A Review of Technological
Improvements in BRT and BHLS
Hidalgo D. and Muñoz J.C.
Forthcoming: Public Transport 2013
BRT
“flexible, rubber-tired
form of rapid transit
that combines stations,
vehicles, services,
running ways and
information...
Key BRT Components
Segregated
Busways
Stations with
prepayment and
level boarding
Large buses with
multiple doors
Distinct...
BHLS
“is an urban transport system
integrating a bus, but within
new conditions providing an
increase in performance
thank...
Key BHLS Components (for better performance)
The Busway – Nantes
Running
ways
Stations
Vehicles
Intelligent Transportation...
evolution of the # of cities and km per decade
Total length
Before 1990 (16 cities)
1991 - 2000 (19 cities)
2001 - 2010 (1...
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
0
5
10
15
20
25
1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
CumulativeNumberofCities
NewCities...
Curitiba, RIT, 72 km median busways
1.2 million passengers per day
Initial Bus Corridor 1972
Full BRT in 1982
1. Making buses run like surface metro –
Curitiba 1982
median bus-ways longitudinally
segregated
tube stations with fare
p...
2010
Evolution of the Integrated Network
Source: Prefeitura de Curitiba, Parana
“Linha Verde” Curitiba
Corredor de 18 Km
2009
Fotos: Prefeitura de Curitiba, Parana
Expansión de Capacidad
“Corredor Boqueirao”
2010
Foto:PrefeituradeCuritiba,Parana
2. Implementing buses of high level of service,
The Trans Val de Marne TVM – Paris 1993
Implementing buses of high level of service,
The Trans Val de Marne TVM – Paris 1993
Is the most used BHLS
1993 (13 km) an...
Implementing buses of high level of service,
The Trans Val de Marne TVM – Paris 1993
Information systems
23 km/h
17 km/h m...
Quito, Metrobús-Q
Initial corridor 1995
Trolebus in Historic Disctrict
3. Expanding capacity with advanced operations
Bogotá, 2000
Very high capacity
48,000 pphpd
Bogotá, TransMilenio, 90 Km busways
1,8 milion pax/day
Bogotá TransMilenio
Eje Ambiental Avenida Jiménez
PhotoITDP
Express Way Lanes
TransMilenio, Bogota
4. Integrating transit services across
modes and services – Santiago 2007
Single process
(¿big bang?)
Fare integration
Route optimization
Formalization of
providers
Elimination of
“competition on ...
The planning and implementation team was too
optimistic - the reform resulted in serious difficulties
Despite the initial difficulties, Santiago has
risen to a higher level of performance
The current system is
better than th...
High commercial speed
42 km/h (now 35 km/h)
5. Introducing high speed buses on
expressways – Istanbul 2008
45 Km central bus ways on
expressway (100% segregated)
Long station platforms -90m,
separated 1.1 km on average
Non-grade ...
Expresso Tiradentes – Sao Paulo
Foto: SPTrans
35,800 pax/day/km
6. Reducing transfers with direct services –
Guangzhou 2010
22.5 km corridor
Long stations –from
55m to 260m, with
overtaking lanes
Combines multiple
direct services on the
same infr...
Future of BRT
Running way guidance
Vehicle propulsion technologies
Information technologies
Fare collection
Planning and c...
Running way guidance
Essen since 1980,
Leeds, Cambridge
since august 2011
Rouen, France (2001),
Castellón de la Plana,
Spa...
O-Bahn, Adelaide, Australia
Opened in 1986
12 Km, guided, $98 MM Aus (including buses), up to 18,000 pax/hour
Km
(Pax/Day)
Type of
Guidance
Capital Cost
(M€)
Cost/Km
(M€)
Teor – Rouen,
France
30
(49,000)
Optical Infra 165
Buses 28
T...
Vehicle propulsion technologies
Diesel - reduction of the fuel´s sulfur content,
engine improvements and filters and catal...
Propulsion Standard Articulated Double-
articulated
Diesel 200 300 600
CNG 250 350 650
Hybrid 300 500 850
Trolley 400 650 ...
Standard Articulated
Double-
Articulated
Diesel 12 m 18 m 25 m
High Floor with
stairs
90-150 NA NA
High Floor
without stai...
Meta-analysis of Exhaust Emissions
http://www.embarq.org/en/pro
ject/sustainable-urban-
transport-fuels-and-vehicles-
prog...
Fuels and Technologies
Fuels Exhaust After Treatment Technologies
Diesel (and Hybrids) OC – Oxidation Catalyst
DPF – Diese...
CO results graph
Older technology
THC results graph
Older CNG tech (mostly due to methane)
NOx results graph
CNG with 3WC
Biodiesel
ULSD with SCR
PM results graph
Diesel without
emission control
technologies
CO2e results graph
ULSD, EGR, DPF, Hybrid
CNG, B20
w/o emission
control
technologies
CO THC NOx PM CO2
LNG High Very High Medium Very Low
E95 Very High Very High Very High Very High
E93 Very High Very High M...
ITS – Fare Collection
Advanced contactless smart cards are
the most common media; flexible,
secure, convenient
Technologie...
Advanced route design –
heuristics
Bus and crew scheduling
Advanced bus and crew
scheduling
Advanced operational
control A...
Avoiding Bus Bunching through Real Time
Control Strategies
Delgado, Muñoz, Giesen
No
Control Proposed
Wfirst 7636.32 1438.62
Std. Dev. 649.36 146.56
% reduction -81.16
Wextra 6218.71 1010.52
Std. Dev. 226...
5. Results: Bus Loads
(Capacity reached & high frequency)
5. Results: Cycle Time
(Capacity reached & high frequency)
27-09-2013 52
Results: Waiting time Distribution Scenario 1
(Capacity reached & high frequency)
% of passengers that have to wait betwee...
http://www.embarq.org/en/node/4923
¡Muchas Gracias!
Volvo Research and Educational
Foundations
Technological improvements in BRT and BHLS Oxford sept 2013
Technological improvements in BRT and BHLS Oxford sept 2013
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Technological improvements in BRT and BHLS Oxford sept 2013

  1. 1. A Review of Technological Improvements in BRT and BHLS Hidalgo D. and Muñoz J.C. Forthcoming: Public Transport 2013
  2. 2. BRT “flexible, rubber-tired form of rapid transit that combines stations, vehicles, services, running ways and information technologies into an integrated system with strong identity” (Levinson et. al, 2003b)
  3. 3. Key BRT Components Segregated Busways Stations with prepayment and level boarding Large buses with multiple doors Distinctive Image Centralized Control Macrobús – Guadalajara
  4. 4. BHLS “is an urban transport system integrating a bus, but within new conditions providing an increase in performance thanks to a triple optimization of: The internal characteristics of the technical and commercial offer. The integration of this offer into the whole public transport network. The integration of this network into the urban area” (Finn et. al, 2011) Cambridge, UK
  5. 5. Key BHLS Components (for better performance) The Busway – Nantes Running ways Stations Vehicles Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), operation management tools Identity of the BHLS scheme
  6. 6. evolution of the # of cities and km per decade Total length Before 1990 (16 cities) 1991 - 2000 (19 cities) 2001 - 2010 (103 cities)507 km 1025 km 3707 km BRT and busway systems in the world Since 2011 (22 cities) 4119 km source: BRTdata.org, August 2013
  7. 7. 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 0 5 10 15 20 25 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 CumulativeNumberofCities NewCities Evolution of the number of cities per year BRT and busway systems in the world 2010: Guangzhou, Hefei, Yancheng, Zaozhuang – China; Jaipur - India; Bangkok - Thailand; East London Transit – UK; Barranquilla, Bucaramanga – Colombia; Ecatepec- Mexico; Brampton – Canada; … 2000: Bogotá (TransMilenio), Colombia 1974/1991*: Curitiba source: BRTdata.org, August 2013 1972/2010*: Lima * Busway / BRT year commenced
  8. 8. Curitiba, RIT, 72 km median busways 1.2 million passengers per day Initial Bus Corridor 1972 Full BRT in 1982
  9. 9. 1. Making buses run like surface metro – Curitiba 1982 median bus-ways longitudinally segregated tube stations with fare prepayment and level access physical and fare integration dispatch control at terminal stations. differentiated services: Expresso, Ligerao, Ligeirinho, Interbairros, Alimentador Special services downtown, hospitals, touristic bus, schools
  10. 10. 2010 Evolution of the Integrated Network Source: Prefeitura de Curitiba, Parana
  11. 11. “Linha Verde” Curitiba Corredor de 18 Km 2009 Fotos: Prefeitura de Curitiba, Parana
  12. 12. Expansión de Capacidad “Corredor Boqueirao” 2010 Foto:PrefeituradeCuritiba,Parana
  13. 13. 2. Implementing buses of high level of service, The Trans Val de Marne TVM – Paris 1993
  14. 14. Implementing buses of high level of service, The Trans Val de Marne TVM – Paris 1993 Is the most used BHLS 1993 (13 km) and 2007 (7 km) 20 km bus lanes, 95% dedicated, mostly central segregated 29 stations (@ 700m) 39 articulated buses, specially designed and branded for the system
  15. 15. Implementing buses of high level of service, The Trans Val de Marne TVM – Paris 1993 Information systems 23 km/h 17 km/h minimum peak 3.5 min headway (peak) Interval plus 3 minutes for 96% of the pax 66,000 trips/day, growing 7% per year Good integration with pedestrians and rail (4 RER and 1 subway) New vehicle Créalis for the BHLS routes
  16. 16. Quito, Metrobús-Q Initial corridor 1995
  17. 17. Trolebus in Historic Disctrict
  18. 18. 3. Expanding capacity with advanced operations Bogotá, 2000 Very high capacity 48,000 pphpd
  19. 19. Bogotá, TransMilenio, 90 Km busways 1,8 milion pax/day
  20. 20. Bogotá TransMilenio Eje Ambiental Avenida Jiménez PhotoITDP
  21. 21. Express Way Lanes TransMilenio, Bogota
  22. 22. 4. Integrating transit services across modes and services – Santiago 2007
  23. 23. Single process (¿big bang?) Fare integration Route optimization Formalization of providers Elimination of “competition on the street”
  24. 24. The planning and implementation team was too optimistic - the reform resulted in serious difficulties
  25. 25. Despite the initial difficulties, Santiago has risen to a higher level of performance The current system is better than the one it replaced Reductions in travel times, emissions and traffic incidents Still a lot to improve Traffic Fatalities in Santiago Source: CONACET 6366 4951 3406 3291 3047 2937 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
  26. 26. High commercial speed 42 km/h (now 35 km/h) 5. Introducing high speed buses on expressways – Istanbul 2008
  27. 27. 45 Km central bus ways on expressway (100% segregated) Long station platforms -90m, separated 1.1 km on average Non-grade queue jumpers to access the Bosphorus Bridge, (mixed traffic) Low floor buses (articulated and bi-articulated) 30,000 passengers/ hour/ direction, 15 sec interval 600,000 passengers/day
  28. 28. Expresso Tiradentes – Sao Paulo Foto: SPTrans
  29. 29. 35,800 pax/day/km 6. Reducing transfers with direct services – Guangzhou 2010
  30. 30. 22.5 km corridor Long stations –from 55m to 260m, with overtaking lanes Combines multiple direct services on the same infrastructure. 27,000 pphpd 350 buses phpd 800,000 passengers per day
  31. 31. Future of BRT Running way guidance Vehicle propulsion technologies Information technologies Fare collection Planning and controlling operations
  32. 32. Running way guidance Essen since 1980, Leeds, Cambridge since august 2011 Rouen, France (2001), Castellón de la Plana, Spain (2008), Nimes, France (2010) and Bologna, Italy (2010).Tested in Las Vegas, Nevada Mechanical Optical Magnetic Eindhoven (2004)
  33. 33. O-Bahn, Adelaide, Australia Opened in 1986 12 Km, guided, $98 MM Aus (including buses), up to 18,000 pax/hour
  34. 34. Km (Pax/Day) Type of Guidance Capital Cost (M€) Cost/Km (M€) Teor – Rouen, France 30 (49,000) Optical Infra 165 Buses 28 Total 193 Infra 5.5 Buses 0.9 Total 6.4 Spurbus Essen, Germany 16 [4] (17,000) Kerb Guided Infra N.A. Buses 0.35/ unit N.A. TVRCAS Castellon, Spain 2 (3,200) Optical (trolleybus) Infras 22 Buses 8 Total 30 Infra 11.0 Buses 3.8 Total 13.8 Cambridge, UK 25 (20,000) Kerb Guided Infra 85 Buses N.A. Infra 3.4 Source: Finn et al, 2011 Running way guidance costs
  35. 35. Vehicle propulsion technologies Diesel - reduction of the fuel´s sulfur content, engine improvements and filters and catalysts Compressed natural gas CNG Liquefied natural gas LNG Electric (trolleybuses), since 1911, in 315 cities Hybrid-electric drives Battery Electric Hydraulic Hybrids Hydrogen powered buses
  36. 36. Propulsion Standard Articulated Double- articulated Diesel 200 300 600 CNG 250 350 650 Hybrid 300 500 850 Trolley 400 650 1,000 Fuel Cell* > 1,000 - - Examples of Costs of Different Vehicle Technologies in Europe (Thousand €) Source: Finn et. al (2011) * Not yet in commercial operation
  37. 37. Standard Articulated Double- Articulated Diesel 12 m 18 m 25 m High Floor with stairs 90-150 NA NA High Floor without stairs 130-160 330-365 490-500 Low entry 150-180 NA NA Low floor 280-310 430-460 630-650 CNG + 20-30% Hybrid +40-60% Air Conditioned +15 +35 Reference costs for Euro 5 Vehicles in Mexico (Thousand USD) Source: Suarez, 2011
  38. 38. Meta-analysis of Exhaust Emissions http://www.embarq.org/en/pro ject/sustainable-urban- transport-fuels-and-vehicles- program Authors: Erin Cooper, Aileen Carrigan EMBARQ Magdala Arioli, EMBARQ Brasil Umang Jain, EMBARQ India Contributions: Hilda Martínez, Jorge Macias, Cynthia Menendez, Georg Schmid, CTS-EMBARQ Mexico Funding:
  39. 39. Fuels and Technologies Fuels Exhaust After Treatment Technologies Diesel (and Hybrids) OC – Oxidation Catalyst DPF – Diesel Particulate Filter SCR – Selective Catalytic Reduction EGR – Exhaust Gas Recirculation Biodiesel (20 and 100%) SCR – Selective Catalytic Reduction EGR – Exhaust Gas Recirculation Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) OC – Oxidation Catalyst TWC – Three-way Catalyst Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) Ethanol Emissions vary with respect to fuels, technologies also significantly between the same fuel type and technology
  40. 40. CO results graph Older technology
  41. 41. THC results graph Older CNG tech (mostly due to methane)
  42. 42. NOx results graph CNG with 3WC Biodiesel ULSD with SCR
  43. 43. PM results graph Diesel without emission control technologies
  44. 44. CO2e results graph ULSD, EGR, DPF, Hybrid CNG, B20 w/o emission control technologies
  45. 45. CO THC NOx PM CO2 LNG High Very High Medium Very Low E95 Very High Very High Very High Very High E93 Very High Very High Medium Very High D50+DPF Low Very Low High Medium High D50 Medium Very Low High Very High Medium D15+SCR High Very Low Medium Medium Low D15+OC Very Low Very Low Medium Medium Medium D15+Hybrid Very Low Very Low Variable Low Variable D15+EGR Very Low Very Low Medium Medium Very High D15+DPF Very Low Very Low High Low Very High D15 Low Very Low High Very High Very High D≥150+OC Low Low High Very High Low D≥150 Medium Low Very High Very High Medium CNG+OC Very Low Very High High Very Low Medium CNG+3WC Very Low Low Very Low Very Low Medium CNG Very High Very High Very High Very Low High B20 Low Low High Medium High B100+SCR Medium Very Low Low Low Very Low B100+EGR Very Low Very Low Medium Medium Low
  46. 46. ITS – Fare Collection Advanced contactless smart cards are the most common media; flexible, secure, convenient Technologies: MIFARE, introduced in 1994, market share of more than 70% Octopus, in Honk Kong since 1997: applications in the Netherlands, Dubai and New Zealand Cubic, in 40 markets around the world Visa/Mastercard New: NFC and EMV; for use with cellular phones; under development in 80 countries
  47. 47. Advanced route design – heuristics Bus and crew scheduling Advanced bus and crew scheduling Advanced operational control AVL/CAD Control: holding, early doors closing, TSP Traffic Signal Priority TSP ITS – Planning and Operations
  48. 48. Avoiding Bus Bunching through Real Time Control Strategies Delgado, Muñoz, Giesen
  49. 49. No Control Proposed Wfirst 7636.32 1438.62 Std. Dev. 649.36 146.56 % reduction -81.16 Wextra 6218.71 1010.52 Std. Dev. 2265.24 82.04 % reduction -83.75 Win-veh 175.32 1561.34 Std. Dev. 31.69 77.3 % reduction 790.55 W t_light 4052.81 2965.1 Std. Dev. 88.27 110.27 % reduction -26.84 Total 18083.16 6975.58 Std. Dev. 2600.63 275.12 % reduction -61.42 Results: High frequency scenario Transit Users
  50. 50. 5. Results: Bus Loads (Capacity reached & high frequency)
  51. 51. 5. Results: Cycle Time (Capacity reached & high frequency) 27-09-2013 52
  52. 52. Results: Waiting time Distribution Scenario 1 (Capacity reached & high frequency) % of passengers that have to wait between: Period 15-25 Period 25-120 0-2 min 2-4 min > 4 min 0-2 min 2-4 min > 4 min No Control 57.76 29.60 12.64 63.46 27.68 8.86 Threshold 78.15 20.64 1.21 82.52 16.46 1.02 H 79.24 20.29 0.47 87.30 12.62 0.08 HBL 78.47 21.33 0.20 89.40 10.59 0.01
  53. 53. http://www.embarq.org/en/node/4923
  54. 54. ¡Muchas Gracias! Volvo Research and Educational Foundations
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