Southern Brazil Group 5
Overview <ul><li>States: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paraná </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Santa Catarina </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Paraná <ul><li>Capital: Curitiba </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 9,150,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Largest number of </li></ul><ul...
Santa Catarina <ul><li>Capital: Florianópolis </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 5,098,448 </li></ul><ul><li>Most European stat...
Rio Grande do Sul <ul><li>Capital: Porto Alegre </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 10,845,087 </li></ul><ul><li>Battlefield for...
Oil Refineries <ul><li>Crude oil contains hundreds of hydrocarbons all mixed together </li></ul><ul><li>The crude oil is h...
Products from Crude Oil <ul><li>Petroleum Gas – heating, cooking, and making plastics (boiling point (bp) = 104 °F) </li><...
Cracking <ul><li>Cracking takes large hydrocarbons and breaks them into smaller ones. </li></ul><ul><li>Three Types of Cra...
Unification <ul><li>Unification combines smaller hydrocarbons to make a larger one </li></ul><ul><li>Catalytic reforming u...
Alteration <ul><li>Alkylation makes molecules from one fraction to produce another </li></ul><ul><li>Low molecular weight ...
Complete Oil Refinery <ul><li>An oil refinery is a combination of all of the previously discussed units. </li></ul>
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Southern Brazil Group 5 Overview

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Southern Brazil Group 5 Overview

  1. 1. Southern Brazil Group 5
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>States: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paraná </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Santa Catarina </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rio Grande do Sul </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Area: 576,409 km 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Pop.: 26,973,511 </li></ul><ul><li>Density: 43.52/km 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Where is it? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Paraná <ul><li>Capital: Curitiba </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 9,150,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Largest number of </li></ul><ul><li>inhabitants from Eastern </li></ul><ul><li>European descent </li></ul><ul><li>One of the highest standards of living in Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>Largest grain-producing state </li></ul><ul><li>Universidade Federal do Paraná – Brazil’s first university </li></ul>
  4. 4. Santa Catarina <ul><li>Capital: Florianópolis </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 5,098,448 </li></ul><ul><li>Most European state </li></ul><ul><li>in Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>Major industrial and agricultural center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Northeast: textile, electric-mechanical, furniture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>West: cattle and poultry breeding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South: ceramics and shellfishes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Beautiful beaches </li></ul>
  5. 5. Rio Grande do Sul <ul><li>Capital: Porto Alegre </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 10,845,087 </li></ul><ul><li>Battlefield for several wars </li></ul><ul><li>Focal point of internal rebellion in 1800s </li></ul><ul><li>Rota Romântica - Tourist route through Serra Gaúcha </li></ul><ul><li>German and Italian influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vineyards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>German architecture </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Oil Refineries <ul><li>Crude oil contains hundreds of hydrocarbons all mixed together </li></ul><ul><li>The crude oil is heated, because different hydrocarbon chain lengths have different boiling points </li></ul><ul><li>The chains are pulled out by their vaporization temperature </li></ul>
  7. 7. Products from Crude Oil <ul><li>Petroleum Gas – heating, cooking, and making plastics (boiling point (bp) = 104 °F) </li></ul><ul><li>Gasoline – motor fuel (bp = 104 – 410 °F) </li></ul><ul><li>Kerosene – Fuel for jet engines and tractors </li></ul><ul><ul><li> (bp = 350 – 617 °F) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lubricating Oil – motor oil, grease, and other lubricants (bp = 572 – 700 °F) </li></ul><ul><li>Coke, Asphalt, Tar – starting material for making other products (bp = >1112 °F) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cracking <ul><li>Cracking takes large hydrocarbons and breaks them into smaller ones. </li></ul><ul><li>Three Types of Cracking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Steam – breaks ethane into ethylene </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visbreaking – reduces viscosity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coking – heats residual until it cracks into heavy oil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catalytic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid Catalytic Cracking – cracks heavy gas oils into diesel oils </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrocracking – takes heavy oil and cracks into gasoline and kerosene </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Unification <ul><li>Unification combines smaller hydrocarbons to make a larger one </li></ul><ul><li>Catalytic reforming uses a catalyst to combine low weight naphtha into aromatics </li></ul><ul><li>Creates hydrogen gas which is used in hydrocracking </li></ul>
  10. 10. Alteration <ul><li>Alkylation makes molecules from one fraction to produce another </li></ul><ul><li>Low molecular weight compounds are mixed in the presence of a catalyst such as hydrofluoric acid or sulfuric acid to produce high octane hydrocarbons </li></ul>
  11. 11. Complete Oil Refinery <ul><li>An oil refinery is a combination of all of the previously discussed units. </li></ul>
  12. 12. THE END ANY QUESTIONS?
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