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Quality of Public Services -English

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The proposed policy aspires to bolster public services through local participation aimed at:
 Improving administrative performance;
 Enhancing municipal financial autonomy; and
 Ensuring free and fair local representation.

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Quality of Public Services  -English Quality of Public Services -English Document Transcript

  • Towards a Representative & Decentralized Governance System  POLICY BRIEF
  • EXECUTIVE SUMMARYAccess to reliable and affordable This policy brief aims at providingpublic services is a basic citizen right. civil society with an alternativeCurrently, public services in Lebanon roadmap for improving the quality,are of low quality, highly expensive, accessibility, and efficiency of publicand inaccessible to all. There are services through an administrativemany reasons hindering the Lebanese decentralization law, an independentgovernment from improving public municipal fund, and a free and fairservices, namely a highly centralized local electoral law.administration, lack of a clear socio- economic development plan, weakaccountability mechanisms, and The proposed policy aspires torampant clientelism aggravated by a bolster public services through localsectarian political system. participation aimed at: Recent government efforts to Improving administrativeenhance public services have been performance;ineffective, leading to an increasein citizen dissatisfaction, popular Enhancing municipal financialprotests, poverty and emigration autonomy;rates. The different initiativesundertaken to improve public Ensuring free and fair localservices since the Ta’if Accord have representation.not achieved their goals, includingestablishment of the Office of theMinister of State for Administrative Implementation of this policyReform (OMSAR), reform of the requires a long-term process thatmunicipal code, and development entails introducing new laws andof a strategy for information and practices, engaging with Parliament,communication technology (ICT) and and supporting government ine-government mechanisms. implementing reforms. Since administrative decentralization is a critical issue for all political parties and other stakeholders, it is important to formulate a clear strategy for influencing the policy- making process and forging broad- based alliances in support of the proposed reforms. 1
  • FRAMING THE ISSUEThe ProblemPublic service delivery is the corefunction of the state. It enablesgovernment to respond to citizens’needs, protect their rights, andmeet their expectations. Yet publicservices in Lebanon are of low quality,expensive, and inaccessible to all.Public institutions—the vehicle forpublic service delivery—suffer fromexcessive bureaucracy, corruption,and inefficiency. Situation Brief The UrgencyService delivery problems are evenmore dire for citizens in localities. The multiple challenges facing public Lebanon’s development indicatorsCitizens are increasingly demanding service delivery in Lebanon include: show a continued deteriorationaccess to better quality services of social, economic, and political 1. Centralized government andsuch as electricity, water, health, conditions, manifested by popular exclusivity of service within publiceducation, housing, and security. The demonstrations, security incidents, institutions.limited administrative and financial sectarian tensions, and high rates of 2. Lack of management capacity, emigration. There is an immediateprerogatives of local governments information technologies, and need to improve public servicesand the controls imposed by central financial resources of public through local participation aimedgovernment are a main reason for this administrations and local at reducing poverty, improvingsituation. Local empowerment and governments. living conditions, and eradicatingparticipation mechanisms can makea major contribution to improving the the clientelistic webs that prevent 3. Weak accountability mechanismsquality of public services. government from serving the public and lack of transparency and interest. access to information to participate in improving public services. One key solution is to launch an 4. Gaps and deficiencies in the administrative decentralization legislative framework for public- process driven by local development private partnerships and participation priorities and aimed at improving mechanisms. the quality of public services as well 5. Inappropriate representation of as instituting local participation and localities due to parliamentary and accountability mechanisms. municipal electoral systems that foster clientelism.2 3 View slide
  • LOOKING AT EXISTING POLICIES, LAWSAND PRACTICES 1 Access to Public ServicesThe following policies, laws and practices are choices made by the Lebanese Financial Efficiencygovernment to improve the quality of public services. In assessing these policies, 2we used four key indicators that are essential for any policy option aimed atimproving the quality of public services: 3 Local Participation 4 Accountability1. enhance access to public services in localities2. attain financial efficiency3. allow local participation Policy4. permit accountability Law Assessment Practice Policy > Grades 1 to 3 public servants (i.e., middle and senior management) Law Assessment Employment process & are appointed by the Cabinet based on political and sectarian public institutions conditions within Practice affiliations. > Public service policies are top-down and are not enforced. > Remuneration in public institutions is too low to entice competent prerogatives related to public services Cabinet policies > The centralized authority allocated to ministries increases human resources, making private sector employment or & ministry administrative bureaucracy, lack of responsiveness to citizen needs, emigration more attractive to many Lebanese. and difficult access to public services. > Recruitment and hiring of all public servants is controlled by the > The political affiliations of ministers and public servants lead to Civil Service Board, which lacks human and financial resources. discrimination in the provision of public services. > Local development programs funded by donors are not international organizations coordinated and are hindered by the bureaucracy of the ministry programs funded by programs by OMSAR > Administrative reform programs face high resistance from some Local development reform strategy & ministries when it comes to improving their performance. with which they collaborate. Administrative > OMSAR’s mandate does not allow it to enforce reform programs on > These programs are limited in time and resources, and often fail to other ministries. translate their work at the policy level. > There is a lack of human and financial resources for efficient > Donor-funded programs sometimes become an alternative to administrative reform. government services rather than a means to enhance public service delivery. prerogatives of the Ministry > The prerogatives of municipalities defined in the Municipal Code are of Interior & Municipalities Municipal Code & the not feasible due to the administrative boundaries imposed by central regulatory framework government in making local decisions. > Public institutions are resistant to integrating ICT into their infrastructure, and operations due to lack of capacity and resources. ICT strategy, > The Independent Municipal Fund is controlled by the Ministry of Interior and Municipalities, and funds are distributed without clear, > The technological infrastructure is weak given poor internet speed transparent criteria. and local telecom access. > The Ministry of Interior and Municipalities exercises more than an > Many laws related to e-government have yet to be adopted and the oversight role over municipalities due to the prerogatives it enjoys ones that were approved are not adequately enforced. through the Municipal Affairs Unit and the Mohafazat (governorates).4 5 View slide
  • CONSIDERING POLICY OPTIONS “ Public services directly affect citizens’ livelihoods; they allow them to live respectfully and independently from any form of oppressive authority. They contribute to strengthening of the state-citizen relationship. The following table describes policy options for enhancing freedom of expression thorough research and participatory consultations with stakeholders around the ” Dr. Khaled Kabbani, Director of the Civil Service Board country. Each policy is based on different assumptions, has a specific objective & Former Minister of Education. and strategies, and presents both advantages and disadvantages. Policy Assumptions Objectives Strategies Advantages Disadvantages Experts’ Take Policy options options1 > Devolving administrative > Decentralize > Ensure financial autonomy > Enhances local > Long-term process that “Leveraging local 1 & financial authorities from the administrative of local governments. responsiveness, requires a clear development governments’ authority central government enhances system to empower participation, and plan, significant financial and autonomy would > Transfer more Decentralization encourage citizens to Decentralization Administrative local responsiveness and municipalities, accountability, and and human resources, as Administrative administrative prerogatives participate in decision- accountability. enhance service to local governments. increases access to well as political will and making and would delivery at the public services at the consensus. definitely help develop > Improve local public services.” > Liberating local community level, local level. representation and enhance governments from the and increase local accountability mechanisms Dr. Randa Antoun, central bureaucracy improves participation and to prevent corruption and Associate Professor at the the quality of and access to accountability. American University of increase efficiency. local services. Beirut2 > ICT integration into > Develop an > Create a legislative > Increases > Enhancing ICT “E-government 2 government services e-government framework for e-government efficiency, decreases infrastructure and public and a proper ICT improves efficiency and infrastructure services. corruption and servants’ capacity are infrastructure will ICT Integration & ICT Integration & provide citizens with E-Government E-Government accessibility. and services to > Enhance ICT infrastructure bureaucracy, expensive endeavors. the means to claim > Developing e-government increase access and government capacity. and enhances > Not all citizens have the their rights, and infrastructure and services to public services citizen access to technological skills to access institutions with the > Raise citizen awareness decreases bureaucracy and and decrease government services. e-government services. needed efficiency to and capacity to make use of provide services.” corruption. bureaucracy and online services. > The prerequisite is public corruption. Salam Yamout, Head of servants’ readiness to adapt the ICT Coordination Unit, to new technologies. Office of the Prime Minister3 > Increasing public- > Create a public- > Pass laws related to > Increases the > Underprivileged citizens 3 Public-Private Partnerships Public-Private Partnerships private partnerships private partnership public-private partnerships. quality of public might not have access to reduces the government’s legislative services, improves certain public services. “Privatization is not > Create incentives for the best reform path administrative and financial framework and private sector involvement in efficiency, and Government income from for sectors other than burdens. incentives to public service provision. engages the private public service provision will telecommunications. > Engaging the private increase efficiency sector in sharing be reduced. Public-private > Enforce procurement and partnerships could be.” sector in service provision and access to government accountability mechanisms > The prerequisite is the enhances efficiency and quality services. responsibilities. Ziad Hayek, Director of the to limit corruption and abuse. availability of a strong justice Council for Privatization access to services at the system and accountability local level. mechanisms to limit abuse. 6 7
  • RECOMMENDING POLICYA Decentralized Governance SystemThis policy brief focuses on the first policy option highlighted above—administrative decentralization—as the most urgent and actionable by civil “ Decentralizing the administrative system would empowersociety organizations (CSOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and municipalities, enhance service delivery at the community level,community-based organizations (CBOs). The Lebanese Constitution, as and increase local participation and accountability.amended by the Ta’if Accord of 1989, calls for administrative decentralizationin tandem with efforts to protect national unity and formulate a comprehensive ”development plan. Administrative decentralization aims at empowering localgovernments and providing them with financial autonomy while ensuring localresponsiveness and direct accountability to local citizens. It is a process that isexpected to be gradual, strategic, and driven by local development needs andpriorities.While all of the suggested policy options are important to improving quality ofpublic service, this policy brief focuses on three critical pillars that are mosturgent and actionable by civil society organizations (CSOs):Pillar PillarPropose an administrative Ensure an independent municipal This multi-pronged policy should In the long run, it is important todecentralization law. Devolving fund. Ensuring the financial fall within a long-term local complement these efforts to achieveauthorities from central government autonomy of municipalities will development strategy, benefit from administrative decentralization with:to elected localities will improve reduce clientelism and give them reliable audit and accountabilitylocal responsiveness, accountability, the capacity to finance local mechanisms, rely on a central Integration of ICT andand the quality of public services development plans without political government ICT infrastructure, and development of e-governmentby decreasing the bureaucratic interference and manipulation. capitalize on partnerships with the infrastructure within governmentload on central government. local private sector, CSOs, NGOs, services, and CBOs. Pillar Promotion and legislation of Public-Private Partnerships. Reform the municipal elections law. Electing localities through free, fair, and democratic representation will provide citizens with a direct accountability mechanism and encourage voting based on local development platforms rather than sectarian agendas.8 9
  • THE WAY FORWARDPillar PillarPropose an Administrative Ensure an IndependentDecentralization Law Municipal FundAlthough several administrative around it, and pressure government For administrative decentralization Advocating for moredecentralization law proposals to make it a national priority. to be effective, municipalities equitable IMF practices that ensurehave been presented by MPs, the must enjoy financial autonomy that municipalities receive funding basedissue is not a high priority on Administrative districting must supports local development plans on clear, transparent criteria.the government’s agenda. An be based on social and economic adapted to local needs. Today, theadministrative decentralization clustering rather than sectarian Independent Municipal Fund (IMF) Researching and developinglaw aimed at transferring central parameters. suffers from lack of autonomy, an innovative model for municipalauthorities to local government is a whereby the allocation of funds funding that furthers municipalkey strategy to improve administrative Local communities and municipal is politically motivated and based autonomy, social cohesion and localperformance and enhance the quality governments must be equipped with on clientelism. Very few initiatives prosperity. This would be followedof public services. Civil society faces the necessary capacities to provide have been undertaken to reform the by direct lobbying to have it ascritical challenges in advancing this high-quality services. IMF; the most recent is a proposal an alternative to the existing IMFgoal: presented by the Prime Minister’s mechanism. Strong accountability mechanisms office. CSOs and NGOs must formulate a must parallel the transfer of authoritiesgovernance model for administrative to the local level to prevent the transferdecentralization, build consensus of corrupt practices and guarantee public service quality.Past Proposals & Reform Efforts Past Proposals and Reform Effortsfor Administrative Decentralization for the Independent Municipal Fund> At least four law proposals related to administrative decentralization > Prime Minister Najib Mikati’s office presented, in 2012, a proposal for are available and were presented to Parliament by Michel Murr, Robert reforming the Independent Municipal Fund. Ghanem, Auguste Bakhos, and Ziyad Baroud. > In 2011, LCPS published a policy brief titled “The Independent Municipal> In 2011, Beyond Reform & Development developed a comprehensive Fund: Reforming the Distributional Criteria.” model and a reform plan for administrative decentralization driven by local development. > The Ministry of Interior and Municipalities issued a study in 2011 titled “Municipal Finance Studies Program: Final Strategic Framework”, which> The Lebanese Center for Policy Studies (LCPS) published a book and a presents steps to improve the Independent Municipal Fund. series of articles around the issue of decentralization and municipal work in Lebanon.10 11
  • THE WAY FORWARDPillar Past Proposals and Reform Efforts for Municipal ElectionsReform the MunicipalElections LawThe existing municipal elections Call for a complete reform of the > LADE developed a law proposal for municipal elections reform inlaw dates back to 1998. As it is municipal, or local government, 2009. This proposal was put forward by the Ministry of Interior andbased on the electoral system for electoral system that falls within Municipalities but was never passed.parliamentary elections, this law the criteria and requirements ofdoes not include critical measures for an administrative decentralizationtransforming the local elections into process, and highlight possiblea free, fair, and democratic process, actions that can be adopted to startincluding the use of pre-printed reforming the different componentsballots and voting based on place of of the proposed reform.residence rather than place of origin.The most critical reform is the needto establish an independent elections Advocate for reforming keycommission since municipalities are components of the current legislativeunder the purview of the Ministry framework for parliamentaryof Interior and Municipalities, and elections, such as the integrationthe latter has direct influence and of pre-printed ballots, electoralcontrol over the electoral process. media regulations, which, according to Article 16 of the Municipal Code,In addition, the small size of many apply to the municipal elections.municipalities turns local electionsinto contests that are driven by familyand confessional ties rather than The Lebanese Association forlocal development agendas. Over the Democratic Elections (LADE)last decade, the Ministry of Interior drafted guidelines for improving thehas been allowing the creation of new municipal elections law, which canmunicipalities, often for confessional be used to build the case for legalreasons. Many activities initiated by reform. The next municipal electionsmunicipal councils are frozen due will take place in 2016; it is importantto partisan interests and politically to start campaigning at an earlydriven conflicts within the council. stage to build support for the reform process.To address these issues, CSOs, NGOs,and community-based organizations(CBOs) can adopt an approach thatfalls within the following headlines:12 13
  • FUTURE ACTION SHORT TO MEDIUM TERM LONG TERM National Level Local Level National Level Local Level Outcome Expected Propose an Administrative An administrative decentralization model is developed and agreed upon by key An administrative decentralization law is developed and adopted by Outcome Expected Propose an Administrative Decentralization Law stakeholders, with districting in favor of social cohesion and socio-economic Parliament, with districting in favor of social cohesion and socio-economic Decentralization Law development development Research existing laws and Initiate local development projects Develop a law proposal for benchmark them with other where unions of municipalities Strategy administrative decentralization Mobilize community-level Strategy countries to develop an partner with local NGOs to enhance and launch an advocacy campaign stakeholders to lobby local MPs to administrative decentralization collaboration between local led by CSOs, NGOs, and social adopt the law proposal model through a participatory, stakeholders, and document them media activists inclusive process as validation of the national model Outcome Expected Outcome Expected Ensure an Independent A new model for the Independent Municipal Fund is developed and agreed upon The Cabinet adopts a new model for the Independent Municipal Fund that Ensure an Independent by key stakeholders that allows local efficiency, autonomy, and accountability allows local efficiency, autonomy, and accountability Municipal Fund Municipal Fund Research and benchmark with other Establish local funds governed by Engage unions of municipalities, Strategy countries’ funding mechanisms to Enable local stakeholders to build a partnership between municipal Strategy CSOs, and NGOs to lobby the develop a model for independent the capacity of municipalities to unions and local stakeholders as Cabinet to adopt an independent municipal funding using improve their financial capabilities models for independent funding funding mechanism participatory mechanisms mechanisms Outcome Expected Outcome Expected The municipal elections law includes major reforms, including the use of A free, fair, and democratic electoral system is adopted for local pre-printed ballots, voting based on place of residence, and creation of an governments, with districting based on socio-economic factors in line with Reform the Municipal Reform the Municipal independent elections commission the administrative decentralization model Elections Law Elections Law Launch a campaign led by CSOs, Mobilize community-level Launch a campaign led by CSOs, Mobilize community-level Strategy Strategy NGOs, and social media activists stakeholders to lobby local MPs to NGOs, and social media activists stakeholders to lobby local MPs to using direct actions to reform the introduce reforms to the municipal using direct actions to reform the introduce reforms to the municipal municipal elections law elections law municipal elections law elections law14 15
  • ILLUSTRATIVE ACTIVITIES ENGAGING WITH DIFFERENT STAKEHOLDERSDuring the last decade, several initiatives have pushed for administrative The suggested policy option must be endorsed by key stakeholders and policy-decentralization in Lebanon, but these efforts have been limited and failed to makers to be implemented. The influence that the various stakeholders yieldachieve major impact. The following are suggestions for illustrative activities on the decision-making process will determine how they should be engagedbased on expert roundtables, interviews, and focus groups, which can be adopted and the messages they should receive. Below is a list of stakeholders to beby CSOs, NGOs, and CBOs to press forward on administrative decentralization. considered. > President of the Republic > Parliamentary blocks > BusinessIllustrative Activities at the Illustrative Activities at the > Cabinet of Ministers > Parliamentary associations > Ministry of Finance Committee on Public > SyndicatesNational Level: Local Level: > OMSAR Management & Justice > Academia & Involve local businesses, CSOs, NGOs, > Court of Audit > Ministry of Interior & research institutes Conduct research on local economic CBOs, cooperatives, universities, > Civil Service Board Municipalities > CSOs, NGOs, CBOs development needs and priorities. youth and women groups in proposing > Department of Municipal > Political parties > Media Link decentralization proposals to an administrative decentralization Affairs in the Ministry of > Unions of > Local private districting based on socio-economic model that responds to local needs. Interior and Municipalities municipalities sector factors rather than sectarian > Mohafazat & Qae’m Maqam > Municipalities Monitor the performance of Mohafazat (governorates & districts) boundaries. (governorates), Qa’em Maqam Highlight financial gaps that are (districts), and municipalities, and hindering municipalities’ role in document cases that prove the need Each of these entities requires a different strategy and approach to ally it with development. for decentralization. the suggested policy. The following table highlights the incentives for the key Design an administrative Encourage public-private partnerships stakeholders to adopt or support the proposed policy. These incentives can form decentralization model that protects at the local level. the basis for developing communication messages to persuade the stakeholders national unity and promotes local Invite the Lebanese diaspora to invest to take action. development. in and support decentralization and local economic development. Document case studies and best Stakeholders Incentives Foster networking among local practices of local development and Cabinet and Improve public institutions’ performance and enhance CSOs, NGOs, and CBOs to advocate municipal cooperation as models for Ministry of Interior responsiveness to citizen needs, thereby increasing trust collectively vis-à-vis central administrative decentralization. and Municipalities in government government for decentralization and Facilitate access to funding for independent municipal funding. Parliament and Increase local outreach and involvement at the municipalities to start development Collaborate with municipalities to Parliamentary community level through institutional mechanisms projects. develop local development plans Committees rather than clientelism Develop and advocate for a capacity- and engage with citizens across Municipalities Guarantee more autonomy to achieve local development building program for municipalities to confessions and with neighboring and Unions of municipalities. goals and enhance responsiveness to community needs better plan and manage local affairs. Municipalities Design awareness programs on local Monitor municipal practices and development needs and the respective Business publicize the results to the public. Associations and Decrease bureaucracy and create opportunities for roles of central government and Local Private private sector collaboration for market expansion municipalities. Sector Educate citizens on the importance of Gain local leverage and improve the quality of public NGOs, CSOs, & decentralization and its contribution services at the community level, allowing civil society to CBOs to reducing sectarian divisions. shift the focus to other policy issues16 17
  • PARTIAL LIST OF REFERENCES Arab Rule of Law Initiative. State of Media in Lebanon. Retrieved from http://www.arabruleoflaw. Kabbani, K. Director of the Civil Service Board and Former Minister of Education. org/Files/PDF/Media/Arabic/P2/MediaLebanonReportP2S2_AR.pdf (September 13, 2012). Personal interview by N. Menhall, BRD/I. “Artist Facing Jail Time: ‘Freedom of Expression Is a Myth in Lebanon.’” (April 6, 2012). Ya Karageozian N. (2006). Simplified Development Plans in Twelve Clusters of Municipalities in Libnan. Retrieved from http://www.yalibnan.com/2012/04/06/artist-facing-jail-time-over-graffiti-freedom-of- Lebanon. AUB: URPL660, unpublished term paper. expressionis-a-myth-in-lebanon/ Messarra, A., Salem, P. (1996). Administrative Decentralization in Lebanon. Lebanese Center Chahine, J. (May 5, 2004). “Lebanese Media Fractured, Politicized.” The Daily Star. for Policy Studies, Beirut. Retrieved from http://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Politics/May/05/Lebanese-media-fractured-politicized.ashx Ministry of Interior and Municipalities, First Municipal Infrastructure Project (2011). Municipal A Guidebook on Public-Private Partnership in Infrastructure, (2011), United Nations ESCAP, Finance Studies Program: Final Strategic Framework. Retrieved from http://www.moim.gov.lb/UI/ Bangkok, Retrieved from http://www.unescap.org/ttdw/common/TPT/PPP/text/ppp_guidebook.pdf moim/PDF/StrategicFramework.pdf Abou Dayeh, M. H. (2008). Effectiveness of Lebanese Non-Governmental Organizations on Murr, M. (2001). Administrative Decentralization Draft Law (presented to parliamentary Shaping Government Policies, American University of Beirut (Masters thesis). committee). Antar, C. G., (2011). Public-Private Partnerships: A Policy Option for the Improvement of Nahas, C. Economic Research Forum (2009). Financing and Political Economy of Higher Public Service Delivery in Lebanon, American University of Beirut (Masters thesis). Education in Lebanon. Retrieved from Economic Research Forum website http://charbelnahas. org/textes/Economie_et_politiques_economiques/HigherEducationFinancing-Lebanon.pdf Antoun, R., Associate Professor at the American University of Beirut (September 13, 2012). Personal interview by N. Menhall, BRD/I. OECD Studies on Public Engagement (2009). Focus on Citizens: Public Engagement for Better Policy and Services. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/gov/42658029.pdf Atallah, S. Lebanese Center for Policy Studies (2011). The Independent Municipal Fund: Reforming the Distributional Criteria. Retrieved from http://www.lcps-lebanon.org/ Relief International (2011). Empowering Municipalities Through Local Economic publications/1331312295-imf-policybrief-eng.pdf Development: The Path from Local Economic Development to National Policy. Beirut. Bakhos, A. (n.d.). Administrative Decentralization Draft Law (presented to parliamentary Sader, D. (n.d.). Municipal Work Experience in Lebanon: Achievements, Constraints and committee). Challenges. Lebanese Center for Policy Studies, Beirut. Baroud, Z. (n.d.). Administrative Decentralization Draft Law (presented to parliamentary Takydine, S., Lawyer and Legal Expert (September 25, 2012). committee). Personal interview by N. Menhall, BRD/I. Doumit, G., & Geha, C. (2011). The Path of Decentralization in a Sectarian State: Options and The Status of Women in the Middle East and North Africa. International Foundation for Alternatives for Lebanon. Presented at the British Society for Middle East Studies, Institute of Electoral Systems (IFES), Institute for Women’s Policy Research and Canadian International Arab and Islamic Studies, University of Exeter, United Kingdom. Development Agency (2010). Focus on Lebanon: Healthcare Access Topic Brief. Retrieved from http://www.ifes.org/Content/Publications/Papers/2010/~/media/Files/Publications/Papers/2010/ Engage Lebanon (2010). Local Governance and Active Citizenship. Beirut. swmena/2010_Lebanon_Healthcare_Access.pdf Gebara, K., President of the Lebanese Center for Good Governance (September 24, 2012). The World Bank Group, Social and Economic Development Group, Middle East and North Personal interview by C. Geha, BRD/I. Africa Region (2009). Lebanon: Social Impact Analysis - Electricity and Water Sectors. Ghanem, R. (n.d.). Administrative Decentralization Draft Law (presented to parliamentary Retrieved from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTPSIA/Resources/490023-1120841262639/Lebanon_ committee). electricity_water.pdf Hadwan, B. M. (2010). Blending Description and Prescription: A Model of Strategic Planning UN-Habitat (2009). Promoting Local Economic Development Through Strategic Planning. for the Lebanese Public Sector. American University of Beirut (Masters thesis). Local Economic Development Series. Hayek, Z., Director of the Council for Privatization (September 10, 2012). Personal interview by N. Menhall, BRD/I. Iskandar, A. (n.d.). Public Service Accountability in Lebanon. Doctoral dissertation, American University of Beirut (AUB), available from the Digital Documentation Center, AUB. Retrieved from http://ddc.aub.edu.lb/projects/pspa/PSAccount/PSAccount-0.html Juma, S. (2003), Governance and Public Sector Management in MENA, Sector Brief, The World Bank Group, Retrieved from http://www.iodlebanon.org/Files /37_1.pdf `18 19
  • This policy brief was developed by Beyond Reform & Development , part of BRD/I Group S.A.L., in close collaboration with experts, activists and civil society organizations. Lebanon, 2012