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www.embarq.org
Emissions from Transit Buses | June 26th, 2013
Erin Cooper
Washington DC Brazil
Juan Miguel Velásquez Magdala Arioli
Erin Cooper
México India
Hilda Martínez Umang Jain
Cynthia Menén...
India
- Indian Supreme Court mandated use of Natural Gas
vehicles in 13 major cities
Brazil
- Many types of fuels availabl...
Heavy-duty vehicles, including transit buses, are
responsible for more CO2 emissions in low and middle
income countries (S...
Though significant information exists for US and Europe,
doesn’t always apply directly to cities where we work (such
as su...
Operations
Fuel
Production
Raw material
production Waste disposal
Images from Greenhouse Gas Protocol, World Resources Ins...
Regulated pollutants and main impacts
Health
impacts
Greenhouse
gases
Air
pollution
PM
Non-
methane
HC
NOx
CO2
CO
CH4
Fuels and Technologies
Fuels Exhaust After Treatment Technologies
Diesel (and Hybrids)
(D15, D50, D150)
OC – Oxidation Cat...
Data collection
Data collected from a
variety of tests lab and
field tests
Grouped to show more
representative results
IQR – Inter-quartile range test for different fuel and
technology combinations
ANOVA test to show difference in fuels and ...
CO results graph
THC results graph
NOx results graph
NOx emissions and drive cycles
0
20406080
NOX
BD CNG D E Hybrid L
Field
Mixed
Steadystate
Urban
VeryUrban
Field
Mixed
Stea...
PM results graph
CO2e emissions500
1,0001,5002,0002,500
CO2e
BD CNG D E Hybrid
Summary of emissions changes by technology
CO NOx PM CO2
DPF ↓ ↓ ↓ ↑
EGR ↓ ↓ ↓ ↑
SCR ↓ ↓ ↓
3WC ↓ ↓
OC ↓
HYBRID ↓ ↓ ↓
Some ...
Brazil context: NOx vs. PM
• Variety of fuels meets Euro v standard
• Newer technologies have less variation
Brazil context: CO2e vs. PM
• Hybrids have lower CO2 emissions
India context: NOx vs. PM
• Only CNG + 3WC meet Euro IV standard
India context: CO2e vs. PM
• Some diesel options have
lower CO2 emissions
Fuels
Diesel
Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel
CNG
Hybrids
Upstream emissions
Fuel production
Vehicle production
Mexico Case Study: ...
Results/ Fleet Scenarios
comparing two fleet sizes 20 vs 200 buses
20 buses
$ 0
$ 2,000,000
$ 4,000,000
$ 6,000,000
$ 8,00...
Results/ Fleet Scenarios
Comparing two fleet sizes 20 vs 200 buses
200 buses
$ 0
$ 2,000,000
$ 4,000,000
$ 6,000,000
$ 8,0...
Results/ Average Speed
Comparing two average speeds
10 km/h (inner-city speed) vs 22 km/h (BRT)
10 km/h
$ 0
$ 2,000,000
$ ...
Results/ Average Speed
Comparing two operating speeds
10 km/h (inner-city speed) vs 22 km/h (BRT)
22 km/h
$ 0
$ 2,000,000
...
Nox emissions vs. Costs (per bus per km)
PM emissions vs. Costs (per bus per km)
CO2 emissions vs. Costs (per bus per km)
GHG emissions vs. costs
Local conditions: Need to consider local fuels and
technologies availability and costs.
Trade-offs: Some technologies are ...
From the technologies compared, each one has advantages
and disadvantages. There isn’t a clear favorite, particularly
when...
Thank you
Erin Cooper
ecooper@wri.org
Juan Miguel Velásquez Magdala Arioli
Umang Jain Cynthia Menéndez
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Webinar: Emissions from transit buses

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2014-06-26 webinar by Erin Cooper

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Transcript of "Webinar: Emissions from transit buses"

  1. 1. www.embarq.org Emissions from Transit Buses | June 26th, 2013 Erin Cooper
  2. 2. Washington DC Brazil Juan Miguel Velásquez Magdala Arioli Erin Cooper México India Hilda Martínez Umang Jain Cynthia Menéndez Julián Patrón Team
  3. 3. India - Indian Supreme Court mandated use of Natural Gas vehicles in 13 major cities Brazil - Many types of fuels available Mexico - General Law of Climate Change - Improving Air Quality in Cities Focus on India, Brazil, and Mexico
  4. 4. Heavy-duty vehicles, including transit buses, are responsible for more CO2 emissions in low and middle income countries (Schipper, 2009). Help transit agencies address both global and local air quality and GHG issues while considering the costs of their fleet investment. This program builds on previous EMBARQ work on ‘real’ emissions or in-use emissions of vehicles. Transit vehicles are important
  5. 5. Though significant information exists for US and Europe, doesn’t always apply directly to cities where we work (such as sulfur content in the fuel) Can be difficult to find unbiased information or information not directly from manufacturers Difficult to make direct comparisons between existing research or emissions testing Purpose
  6. 6. Operations Fuel Production Raw material production Waste disposal Images from Greenhouse Gas Protocol, World Resources Institute and University of Manchester Bus Logo Research focus Exhaust/Tailpipe emissions Upstream Emissions Lifecycle Costs
  7. 7. Regulated pollutants and main impacts Health impacts Greenhouse gases Air pollution PM Non- methane HC NOx CO2 CO CH4
  8. 8. Fuels and Technologies Fuels Exhaust After Treatment Technologies Diesel (and Hybrids) (D15, D50, D150) OC – Oxidation Catalyst DPF – Diesel Particulate Filter SCR – Selective Catalytic Reduction EGR – Exhaust Gas Recirculation Biodiesel (20 and 100%) SCR – Selective Catalytic Reduction EGR – Exhaust Gas Recirculation Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) OC – Oxidation Catalyst TWC – Three-way Catalyst Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) Ethanol OC – Oxidation Catalyst
  9. 9. Data collection Data collected from a variety of tests lab and field tests Grouped to show more representative results
  10. 10. IQR – Inter-quartile range test for different fuel and technology combinations ANOVA test to show difference in fuels and technologies Emissions summaries for Brazil and India Analysis to show lowest emissions
  11. 11. CO results graph
  12. 12. THC results graph
  13. 13. NOx results graph
  14. 14. NOx emissions and drive cycles 0 20406080 NOX BD CNG D E Hybrid L Field Mixed Steadystate Urban VeryUrban Field Mixed Steadystate Urban VeryUrban Field Mixed Steadystate Urban VeryUrban Field Mixed Steadystate Urban VeryUrban Field Mixed Steadystate Urban VeryUrban Field
  15. 15. PM results graph
  16. 16. CO2e emissions500 1,0001,5002,0002,500 CO2e BD CNG D E Hybrid
  17. 17. Summary of emissions changes by technology CO NOx PM CO2 DPF ↓ ↓ ↓ ↑ EGR ↓ ↓ ↓ ↑ SCR ↓ ↓ ↓ 3WC ↓ ↓ OC ↓ HYBRID ↓ ↓ ↓ Some technologies produce CO2 processes leads to higher fuel consumption
  18. 18. Brazil context: NOx vs. PM • Variety of fuels meets Euro v standard • Newer technologies have less variation
  19. 19. Brazil context: CO2e vs. PM • Hybrids have lower CO2 emissions
  20. 20. India context: NOx vs. PM • Only CNG + 3WC meet Euro IV standard
  21. 21. India context: CO2e vs. PM • Some diesel options have lower CO2 emissions
  22. 22. Fuels Diesel Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel CNG Hybrids Upstream emissions Fuel production Vehicle production Mexico Case Study: Preliminary Results Costs Capital costs Maintenance Fuel Operators
  23. 23. Results/ Fleet Scenarios comparing two fleet sizes 20 vs 200 buses 20 buses $ 0 $ 2,000,000 $ 4,000,000 $ 6,000,000 $ 8,000,000 $ 10,000,000 LifecycleCostperBus Estimated Average Lifecycle Costs Per Bus by Propulsion Technology Patio Combustible Mantenimiento Reacondiciona miento Costo Capital Operadores CNG Diesel Híbrido
  24. 24. Results/ Fleet Scenarios Comparing two fleet sizes 20 vs 200 buses 200 buses $ 0 $ 2,000,000 $ 4,000,000 $ 6,000,000 $ 8,000,000 $ 10,000,000 LifecycleCostperBus Estimated Average Lifecycle Costs Per Bus by Propulsion Technology Patio Combustible Mantenimiento Reacondiciona miento Costo Capital Operadores CNG Diesel Híbrido
  25. 25. Results/ Average Speed Comparing two average speeds 10 km/h (inner-city speed) vs 22 km/h (BRT) 10 km/h $ 0 $ 2,000,000 $ 4,000,000 $ 6,000,000 $ 8,000,000 $ 10,000,000 LifecycleCostperBus Estimated Average Lifecycle Costs Per Bus by Propulsion Technology Patio Combustible Mantenimiento Reacondiciona miento Costo Capital Operadores CNG Diesel Híbrido
  26. 26. Results/ Average Speed Comparing two operating speeds 10 km/h (inner-city speed) vs 22 km/h (BRT) 22 km/h $ 0 $ 2,000,000 $ 4,000,000 $ 6,000,000 $ 8,000,000 $ 10,000,000 LifecycleCostperBus Estimated Average Lifecycle Costs Per Bus by Propulsion Technology Patio Combustible Mantenimiento Reacondiciona miento Costo Capital Operadores CNG Diesel Híbrido
  27. 27. Nox emissions vs. Costs (per bus per km)
  28. 28. PM emissions vs. Costs (per bus per km)
  29. 29. CO2 emissions vs. Costs (per bus per km)
  30. 30. GHG emissions vs. costs
  31. 31. Local conditions: Need to consider local fuels and technologies availability and costs. Trade-offs: Some technologies are better at reducing GHGs, others local pollution. Technologies are important: In general, using the latest technologies is more important than changing fuel types for reducing all types of emissions. Conclusions
  32. 32. From the technologies compared, each one has advantages and disadvantages. There isn’t a clear favorite, particularly when local conditions are considered. Conclusions
  33. 33. Thank you Erin Cooper ecooper@wri.org Juan Miguel Velásquez Magdala Arioli Umang Jain Cynthia Menéndez
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