2013 06-28 Benchmark report comparing six latin american public transport systems
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2013 06-28 Benchmark report comparing six latin american public transport systems

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2013 06-28 Benchmark report comparing six latin american public transport systems 2013 06-28 Benchmark report comparing six latin american public transport systems Presentation Transcript

  • Benchmark Report Comparing Six Latin American Public Transport Systems Juan Carlos Muñoz, Marco Batarce, Ignacia Torres Bus Rapid Transit Centre of Excellence Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile June 2013
  • Goals of the study • Compare operational indicators of the transit systems (bus and Metro) of Ciudad de México, Guadalajara, Bogotá, Lima, Porto Alegre and Santiago. • Urbanized metropolitan areas were considered. • Characterize the trips made during the morning rush • Compare the real level of service offered to users for different trip characteristics (distance, transport modes, infrastructure, etc.) • Assumptions – Users take the fastest route – Measure real level of service, not user perceptions – Only formal and massive transport modes were analyzed
  • Description of the Study • We collected 100 indicators from each city – Socio demographic – Public Transport Operations – Fares and payment mechanisms – Contracts and payments to operators – Infrastructure for public transport – Vehicle characteristics – Information for users – User perception
  • Description • Performance indicators were obtained from observation – They are hard to find in the literature – A common methodology is needed for comparison • Travel times • Walking times • Waiting times • In-vehicle times • Operational Speeds • Frequencies • Reliability • Number of transfers
  • Methodology Generate a representative sample of 400 trips based on the public transport OD Matrix Determine the fastest itineraries for each of the 400 trips Obtain the distance of each trip leg of each of the 400 trips Measure operational speeds, frequencies and reliability of a subset of services in each city Estimate in-vehicle, walking and waiting time for each of the 400 trips Derive across-trips variability and within-trip variability
  • General Information
  • Cities City Surface (km2) Population (millions) Density (inhab/km2) Income (USD) Trips (millions) Public Transport Share Santiago 955 5.9 6,153 450 9.5 60% Mexico 2,884 12.1 4,204 501 21.5 69% Guadalajara 351 3.7 10,616 453 5.7 48% Porto Alegre 497 1.4 2,844 402 2.1 50% Bogota 478 7.4 15,412 613 10.1 68% Lima 2,817 9.3 3,301 307 12.1 78%
  • Bus Systems City Bus firms BRT firms Other type of bus firms Bus fleet Segregated corridors (km) Santiago 12 6,200 90 Mexico 1,100 8 1 57,900 328 Guadalajara 8 1 2 5,200 32 Porto 4 1 1,700 104 Bogota 67 6 15,700 106 Lima 312 4 4 25,100 27
  • Metro Systems Santiago Guadalajara (Light train) Mexico City Peak-peridod Fare ($ USD) 1.3 0.5 0.2 Network Extension (km) 103 24 201 Headway (min) 2.4 5.0 2.7 Express services YES NO NO
  • Main Results
  • Main Results • Santiago and Bogota offer comparatively high average speeds – Door to door – In-vehicle – For a given distance category • Longer trips take longer but enjoy faster average speeds
  • Travel Distance and Speed 0 5 10 15 0 5 10 15 20 25 Santiago Mexico Guadalajara Porto Alegre Bogota Lima Speed Distance Travel distance (km) Average travel speed (km/h)
  • In-Vehicle Distance and Speed 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 5 10 15 20 Santiago Mexico Guadalajara Porto Alegre Bogota Lima Speed Distance In-vehicle distance (km) In-vehicle speed (km/h)
  • Distance and Speed for Trips between 5 and 10 km 0.0 4.0 8.0 12.0 6.4 6.8 7.2 7.6 8.0 Santiago Mexico Guadalajara Porto Alegre Bogota Lima Speed Distance Travel distance (km) Average travel speed (km/h)
  • In-Vehicle Speed by Mode City Bus (km/h) Metro (km/h) BRT (km/h) All (km/h) Santiago 17.1 33.4 23.9 Mexico 8.8 21.1 13.9 17.4 Guadalajara 15.4 26.0 16.1 Porto Alegre 17.0 17.0 Bogota 16.3 27.2 19.0 Lima 16.0 16.0
  • Main Results • In Santiago travel time variability among different trips of similar length is the lowest, the highest is in Mexico City. This is indicative of equity. – Due to an integrated system in Santiago in which each user can access the system through the fastest possible route for the same fare • In most systems the variability of waiting times for bus services was quite high. In Metro was almost zero. This is indicative of reliability. The lowest were in Lima, Porto Alegre and Santiago.
  • Travel Time 0 20 40 60 80 100 Santiago Mexico Guadalajara Porto Alegre Bogota Lima Travel time (min) City variability (min) Individual variability (min)
  • Travel Time for Trips between 5 and 10 km 0 20 40 60 80 Santiago Mexico Guadalajara Porto Alegre Bogota Lima Travel time (min) City variability (min) Individual variability (min)
  • In-Vehicle Time 0 20 40 60 80 Santiago Mexico Guadalajara Porto Alegre Bogota Lima In-vehicle time (min) City variability (min) Individual variability (min)
  • In-Vehicle Time for Trips between 5 and 10 km 0 15 30 45 Santiago Mexico Guadalajara Porto Alegre Bogota Lima In-vehicle time (min) City variability (min) Individual variability (min)
  • Main results • In Santiago, Guadalajara and Porto Alegre waiting time is higher than that in other cities. • In Bogotá, Lima and Ciudad de México waiting time is smaller since a large fraction of services (90%) are unregulated. • These systems operate larger fleets and high frequencies (55,000 in Ciudad de México, 25,000 in Lima and 13,000 in Bogotá; in Santiago only 6.000)
  • Travel Time Composition 0 25 50 75 100 Santiago Mexico Guadalajara Porto Alegre Bogota Lima Time(min) In-vehicle Waiting Walking
  • Waiting Time 0 5 10 15 Santiago Mexico Guadalajara Porto Alegre Bogota Lima Waiting time (min) City variability (min) Individual variability (min)
  • Travel Time Composition for Trips between 5 and 10 km 0 15 30 45 60 75 Santiago Mexico Guadalajara Porto Alegre Bogota Lima Time(min) In-vehicle Waiting Walking
  • Waiting Time for Trips between 5 and 10 km 0 4 8 12 16 Santiago Mexico Guadalajara Porto Alegre Bogota Lima Waiting time (min) City variability (min) Individual variability (min)
  • • Waiting time increases because users cannot bord the first arriving bus – In the case of trunk services, average waiting time increases 55% – In the case of feeder services, 29% Waiting Time in Santiago Percentage of users that can take the… 1st bus 2nd bus 3th bus 4th bus 5th bus Feeder 77.0% 16.6% 6.4% 0.0% 0.0% Trunk 67.4% 16.1% 12.0% 3.2% 1.2%
  • Bus Systems Santiago Bogota Guadalajara Mexico City Porto Alegre Lima Bus firms 12 67 8 1,100 4 312 BRT firms 6 1 8 4 Other type of bus firms 2 1 1 4 Bus fleet 6,200 15,700 5,200 57,900 1,700 25,100 Bus segregated corridors(km) 90 106 32 328 104 27
  • Main results • The walking times in Santiago and Mexico City are also quite high. • In Santiago the average distance to access the first vehicle is 383 m, versus 340 m in Lima and 209 m in Bogotá. • This is partly explained by buses in Santiago stopping only at designated stops. • Bogotá has low walking times
  • Walking Time 0 5 10 15 Santiago Mexico Guadalajara Porto Alegre Bogota Lima Walking time (min) City variability (min)
  • Walking Time for Trips between 5 and 10 km 0 4 8 12 16 Santiago Mexico Guadalajara Porto Alegre Bogota Lima Walking time (min) City variability (min)
  • Santiago vs Bogotá • Santiago and Bogotá have similar populations and average trip length • Operational speed for each trip length category is also similar • Average door to door speed in Bogotá is 13.4 km/h while Santiago´s is 14.5 km/h • However… both cities have followed a very different paths – Santiago: 100 kms of Metro, declining transit modal share – Bogotá: 100 kms of BRT, stable? transit modal share • High capacity buses, segregated corridors, extra-vehicular payment
  • Travel Time in Santiago and Bogota 0 20 40 60 80 100 2.5 5 7.5 10 12.5 15 17.5 20 22.5 25 Traveltime(min) Travel distance (km) Bogota Santiago
  • Main Results • In Santiago, speed in segregated corridors is significatively higher than that in mixed-traffic roads • For instance, speed is 25 km/h in segregated corridors, and 15 km/h in mixed traffic roads
  • Operation Speed according to Infrastructure 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 Mixed Traffic Only-Bus lane Segregated corridor BRT (Bogota) Metro Express in Highway Speed(km/h)
  • Main Results • An additional conclusion, which is obtained from the comparison process, is that the information availability is very heterogeneous
  • Additional Observations
  • Number of Trip Legs 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 Santiago México GuadalajaraPorto Alegre Bogotá Lima Bus Metro BRT
  • Average Fare City Average fare (USD) Average fare per distance (USD/km) Santiago 1.37 0.12 Mexico 0.68 – 1.34 0.04 – 0.07 Guadalajara 0.68 0.08 Porto Alegre 1.64 0.19 Bogota 1.66 0.14 Lima 0.24 – 1.62 0.05 -0.08
  • Benchmark Report Comparing Six Latin American Public Transport Systems Juan Carlos Muñoz, Marco Batarce, Ignacia Torres Bus Rapid Transit Centre of Excellence Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile June 2013
  • Detailed Analysis of Santiago (in Spanish)
  • Distribución de Viajes por Distancia 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 2.5 5 7.5 10 12.5 15 17.5 20 22.5 25 Más Frecuencia Longitud de viaje (km)
  • Etapas de Viaje 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5 25.0 Más Etapas Longitud de viaje (km) Viajes Bus Metro Etapas Totales = 2.29 Etapas Bus = 1.33 Etapas Metro = 0.96
  • Distancia de Viaje en Vehículo 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5 25.0 Más DistanciaenVehículo Longitud de viaje (km) Viajes Bus Metro Distancia Total= 11.4 km Distancia Bus = 4.8 km Distancia Metro = 6.5 km
  • Composición del Tiempo de Viaje 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5 25.0 Más Tiempo(min) Longitud de viaje (km) Trips Caminata Espera En vehículo Caminata= 13.8 min Espera = 8.6 min En vehículo = 28.5 min
  • Tiempo de Viaje Total y Variabilidad Individual 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5 25.0 Más Tiempodeviaje(min) Longitud de viaje (km) Viajes Tpo. de Viaje Media = 50.7 min Des. Est. = 5.0 min
  • Tiempo de Viaje en Vehículo y Variabilidad Individual 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5 25.0 Más Tiempoenvehículo(min) Longitud de viaje (km) Viajes Tpo. en Vehículo Media = 28.4 min Des. Est. = 3.5 min
  • Tiempo de Espera y Variabilidad Individual 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5 25.0 Más Tiempodeespera(min) Longitud de viaje (km) Viajes Tpo. de Espera Media = 8.6 min Des. Est. = 5.8 min
  • Tiempo de Viaje Total 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5 25.0 Más Tiempodeviaje(min) Longitud de viaje (km) Viajes Tiempo de Viaje Media = 50.8 min Des. Est. = 22.5 min
  • Tiempo en Vehículo 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5 25.0 Más Tiempoenvehículo(min) Longitud de viaje (km) Viajes Tpo. en Vehículo Media = 28.5 min Des. Est. = 15.7 min
  • Tiempo de Espera 0 5 10 15 20 25 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5 25.0 Más Tiempodeespera(min) Longitud de viaje (km) Viajes Tpo. de Espera Media = 8.6 min Des. Est. = 4.7 min
  • Tiempo de Caminata 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5 25.0 Más Tiempodecaminata(min) Longitud de viaje (km) Viajes Tpo. Caminando Media = 12.6 min Des. Est. = 6.2 min
  • Detailed Analysis of Bogota (in Spanish)
  • Distribución de Viajes por Distancia en Bogotá 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% 18% 2.5 5 7.5 10 12.5 15 17.5 20 22.5 25 Más Frecuencia Longitud de viaje (km)
  • Etapas de Viaje en Bogotá 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% 18% 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5 25.0 Más Etapas Longitud de viaje (km) Viajes Bus BRT Etapas Totales = 1.85 Etapas Bus = 1.41 Etapas BRT = 0.43
  • Distancia de Viaje en Vehículo en Bogotá 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% 18% 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5 25.0 Más Distanciaenvehículo(km) Longitud de viaje (km) Viajes Bus BRT Distancia Total= 11.5 km Distancia Bus = 7.3 km Distancia BRT = 4.1 km
  • Composición del Tiempo de Viaje en Bogotá 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% 18% 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5 25.0 Más Tiempo(min) Longitud de viaje (km) Viajes Caminata Espera Vehículo Caminata= 8.6 min Espera = 4.8 min En vehículo =36.2 min
  • Tiempo de Viaje Total y Variabilidad Individual en Bogotá 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% 18% 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5 25.0 Más Tiempodeviaje(min) Longitud de viaje (km) Viajes Tpo. de Viaje Media = 49.6 min Des. Est. = 10.4 min
  • Tiempo de Viaje en Vehículo y Variabilidad Individual en Bogotá 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% 18% 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5 25.0 Más Tiempoenvehículo(min) Longitud de viaje (km) Viajes Tpo. en Vehículo Media = 36.2 min Des. Est. = 9.1 min
  • Tiempo de Espera y Variabilidad Individual en Bogotá 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% 18% 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5 25.0 Más Tiempodeespera(min) Longitud de viaje (km) Viajes Tpo. de Espera Media = 4.8 min Des. Est. = 5.0 min
  • Tiempo de Viaje Total en Bogotá 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% 18% 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5 25.0 Más Tiempodeviaje(min) Longitud de viaje (km) Viajes Tpo. de Viaje Media = 49.6 min Des. Est. = 24.2 min
  • Tiempo en Vehículo en Bogotá 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% 18% 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5 25.0 Más Tiempoenvehículo(min) Longitud de viaje (km) Viajes Tpo. en Vehículo Media = 36.2 min Des. Est. = 23.3 min
  • Tiempo de Espera en Bogotá 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% 18% 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5 25.0 Más Tiempodeespera(min) Longitud de viaje (km) Viajes Tpo. de Espera Media =4.8 min Des. Est. = 2.3 min
  • Tiempo de Caminata en Bogotá 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% 18% 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5 25.0 Más Tiempodecaminata(min) Longitud de viaje (km) Viajes Tpo. Caminando Media =8,56min Des. Est. =2,16min