigue cracking, the DSR is used a third time, to measure an intermediate stiffness on the PAV-aged residual. This is a check to see how stiff the asphalt binder will be after it has been in service for a period of time.
  • For fatigue cracking there is a maximum value.
  • For low temperature cracking the asphalt binder is aged in the PAV. The asphalt binder is tested with the BBR for a maximum stiffness (<= 300 MPa) and a minimum m-value (m>0.30).
  • If the asphalt binder passes the m-value but fails the stiffness value it is then tested in the direct tension device and checked.
  • These miscellaneous requirements have been used for years.
    The viscosity requirement is there to insure that the material can be pumped.
    The flash-point is there for safety reasons.
    Mass loss indicates the amount of volatiles evaporating during the mixing and construction process.
  • Many states have divided their territory into different regions. How many regions depends on the variation of climates.
  • We use a normal distribution to describe the range of temperatures at a site. By selecting a higher reliability, you can move further out on the “tail” and reduce the amount of risk of encountering a temperature that exceeds the design temperature.
  • For this example - Topeka, KS was used. 98% reliability is approximately 2 standard deviations.
  • These are the high and low temperature ranges for Topeka.
  • The software can be used to calculate the HMA pavement temperatures (using air temperatures, depth and latitude).
  • For the low temperature use the air temperature.
  • As the speed decreases, the needed stiffness for the asphalt binder increases.
  • As the amount of traffic increases there is a need for a stiffer asphalt binder.
  • The ESAL (equivalent single axle load) concept was developed at the AASHO road test. It is a method of measuring truck volume.
  • This provides a brief summary of the steps needed to determine if an material meets a particular PG asphalt binder specification.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Senior/Graduate HMA Course Superpave Asphalt Binder Specifications Asphalt Binder Superpave Specifications 1
    • 2. Sources of Information • American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials (AASHTO) • Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) • Departments of Transportations (DOT) for individual States • National Asphalt Pavement Association (NAPA) • National Center for Asphalt Technology (NCAT) • The Asphalt Institute (AI) Asphalt Binder Superpave Specifications 2
    • 3. Superpave Asphalt Binder Specification The grading system is based on Climate PG 64 - 22 Min pavement temperature Performance Grade Average 7-day max pavement temperature Asphalt Binder Superpave Specifications 3
    • 4. Performance Grades CEC Avg 7-day Max, oC PG 46 1-day Min, oC PG 52 PG 58 PG 64 PG 70 PG 76 PG 82 -34 -40 -46 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -46 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 ORIGINAL > 230 oC (Flash Point) (Rotational Viscosity) < 3 Pa.s @ 135 oC 46 52 58 64 (ROLLING THIN FILM OVEN) 46 52 58 90 90 10 S < 300 MPa 7 4 25 22 19 m > 0.300 16 13 10 7 25 22 19 16 13 31 0 -6 Report Value -12 -18 -24 -30 -36 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 82 PAV 100 (110) 110 (110) DSR G* sin δ 28 0 (Bending Beam Rheometer) > 1.00 % Asphalt Binder 76 100 (110) ( Bending Beam Rheometer) -24 -30 -36 -18 -24 70 100 (Dynamic Shear Rheometer) < 5000 kPa 82 Mass Loss < 1.00 % 64 100 76 DSR G*/sin δ (PRESSURE AGING VESSEL) 20 Hours, 2.07 MPa 70 RTFO (Dynamic Shear Rheometer) > 2.20 kPa RV DSR G*/sin δ (Dynamic Shear Rheometer) > 1.00 kPa FP 25 22 19 16 34 31 28 BBR “S” Stiffness -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 BBR 0 -6 25 22 19 37 34 31 28 25 40 37 34 28 31 & “m”- value -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 0 -6 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 0 -6 -12 Physical Hardening (Direct Tension) DT Superpave Specifications -24 -30 -36 -18 -24 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 -36 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -12 -18 -24 -30 4 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30
    • 5. How the PG Spec Works CEC Spec Requirement 1-day Min, C Remains Constant Avg 7-day Max, oC PG 46 o PG 52 PG 58 PG 64 PG 76 PG 82 -34 -40 -46 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -46 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 ORIGINAL > 230 oC (Flash Point) (Rotational Viscosity) < 3 Pa.s @ 135 oC 46 58 58 52 52 58 90 90 7 4 25 22 19 m > 0.300 16 13 10 7 25 22 19 16 13 31 0 -6 Report Value -12 -18 -24 -30 -36 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 82 PAV 100 (110) 110 (110) DSR G* sin δ 28 0 (Bending Beam Rheometer) > 1.00 % Asphalt Binder 82 76 100 (110) ( Bending Beam Rheometer) -24 -30 -36 -18 -24 70 100 (Dynamic Shear Rheometer) 10 76 Mass Loss < 1.00 % 64 100 Test Temperature < 5000 kPa Changes 70 DSR G*/sin δ (PRESSURE AGING VESSEL) 20 Hours, 2.07 MPa 64 RTFO (Dynamic Shear Rheometer) 46 RV 64 (ROLLING THIN FILM OVEN) > 2.20 kPa FP DSR G*/sin δ (Dynamic Shear Rheometer) > 1.00 kPa S < 300 MPa PG 70 25 22 19 16 34 31 28 BBR “S” Stiffness -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 BBR 0 -6 25 22 19 37 34 31 28 25 40 37 34 28 31 & “m”- value -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 0 -6 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 0 -6 -12 Physical Hardening (Direct Tension) DT Superpave Specifications -24 -30 -36 -18 -24 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 -36 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -12 -18 -24 -30 5 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30
    • 6. Permanent Deformation CEC Avg 7-day Max, oC PG 46 1-day Min, oC PG 52 PG 58 PG 64 PG 70 PG 76 PG 82 -34 -40 -46 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -46 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 ORIGINAL > 230 oC (Flash Point) (Rotational Viscosity) < 3 Pa.s @ 135 oC 46 52 58 64 (ROLLING THIN FILM OVEN) •Unaged > 2.20 kPa •RTFO Aged 52 58 90 90 10 S < 300 MPa 7 4 25 22 19 m > 0.300 16 13 10 7 25 22 19 16 13 31 0 -6 Report Value -12 -18 -24 -30 -36 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 82 PAV 100 (110) 110 (110) DSR G* sin δ 28 0 (Bending Beam Rheometer) > 1.00 % Asphalt Binder 76 100 (110) ( Bending Beam Rheometer) -24 -30 -36 -18 -24 70 100 (Dynamic Shear Rheometer) < 5000 kPa 82 Mass Loss < 1.00 % 64 100 76 DSR G*/sin δ (PRESSURE AGING VESSEL) 20 Hours, 2.07 MPa 70 RTFO (Dynamic Shear Rheometer) 46 RV DSR G*/sin δ (Dynamic Shear Rheometer) > 1.00 kPa FP 25 22 19 16 34 31 28 BBR “S” Stiffness -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 BBR 0 -6 25 22 19 37 34 31 28 25 40 37 34 28 31 & “m”- value -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 0 -6 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 0 -6 -12 Physical Hardening (Direct Tension) DT Superpave Specifications -24 -30 -36 -18 -24 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 -36 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -12 -18 -24 -30 6 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30
    • 7. Permanent Deformation • Addressed by high temp stiffness – G*/sin δ on unaged asphalt binder > 1.00 kPa – G*/sin δ on RTFO aged asphalt binder > 2.20 kPa Heavy Trucks Asphalt Binder Superpave Specifications > Early part of pavement service life 7
    • 8. Fatigue Cracking CEC Avg 7-day Max, oC PG 46 1-day Min, oC PG 52 PG 58 PG 64 PG 70 PG 76 PG 82 -34 -40 -46 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -46 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 ORIGINAL > 230 oC (Flash Point) (Rotational Viscosity) < 3 Pa.s @ 135 oC 46 52 58 64 (ROLLING THIN FILM OVEN) 46 52 58 90 90 10 7 4 25 22 19 m > 0.300 PAV Aged S < 300 MPa 16 13 10 7 25 22 19 16 13 31 0 -6 Report Value -12 -18 -24 -30 -36 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 82 PAV 100 (110) 110 (110) DSR G* sin δ 28 0 (Bending Beam Rheometer) > 1.00 % Asphalt Binder 76 100 (110) ( Bending Beam Rheometer) -24 -30 -36 -18 -24 70 100 (Dynamic Shear Rheometer) < 5000 kPa 82 Mass Loss < 1.00 % 64 100 76 DSR G*/sin δ (PRESSURE AGING VESSEL) 20 Hours, 2.07 MPa 70 RTFO (Dynamic Shear Rheometer) > 2.20 kPa RV DSR G*/sin δ (Dynamic Shear Rheometer) > 1.00 kPa FP 25 22 19 16 34 31 28 BBR “S” Stiffness -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 BBR 0 -6 25 22 19 37 34 31 28 25 40 37 34 28 31 & “m”- value -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 0 -6 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 0 -6 -12 Physical Hardening (Direct Tension) DT Superpave Specifications -24 -30 -36 -18 -24 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 -36 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -12 -18 -24 -30 8 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30
    • 9. Fatigue Cracking • Addressed by intermediate temperature stiffness – G*sin δ on RTFO & PAV aged asphalt binder < 5000 kPa > Later part of pavement service life Asphalt Binder Superpave Specifications 9
    • 10. Low Temperature Cracking CEC Avg 7-day Max, oC 1-day Min, oC PG 46 PG 52 PG 58 PG 64 PG 70 PG 76 PG 82 -34 -40 -46 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -46 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 ORIGINAL > 230 oC (Flash Point) (Rotational Viscosity) < 3 Pa.s @ 135 oC (Dynamic Shear Rheometer) > 1.00 kPa 46 52 52 90 10 7 4 25 22 m > 0.300 PAV Aged 19 16 13 10 7 100 25 22 16 13 0 -6 Report Value -12 -18 -24 -30 -36 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 31 0 (Bending Beam Rheometer) > 1.00 % Asphalt Binder 76 82 PAV 100 (110) 110 (110) DSR G* sin δ ( Bending Beam Rheometer) -24 -30 -36 -18 -24 70 100 (110) 19 82 Mass Loss < 1.00 % 64 (Dynamic Shear Rheometer) < 5000 kPa S < 300 MPa 100 76 DSR G*/sin δ 58 90 70 RTFO (PRESSURE AGING VESSEL) 20 Hours, 2.07 MPa DSR G*/sin δ 64 (Dynamic Shear Rheometer) 46 RV 58 (ROLLING THIN FILM OVEN) > 2.20 kPa FP 28 25 22 19 16 34 31 BBR “S” Stiffness -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 BBR 0 -6 28 25 22 19 37 34 31 28 25 40 37 28 34 31 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 0 -6 -12 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 0 & “m”- value -12 -18 -24 -30 Physical Hardening (Direct Tension) DT Superpave Specifications -24 -30 -36 -18 -24 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 -36 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 10 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 -6 -12
    • 11. Low Temperature Cracking CEC Avg 7-day Max, oC 1-day Min, oC PG 46 PG 52 PG 58 PG 64 PG 70 PG 76 PG 82 -34 -40 -46 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -46 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 ORIGINAL > 230 oC (Flash Point) (Rotational Viscosity) < 3 Pa.s @ 135 oC (Dynamic Shear Rheometer) > 1.00 kPa 46 52 52 90 10 7 4 25 22 m > 0.300 PAV Aged 19 16 13 10 7 100 25 22 16 13 0 -6 Report Value -12 -18 -24 -30 -36 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 31 0 (Bending Beam Rheometer) > 1.00 % Asphalt Binder 76 82 PAV 100 (110) 110 (110) DSR G* sin δ ( Bending Beam Rheometer) -24 -30 -36 -18 -24 70 100 (110) 19 82 Mass Loss < 1.00 % 64 (Dynamic Shear Rheometer) < 5000 kPa S < 300 MPa 100 76 DSR G*/sin δ 58 90 70 RTFO (PRESSURE AGING VESSEL) 20 Hours, 2.07 MPa DSR G*/sin δ 64 (Dynamic Shear Rheometer) 46 RV 58 (ROLLING THIN FILM OVEN) > 2.20 kPa FP 28 25 22 19 16 34 31 BBR “S” Stiffness -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 BBR 0 -6 28 25 22 19 37 34 31 28 25 40 37 28 34 31 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 0 -6 -12 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 0 & “m”- value -12 -18 -24 -30 Physical Hardening (Direct Tension) DT Superpave Specifications -24 -30 -36 -18 -24 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 -36 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 11 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 -6 -12
    • 12. Miscellaneous Spec Requirements CEC Avg 7-day Max, oC PG 46 1-day Min, oC PG 52 PG 58 PG 64 PG 70 PG 76 PG 82 -34 -40 -46 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -46 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 ORIGINAL > 230 oC Flash < 3 Pa.s Point 135 C @ (Flash Point) (Rotational Viscosity) o (Dynamic Shear Rheometer) > 1.00 kPa 46 52 52 90 100 10 7 4 25 22 m > 0.300 19 16 13 10 7 25 22 16 13 0 -6 Report Value -12 -18 -24 -30 -36 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 31 0 (Bending Beam Rheometer) > 1.00 % Asphalt Binder 76 82 PAV 100 (110) 110 (110) DSR G* sin δ ( Bending Beam Rheometer) -24 -30 -36 -18 -24 70 100 (110) 19 82 Mass Loss 64 (Dynamic Shear Rheometer) < 5000 kPa S < 300 MPa 100 76 Mass Loss < 1.00 % DSR G*/sin δ 58 90 70 RTFO (PRESSURE AGING VESSEL) 20 Hours, 2.07 MPa DSR G*/sin δ 64 (Dynamic Shear Rheometer) 46 RV 58 (ROLLING THIN FILM OVEN) > 2.20 kPa FP 28 25 22 19 16 34 31 BBR “S” Stiffness -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 BBR 0 -6 28 25 22 19 37 34 31 28 25 40 37 28 34 31 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 0 -6 -12 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 0 & “m”- value -12 -18 -24 -30 Physical Hardening (Direct Tension) DT Superpave Specifications -24 -30 -36 -18 -24 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 -36 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 12 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 -6 -12
    • 13. PG Binder Selection PG 52-28 PG 58-22 Asphalt Binder > Many agencies have established zones PG 58-16 Superpave Specifications PG 64-10 13
    • 14. Developed from Air Temperatures > 20 years • Superpave Weather Database SHR A-6 4 P – 6500 stations in U.S. and Canada 8A • Annual air temperatures – hottest seven-day temp (avg and std dev) – coldest temp (avg and std dev) • Calculated HMA pavement temps used in PG selection Asphalt Binder Superpave Specifications 14
    • 15. Reliability • Percent Probability of Not Exceeding Design Temp > using Normal Distribution Reliability is area under curve to the left of Tdes frequency of observed temps (Total area under curve = 100 %) Tavg Asphalt Binder Tdes Superpave Specifications 15
    • 16. Observed Air Temperatures Topeka, KS 50 % reliability average summer very hot summer 98 % reliability 36 40 > this data - standard deviation of 2°C 7-Day Maximum Air Temperatures Asphalt Binder Superpave Specifications 16
    • 17. Observed Air Temperatures Topeka, KS 36 very cold winter 40 average winter -31 -23 > standard deviation of 4°C -40 -30 Asphalt Binder -20 -10 0 10 20 Superpave Specifications 30 40 50 60 17
    • 18. Convert to Pavement Temperature • Calculated by Superpave software • High Temperature – 20 mm (1.78”) below surface of mixture • Low Temperature – at surface of mixture Pavt Temp = f ( Air Temp, Depth, Latitude ) Asphalt Binder Superpave Specifications 18
    • 19. Calculated Pavement Temperatures Topeka, KS pvt > air 56 60 -31 -23 pvt = air -40 -30 Asphalt Binder -20 -10 0 10 20 Superpave Specifications 30 40 50 60 70 19
    • 20. PG Asphalt Binder Grades Topeka, KS PG 64-34 (98% minimum reliability) PG 58-28 (50 % minimum reliability) PG asphalt binder grades six degree increments -40 -30 -20 Asphalt Binder -10 0 10 20 30 Superpave Specifications 40 50 60 70 20
    • 21. Effect of Rounding to Standard Grades PG 58-28 (50 % minimum reliability) PG 58 provides 85% reliability PG -28 provides 90% reliability -40 -30 -20 Asphalt Binder -10 0 10 20 30 Superpave Specifications 40 50 60 70 21
    • 22. Effect of Rounding to Standard Grades -16 -22 needed grade for 50% reliability -28 selected grade for 50% reliability Rounding depends on actual temps! -28 -23 Minimum Pavement Temperatures Asphalt Binder Superpave Specifications 22
    • 23. Effect of Loading Rate on Selection 90 kph • Dilemma – specified DSR loading rate is 10 rad/sec – what about longer loading times ? • Use asphalt binder with more stiffness at higher temperatures – slow - - increase one high temperature grade – stationary - - increase two high temperature grades – no effect on low temperature grade Asphalt Binder Superpave Specifications 23
    • 24. Effect of Loading Rate on Selection • Example – for toll road – for toll booth – for weigh stations 90 kph or 56 mph PG 64-22 PG 70-22 PG 76-22 Slow Stopping Asphalt Binder Superpave Specifications 24
    • 25. Effect of Traffic Amount on Selection 80 kN ESALs • 10 - 30 x 106 ESAL – Consider increasing - - one high temp grade • 30 x 106 + ESAL – Recommend increasing - - one high temp grade > Equivalent Single Axle Loads Asphalt Binder Superpave Specifications 25
    • 26. ESAL Comparison 80 kN 100 kN 44 kN 18,000 lb. 22,000 lb. 10,000 lb. 1 ESAL Asphalt Binder 2.2 ESAL Superpave Specifications .09 ESAL 26
    • 27. 1 - 18 Wheeler 1950 - Cars 13 - Delivery Trucks .25 - Tour Bus Asphalt Binder Superpave Specifications 27
    • 28. Little Truck 67 kN 27 kN 15,000 lb + 6,000 lb 0.48 ESAL 0.01 ESAL = 0.49 ESALs BIG TRUCK 151 kN 34,000 lb 1.10 Asphalt Binder + 151 kN 54 kN 34,000 lb + 12,000 lb 1.10 0.19 Superpave Specifications = 2.39 ESALs 28
    • 29. How the PG Spec Works CEC Spec Requirement PG 46 PG 52 1-day Min, C Remains Constant Avg 7-day Max, oC o PG 58 PG 64 PG 70 PG 76 PG 82 -34 -40 -46 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -46 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 ORIGINAL > 230 oC (Flash Point) (Rotational Viscosity) < 3 Pa.s @ 135 oC 46 58 58 52 64 (ROLLING THIN FILM OVEN) 46 52 58 90 90 100 S < 300 MPa 7 4 25 22 19 m > 0.300 16 13 10 7 25 22 19 13 31 0 -6 Report Value -12 -18 -24 -30 -36 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 82 PAV 100 (110) 110 (110) DSR G* sin δ 28 0 (Bending Beam Rheometer) > 1.00 % Asphalt Binder 82 76 100 (110) ( Bending Beam Rheometer) -24 -30 -36 -18 -24 70 100 16 76 Mass Loss < 1.00 % 64 Test Temperature Rheometer) (Dynamic Shear < 5000 kPa Changes 10 70 DSR G*/sin δ (PRESSURE AGING VESSEL) 20 Hours, 2.07 MPa 64 RTFO (Dynamic Shear Rheometer) > 2.20 kPa RV DSR G*/sin δ (Dynamic Shear Rheometer) > 1.00 kPa FP 25 22 19 16 34 31 28 BBR “S” Stiffness -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 BBR 0 -6 25 22 19 37 34 31 28 25 40 37 34 28 31 -6 & “m”- value -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 0 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 0 Physical Hardening (Direct Tension) DT Superpave Specifications -24 -30 -36 -18 -24 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 -36 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -12 -18 -24 -30 29 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 -6 -12
    • 30. Summary of How to Use PG Asphalt Binder Specification • Determine – 7-day max pavement temperatures – 1-day minimum pavement temperature • Use specification tables to select test temperatures • Determine asphalt cement properties and compare to specification limits Asphalt Binder Superpave Specifications 30
    • 31. QUESTIONS? Asphalt Binder Superpave Specifications 31

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