Webinar: Emissions from transit buses
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Webinar: Emissions from transit buses

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2014-06-26 webinar by Erin Cooper

2014-06-26 webinar by Erin Cooper

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Webinar: Emissions from transit buses Webinar: Emissions from transit buses Presentation Transcript

  • www.embarq.org Emissions from Transit Buses | June 26th, 2013 Erin Cooper
  • Washington DC Brazil Juan Miguel Velásquez Magdala Arioli Erin Cooper México India Hilda Martínez Umang Jain Cynthia Menéndez Julián Patrón Team
  • India - Indian Supreme Court mandated use of Natural Gas vehicles in 13 major cities Brazil - Many types of fuels available Mexico - General Law of Climate Change - Improving Air Quality in Cities Focus on India, Brazil, and Mexico
  • Heavy-duty vehicles, including transit buses, are responsible for more CO2 emissions in low and middle income countries (Schipper, 2009). Help transit agencies address both global and local air quality and GHG issues while considering the costs of their fleet investment. This program builds on previous EMBARQ work on ‘real’ emissions or in-use emissions of vehicles. Transit vehicles are important
  • Though significant information exists for US and Europe, doesn’t always apply directly to cities where we work (such as sulfur content in the fuel) Can be difficult to find unbiased information or information not directly from manufacturers Difficult to make direct comparisons between existing research or emissions testing Purpose
  • Operations Fuel Production Raw material production Waste disposal Images from Greenhouse Gas Protocol, World Resources Institute and University of Manchester Bus Logo Research focus Exhaust/Tailpipe emissions Upstream Emissions Lifecycle Costs
  • Regulated pollutants and main impacts Health impacts Greenhouse gases Air pollution PM Non- methane HC NOx CO2 CO CH4
  • Fuels and Technologies Fuels Exhaust After Treatment Technologies Diesel (and Hybrids) (D15, D50, D150) OC – Oxidation Catalyst DPF – Diesel Particulate Filter SCR – Selective Catalytic Reduction EGR – Exhaust Gas Recirculation Biodiesel (20 and 100%) SCR – Selective Catalytic Reduction EGR – Exhaust Gas Recirculation Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) OC – Oxidation Catalyst TWC – Three-way Catalyst Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) Ethanol OC – Oxidation Catalyst
  • Data collection Data collected from a variety of tests lab and field tests Grouped to show more representative results
  • IQR – Inter-quartile range test for different fuel and technology combinations ANOVA test to show difference in fuels and technologies Emissions summaries for Brazil and India Analysis to show lowest emissions
  • CO results graph
  • THC results graph
  • NOx results graph
  • NOx emissions and drive cycles 0 20406080 NOX BD CNG D E Hybrid L Field Mixed Steadystate Urban VeryUrban Field Mixed Steadystate Urban VeryUrban Field Mixed Steadystate Urban VeryUrban Field Mixed Steadystate Urban VeryUrban Field Mixed Steadystate Urban VeryUrban Field
  • PM results graph
  • CO2e emissions500 1,0001,5002,0002,500 CO2e BD CNG D E Hybrid
  • Summary of emissions changes by technology CO NOx PM CO2 DPF ↓ ↓ ↓ ↑ EGR ↓ ↓ ↓ ↑ SCR ↓ ↓ ↓ 3WC ↓ ↓ OC ↓ HYBRID ↓ ↓ ↓ Some technologies produce CO2 processes leads to higher fuel consumption
  • Brazil context: NOx vs. PM • Variety of fuels meets Euro v standard • Newer technologies have less variation
  • Brazil context: CO2e vs. PM • Hybrids have lower CO2 emissions
  • India context: NOx vs. PM • Only CNG + 3WC meet Euro IV standard
  • India context: CO2e vs. PM • Some diesel options have lower CO2 emissions
  • Fuels Diesel Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel CNG Hybrids Upstream emissions Fuel production Vehicle production Mexico Case Study: Preliminary Results Costs Capital costs Maintenance Fuel Operators
  • Results/ Fleet Scenarios comparing two fleet sizes 20 vs 200 buses 20 buses $ 0 $ 2,000,000 $ 4,000,000 $ 6,000,000 $ 8,000,000 $ 10,000,000 LifecycleCostperBus Estimated Average Lifecycle Costs Per Bus by Propulsion Technology Patio Combustible Mantenimiento Reacondiciona miento Costo Capital Operadores CNG Diesel Híbrido
  • Results/ Fleet Scenarios Comparing two fleet sizes 20 vs 200 buses 200 buses $ 0 $ 2,000,000 $ 4,000,000 $ 6,000,000 $ 8,000,000 $ 10,000,000 LifecycleCostperBus Estimated Average Lifecycle Costs Per Bus by Propulsion Technology Patio Combustible Mantenimiento Reacondiciona miento Costo Capital Operadores CNG Diesel Híbrido
  • Results/ Average Speed Comparing two average speeds 10 km/h (inner-city speed) vs 22 km/h (BRT) 10 km/h $ 0 $ 2,000,000 $ 4,000,000 $ 6,000,000 $ 8,000,000 $ 10,000,000 LifecycleCostperBus Estimated Average Lifecycle Costs Per Bus by Propulsion Technology Patio Combustible Mantenimiento Reacondiciona miento Costo Capital Operadores CNG Diesel Híbrido
  • Results/ Average Speed Comparing two operating speeds 10 km/h (inner-city speed) vs 22 km/h (BRT) 22 km/h $ 0 $ 2,000,000 $ 4,000,000 $ 6,000,000 $ 8,000,000 $ 10,000,000 LifecycleCostperBus Estimated Average Lifecycle Costs Per Bus by Propulsion Technology Patio Combustible Mantenimiento Reacondiciona miento Costo Capital Operadores CNG Diesel Híbrido
  • Nox emissions vs. Costs (per bus per km)
  • PM emissions vs. Costs (per bus per km)
  • CO2 emissions vs. Costs (per bus per km)
  • GHG emissions vs. costs
  • Local conditions: Need to consider local fuels and technologies availability and costs. Trade-offs: Some technologies are better at reducing GHGs, others local pollution. Technologies are important: In general, using the latest technologies is more important than changing fuel types for reducing all types of emissions. Conclusions
  • From the technologies compared, each one has advantages and disadvantages. There isn’t a clear favorite, particularly when local conditions are considered. Conclusions
  • Thank you Erin Cooper ecooper@wri.org Juan Miguel Velásquez Magdala Arioli Umang Jain Cynthia Menéndez