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Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
Residential Implementation Issues
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Residential Implementation Issues

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  • 1. Residential Implementation of Photovoltaic Systems By Chris Hinton & Patrick Patterson <ul><li>Off-Grid & Grid Tied </li></ul><ul><li>Mounting Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Inverters </li></ul><ul><li>System Sizing & Design </li></ul><ul><li>PV Modules </li></ul><ul><li>Future of PVs </li></ul><ul><li>Placement & Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Storage </li></ul><ul><li>Charge controllers </li></ul>
  • 2. Two Types of Residential Photovoltaic (PV) Systems <ul><li>Off-grid </li></ul><ul><li>Grid-tied </li></ul>Golden, Colorado - National Renewable Energy Lab East Lansing, Michigan - National Renewable Energy Lab
  • 3. Off-grid PV Systems <ul><li>Power for remote systems </li></ul><ul><li>Cost-prohibitive utility line extensions </li></ul>“… Electric company quoted US$7 a foot to bring in the utility line from about a mile away (about US$37,000).” - Home Power Magazine #92 Pg 22 Location unknown - SolarDepot.com
  • 4. Grid-tied PV Systems <ul><li>Net Metering </li></ul><ul><li>Local incentives promote grid-tied systems exclusively </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce peak power demand on utility </li></ul>- Energy Trust of Oregon
  • 5. PV System Sizing <ul><li>Energy use & auditing </li></ul><ul><li>Energy efficiency measures </li></ul><ul><li>Energy requirements for PV </li></ul>How much power do you need?
  • 6. Off-grid System Considerations <ul><li>Begin with precise load calculations </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce load requirements through efficiency measures </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate energy production potential from solar insolation data </li></ul><ul><li>Select PV hardware to match load requirements </li></ul>Design system to match load - Xantrex
  • 7. Grid-tied System Considerations <ul><li>Examine previous power bills </li></ul><ul><li>Implement energy efficiency first </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate production potential from solar insolation data </li></ul><ul><li>Choose % of load to match </li></ul><ul><li>Select PV hardware for utility interconnection </li></ul>Design system economically - Xantrex
  • 8. Module Placement & Orientation <ul><li>Implications of shading </li></ul><ul><li>The sun path </li></ul><ul><li>Azimuth </li></ul><ul><li>Tilt angle </li></ul>Moorepark, California - BP Solar
  • 9. Tracing the Sun <ul><li>Seasonal sun path variations </li></ul><ul><li>Solar pathfinder tool </li></ul><ul><li>Obstacles to sunlight can be traced and predicted for different times of the year </li></ul>- Home Power Magazine # 57, pg. 32 - Real Goods
  • 10. Module Placement & Orientation Guidelines <ul><li>Standard PV module azimuth rule: </li></ul><ul><li>(Orientation) = (True South) </li></ul><ul><li>Note: In Portland, true South is about </li></ul><ul><li>19° east of magnetic South </li></ul><ul><li>Standard PV module tilt rule: </li></ul><ul><li>(Angle from horizontal) = </li></ul><ul><li>(Geographic Latitude) </li></ul>- Real Goods http://www.proaxis.com/~johnbell/iitt/questionftf49.htm
  • 11. What About Azimuth & Performance? <ul><li>Home Power Magazine # 93, pgs. 24-28 </li></ul>
  • 12. Effects of Tilting PV Modules Maximize energy production by optimizing tilt angle Seasonal adjustments can further maximize production capabilities - Home Power Magazine # 57, pg. 35
  • 13. How much does tilt angle really matter? <ul><li>Home Power Magazine # 93, pgs. 24-28 </li></ul>
  • 14. Module Placement & Orientation Considerations <ul><li>Placement and orientation often depend upon system priority: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Off-grid systems should maximize energy production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grid-tied systems often maximize aesthetics characteristics </li></ul></ul>
  • 15. Aesthetics Count This is the same house! <ul><li>Home Power Magazine # 93, pg. 26 </li></ul><ul><li>Home Power Magazine # 93, pgs. 10, 11 </li></ul>
  • 16. Module Mounting Roof Mounted Ground Mounted Trackers - National Renewable Energy Lab <ul><li>Home Power Magazine # 93, pg. 15 </li></ul><ul><li>Home Power Magazine # 95, pg. 127 </li></ul>
  • 17. Mounting Considerations <ul><li>PV cooling </li></ul><ul><li>Wind resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Structural Stability </li></ul><ul><li>Code compliance </li></ul><ul><li>PV Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetics </li></ul><ul><li>Visibility (visible installations may increase public awareness of renewable energy) </li></ul>Oak Park, California - BP Solar
  • 18. Energy Storage <ul><li>Off-grid storage needs </li></ul><ul><li>Grid-tied energy storage </li></ul><ul><li>Cost and Efficiency Considerations </li></ul>- National Renewable Energy Lab - Home Power Magazine # 27, pg. 34
  • 19. Off-grid Energy Storage <ul><li>Calculate storage requirements from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate (periods of cloudy weather?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical loads (what do you need to power?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity should last 4 – 21 days </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Batteries should not be discharged more than 50% – 70% or battery life is shortened </li></ul><ul><li>Install batteries in safe, climate-controlled, ventilated location (not in your living room) </li></ul>
  • 20. Grid-tied Energy Storage <ul><li>Most Grid-tied systems do not use batteries </li></ul><ul><li>Rather the utility grid is treated as a 100% efficient, unlimited capacity battery (except during outages) </li></ul><ul><li>Batteries may be added for additional storage flexibility </li></ul>
  • 21. Batteries: Cost & Efficiency Considerations <ul><li>Batteries add significant cost to a PV system </li></ul><ul><li>Charging batteries significantly reduces system efficiency: 20% energy losses are typical during battery charging </li></ul>“ The Xantrex XS12205 12-volt, 184 amp hour, AGM battery was designed for backup and solar applications.” $399 (list) or $179 (on sale) http://www.partsonsale.com/xs12200.html
  • 22. Photovoltaic Hardware Selection <ul><li>PV Modules </li></ul><ul><li>Inverters & Charge Controllers </li></ul><ul><li>Mounting Hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Balance of System Components </li></ul>
  • 23. Photovoltaic Modules – Selection Criteria <ul><li>Cell types (in decreasing order of price and efficiency) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monocrystalline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polycrystalline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amorphous (thin-film) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IV curves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum power rating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aesthetics </li></ul>
  • 24. Module Comparison Chart
  • 25. Photovoltaic Modules – Product Survey <ul><li>BP Solar: BP 5170 http://www.bpsolar.com/ContentDocuments/84/BP%205170S.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Shell Solar: SP150-PC http://www.shell.com/static/shellsolar/downloads/products/us/ShellSP150-PC_USv1.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Evergreen Solar: EC-110 http://www.evergreensolar.com/egsolar1/pdf/ec100series13.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Kyocera: KC120-1 http://www.kyocerasolar.com/pdf/specsheets/kc120_1.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Sharp: NT-S5E1U http://www.sharpusa.com/files/sol_dow_185WSS.pdf </li></ul>
  • 26. Inverters – Selection Criteria <ul><li>Output types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>True sine wave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modified sine wave </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Input requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12VDC, 24VDC, 48VDC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>String inverters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PV Modules wired accordingly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monitoring and data logging capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Non-islanding inverters for Grid-tie applications </li></ul>- SMA America
  • 27. Charge Controllers <ul><li>Purpose – safe battery charging </li></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Series </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shunt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stand-alone units </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated (into inverter) </li></ul>- RV Power Products
  • 28. Inverter Comparison Chart
  • 29. Remote Monitoring Options
  • 30. PC Interface: Trace (Xantrex) <ul><li>Home Power Magazine # 94, pgs. 24, 26 </li></ul>
  • 31. PC Interface: SunnyBoy - SMA America
  • 32. Inverters & Charge Controllers – Product Survey <ul><li>Outback Power Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.outbackpower.com/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SMA America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.sma-america.com/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Xantrex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.xantrex.com/products/index.asp </li></ul></ul>
  • 33. Mounting Hardware <ul><li>Two Seas Mounting Structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.2seas.com/matrix_ground_roof_a_r.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ground/Roof </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flush Mount </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-Tier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Profile </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unirac </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.unirac.com/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large Array PV Module Mounting System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solarmount (ground/roof) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracker 200 (2-module tracking rack) </li></ul></ul>- UniRac
  • 34. Balance of System Components <ul><li>DC disconnects </li></ul><ul><li>AC Disconnects </li></ul><ul><li>Fuses/Breakers </li></ul><ul><li>Grounding hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Lightning Arrestors </li></ul><ul><li>Combiner Boxes </li></ul>
  • 35. Case Studies <ul><li>Off Grid Living </li></ul><ul><li>Grid-tied with batteries and monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Off Grid PV & Wind Hybrid System </li></ul><ul><li>Grid-tied system with unbelievable payback </li></ul>
  • 36. Off Grid Case Study: Bisbee Family – Home Power Magazine #92, pgs. 22-27
  • 37. Grid-tied Case Study: Simons Family - Home Power Magazine # 94, pgs. 22-27
  • 38. Off Grid Case Study: Reising & McCoy Family - Home Power Magazine #89, pgs. 10-19
  • 39. Grid-tied Case Study: Webster Family - Home Power Magazine #95, pgs. 22-28
  • 40. Grid-tied Case Study: Webster Family
  • 41. Conclusions & Personal Thoughts <ul><li>Carefully designed residential PV systems provide their owners with clean, reliable power, and promote interest in renewable energy sources </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen as Energy Storage </li></ul><ul><li>Building-integrated materials </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded use of solar energy for water purification, water heating, space heating (air-to-air heat exchangers), as well as electricity production </li></ul><ul><li>Home Power Magazine # 93, pg. 27 </li></ul>
  • 42. References <ul><li>Bell, John (2000). Questions from the Field… [Internet] Available from: <http://www.proaxis.com/~johnbell/iitt/questionftf49.htm> [Accessed July 2003] </li></ul><ul><li>Bisbee, D. (2002) Off the Grid: Starting Small Home Power Magazine , No 92, December/January, pp. 22-23. </li></ul><ul><li>BP Solar (2003). BP Solar Home Page [Internet] Available from: <http://www.bpsolar.com> [Accessed July 2003] </li></ul><ul><li>Chadderdon, M. and Chadderdon, J. (2003) The Chadderdon Photovoltaic Story. Home Power Magazine , No 93, February/March pp. 10-18. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Trust (2003). Solar Electric for Homes and Businesses [Internet] Available from: <http://www.energytrust.org> [Accessed July 2003] </li></ul><ul><li>McCoy, C. and Reising, C. (2002) Still Saying &quot;Yes&quot; to Sunshine Home Power Magazine , No 89, June/July, pp. 10-19. </li></ul><ul><li>National Renewable Energy Lab (2003). Photographic Information Exchange [Internet] Available from: <http://www.nrel.gov/data/pix/pix.html> [Accessed July 2003] </li></ul><ul><li>OutBack Power Systems (2003). OutBack Power Systems Home Page [Internet] Available from: <http://www.outbackpower.com> [Accessed July 2003] </li></ul><ul><li>Perez, R. and Drake, J. (1997) Where and How to Mount PV Modules. Home Power Magazine , No 57, February/March, pp. 32-37. </li></ul><ul><li>RV Power Products (2003). RV Power Products Home Page [Internet] Available from: <http://www.rvpowerproducts.com> [Accessed July 2003] </li></ul><ul><li>Schaeffer, J. ed. (2001) Solar Living Source Book: The Complete Guide To Renewable Energy Technologies & Sustainable Living . 11th ed. USA, </li></ul><ul><li>Chelsea Green Publishing Company. </li></ul><ul><li>Simons, B. (2003) PV Done Right - Grid Tie, Battery Backup, and System Monitoring. Home Power Magazine , No 94, April/May, pp. 22-27. </li></ul><ul><li>SMA-America (2003). SMA-America Home Page [Internet] Available from: <http://www.sma-america.com> [Accessed July 2003] </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Depot (2003). Solar Depot Home Page [Internet] Available from: <http://www.solardepot.com> [Accessed July 2003] </li></ul><ul><li>Solatron Technologies (2003). Xantrex XS12205 [Internet] Available from: <http://www.partsonsale.com/xs12200.html> [Accessed July 2003] </li></ul><ul><li>Two Seas Metalworks (2003). Two Seas Metalworks Home Page [Internet] Available from: <http://www.2seas.com/matrix_ground_roof_a_r.htm> [Accessed July 2003] </li></ul><ul><li>UniRac (2003). Unirac Home Page [Internet] Available from: <http://www.unirac.com> [Accessed July 2003] </li></ul><ul><li>Webster, D. (2003) Getting Off the Lifetime Utility Payment Plan. Home Power Magazine , No 95, June/July, pp. 22-28. </li></ul><ul><li>Xantrex (2003). Products [Internet] Available from: <http://www.xantrex.com/Products/index.asp> [Accessed July 2003] </li></ul><ul><li>Yewdall, Z. (2003) PV Orientation. Home Power Magazine , No 93, February/March, pp. 24-28. </li></ul>

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