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# Block 11 blending gradations 13

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• We blend aggregates for these reasons.
• There are two methods for blending aggregates. The most common is trial and error. The basic formula is not used.
• The ability of a given set of aggregate stockpiles to meet particular gradation band requirements can be initially assessed by plotting the individual stockpile and gradation band requirements
• If the individual gradations bracket the gradation band, then it is possible to produce a combined gradation which will be within the gradation band. Determining the percentages will be a trial and error process.
• If the individual stockpile gradations are both either above or below the target gradation band, then there is no combination of the stockpiles which will produce an acceptable gradation.
• If the individual stockpile gradations cross, then the any combination of these stockpiles will have that same percentage for that particular sieve size.
• Once it has been established that an acceptable gradation can be prepared using the designated stockpiles, these steps need to be followed to determine the desired percentages of each stockpile.
• This is the basic formula for blending.
• Example. Starting with two aggregates.
• The first trial we will use 50% of each pile.
• This worked but the No. 50 sieve and the No 100 sieve are low.
• Remember, two specific gravity tests are needed. The results from these two tests need to be combined to obtain the specific gravity of the composite.
• This is the equation used for combining aggregate properties.
• ### Block 11 blending gradations 13

1. 1. Senior/Graduate HMA Course Blending Aggregate StockpilesAggregates Blending Stockpiles 1
2. 2. Blending of Aggregates• Reasons for Blending – Obtain desirable gradation – Single natural or quarried material not enough – Economical to combine natural and process materials Aggregates Blending Stockpiles 2
3. 3. Blending of Aggregates• Numerical Method – Trial and Error – Basic Formula Aggregates Blending Stockpiles 3
4. 4. Blending Stockpiles • Plot individual gradations • Plot specification limits • Can be used for initial assessment – Can blend be made from available materials? – Identification of critical sieves – Est. trial proportionsAggregates Blending Stockpiles 4
5. 5. All possible combinations fall between A and B Control points for Percent Passing, % 12. 5 nominal max. size 100 90 Gradation B 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 Gradation A 10 0 0.075 0.3 1 .18 4.75 9.5 12.5 19 Sieve Size, mm Aggregates Blending Stockpiles 5
6. 6. No poss. combination of A and B will meet spec. Percent Passing, % 100 90 Gradation B Gradation A 80 70 60 50 40 Control points for 30 12. 5 nominal max. size 20 10 0 0.075 0.3 1 .18 4.75 9.5 12.5 19 Sieve Size, mm Aggregates Blending Stockpiles 6
7. 7. All poss. combinations pass through cross-over pointBlends containing more A than B will be closer to A Percent Passing, % 100 90 80 Gradation A 70 60 Gradation B 50 40 30 20 Control points for 12. 5 nominal max. size 10 0 0.075 0.3 1 .18 4.75 9.5 12.5 19 Sieve Size, mm Aggregates Blending Stockpiles 7
8. 8. Trial and Error Steps• Select critical sieves in blend• Determine initial proportions which will meet critical sieves• Check calc. blend against specification• Adjust if necessary and repeat above steps Aggregates Blending Stockpiles 8
9. 9. Blending of Aggregates· P = Aa + Bb + Cc + …. – Where: • P = % of material passing a given sieve for the blended aggregates A, B, C, … • A, B, C, … = % material passing a given sieve for each aggregate A, B, C, ….. • a, b, c, …. = Proportions (decimal fractions) of aggregates A, B, C, … to be used in Blend Aggregates Blending Stockpiles 9
10. 10. Blending of AggregatesMaterial Agg. #1 Agg. #2 % Used Blend Target % % % %U.S. Sieve Passing Batch Passing Batch 3/8 “ 100 100 No. 4 90 100 No. 8 30 100No. 16 7 88No. 30 3 47No. 50 1 32No. 100 0 24 No. 200 0 10 Aggregates Blending Stockpiles 10
11. 11. Blending of AggregatesMaterial Agg. #1 Agg. #2 First Try (remember trial & error) % Used 50 % 50 % Blend Target % % % %U.S. Sieve Passing Batch Passing Batch 3/8 “ 100 50 100 100 * 0.5 = 50 100 No. 4 90 45 100 90 * 0.5 = 45 80 - 100 No. 8 30 15 100 30 * 0.5 = 15 65 - 100No. 16 7 3.5 88 7 * 0.5 = 3.5 40 - 80No. 30 3 1.5 47 3 * 0.5 = 1.5 20 - 65No. 50 1 0.5 32 1 * 0.5 = 0.5 7 - 40No. 100 0 0 24 0 * 0.5 = 50 3 - 20 No. 200 0 0 10 0 * 0.5 = 0 2 - 10 Aggregates Blending Stockpiles 11
12. 12. Blending of AggregatesMaterial Agg. #1 Agg. #2 % Used 50 % 50 % Blend Target % % % %U.S. Sieve Passing Batch Passing Batch 3/8 “ 100 50 100 50 100 100 No. 4 90 45 100 50 95 80 - 100 No. 8 30 15 100 50 65 65 - 100No. 16 7 3.5 88 44 47.5 40 - 80No. 30 3 1.5 47 23.5 25 20 - 65No. 50 1 0.5 32 16 16.5 7 - 40No. 100 0 0 24 12 12 3 - 20No. 200 0 0 10 5 5 2 - 10 Aggregates Blending Stockpiles 12
13. 13. Blending of AggregatesMaterial Agg. #1 Agg. #2 % Used 50 % 50 % Blend Target % % % %U.S. Sieve Passing Batch Passing Batch 3/8 “ 100 50 100Let’s Try50 100 100 No. 4 90 45 100 and get 50 95 80 - 100 No. 8 30 15 100little closer a 50 65 65 - 100No. 16 7 3.5 to the middle of 88 44 47.5 40 - 80 the target values.No. 30 3 1.5 47 23.5 25 20 - 65No. 50 1 0.5 32 16 16.5 7 - 40No. 100 0 0 24 12 12 3 - 20 No. 200 0 0 10 5 5 2 - 10 Aggregates Blending Stockpiles 13
14. 14. Blending of AggregatesMaterial Agg. #1 Agg. #2 % Used 30 % 70 % Blend Target % % % %U.S. Sieve Passing Batch Passing Batch 3/8 “ 100 30 100 70 100 100 No. 4 90 27 100 70 97 80 - 100 No. 8 30 9 100 70 79 65 - 100No. 16 7 2.1 88 61.6 63.7 40 - 80No. 30 3 0.9 47 32.9 33.8 20 - 65No. 50 1 0.3 32 22.4 22.7 7 - 40No. 100 0 0 24 16.8 16.8 3 - 20 No. 200 0 0 10 7 7 2 - 10 Aggregates Blending Stockpiles 14
15. 15. Blended Aggregate Specific Gravities • Once the percentages of the stockpiles have been established, the combined aggregate specific gravities can also be calculatedAggregates Blending Stockpiles 15
16. 16. Combined Specific Gravities 1 G= P1 + P2 + ……. Pn 100 G1 100 G2 100 GnAggregates Blending Stockpiles 16
17. 17. QUESTIONS?Aggregates Blending Stockpiles 17