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  1. 1. Oil BP BP is one of the world's largest energy companies, providing its customers with fuel for transportation, energy for heat and light, retail services and petrochemicals products for everyday items BP supports precautionary action to limit greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and works to combat climate change in several ways, even though aspects of the science are still the subject of expert debate There are many potential contributors to the goal of stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions and we support an inclusive approach that recognizes the existence of different starting points, perspectives, priorities and solutions, from increasing the fuel economy of motor vehicles to increasing wind and solar capacity. Our position on climate change is well defined: We believe that climate change is a long-term issue, which needs to be tackled over the next 50 years or more. We support urgent but informed action to stabilize GHG concentrations through sustainable long-term emissions reductions at the lowest possible cost. Large-scale reductions in emissions will require the use of both existing and emerging technologies. Governments and businesses need to work together to create a policy framework or ‘space’ that drives economic progress and provides energy security while delivering significant emissions reductions. Such a ‘space’ can be defined by appropriate policy and regulation, while activity within it will be driven by market mechanisms. We believe that the policy and regulatory interventions must support the development and implementation of appropriate technological solutions and also enable the amendment of market mechanisms as new knowledge around climate change emerges. We advocate the introduction of emission caps and that market mechanisms, such as emissions trading, be used to enable economies to adjust to a carbon-constrained world. In a cap-and-trade system, a cap is set on the total emissions from a group of emitters – whether companies, plants, countries or regions – and participants can trade emissions permits within that limit. Our major European assets already operate within the EU’s Emissions Trading Scheme, currently the world’s largest cap and trade system, and we support its extension and development. We also argue that wherever possible policy should create a level playing field to encourage different means of achieving emissions reductions, such as renewables and carbon capture. BP participates in several groups to help provide a strong business voice for policy development. Incentivizing renewable energy. Incentives can include quotas or price support for low-carbon energy. Germany and Spain have implemented feed-in tariffs, providing set prices for renewable power over a long period. BP and others have invested in and experienced growth opportunities created by these initiatives. With fossil fuels currently the source of 80% of the world’s primary energy and likely to remain vital to global energy supply for at least 20 to 30 years, innovation to reduce carbon emissions from fossil fuels can make a major contribution to stabilization. Consequently, energy companies like ours have an important role to play in contributing to policy and education, enabling market mechanisms, developing and deploying new technological and commercial solutions based on both fossil fuel and new energy sources at large scale
  2. 2. Oil ExxonMobil We are the world's largest publicly traded international oil and gas company, providing energy that helps underpin growing economies and improve living standards around the world. Policymakers are considering a variety of proposed regulatory options to mitigate GHG emissions. In our view, assessing these options requires an understanding of their likely effectiveness, scale and cost, as well as their implications for economic growth and quality of life. Within ExxonMobil, we analyze and compare the various policy options by evaluating the degree to which they: • Ensure any cost of carbon is uniform across the economy and predictable • Maximize use of markets • Promote global participation - Consider priorities of developing world - Recognize impacts of imbalances among national policies • Minimize complexity to reduce administrative costs • Maximize transparency to companies and consumers • Adjust in the future to developments in climate science and the economic impacts of climate policies The following is taken from The Outlook for Energy: A View to 2030 by ExxonMobil
  3. 3. NGO Greenpeace Greenpeace stands for positive change through action. We defend the natural world and promote peace. We investigate, expose and confront environmental abuse by governments and corporations around the world. We champion environmentally responsible and socially just solutions, including scientific and technical innovation. While our government promotes the fallacy that we need coal and nuclear to keep the lights on, innovative councils, businesses and individuals are taking the leap into a cleaner, greener future with decentralised energy. What is decentralised energy? Well, it's pretty much the opposite of our present, outrageously inefficient energy system, which was designed to meet the needs of a society that hadn't even heard of climate change. This centralised system is a shambles - in fact, it would be impossible to invent a less efficient way of generating energy. The typical power plant in the UK is only 38 per cent efficient. By the time we use electricity in our homes and offices, we've lost nearly 80 per cent of the usable energy inside the fossil fuels we burn. This is mostly because we have two separate energy systems: one for electricity, and another to heat water and buildings. It's news to some, but heat is a far bigger culprit than electricity when it comes to global warming. For electricity, we burn fossil fuels in a few large power plants, miles away from the homes and offices they supply. Two thirds of the energy available in fossil fuels is lost in the power plant as waste heat (a by-product of electricity generation) and during transmission. Another 13 per cent is lost through inefficient use in our buildings. For heat, we burn more fossil fuels (mostly natural gas) in boilers in our homes, offices and factories. It's a little bit like putting radiators on the outside of your house instead of inside it; we're burning one lot of fossil fuels for electricity, and another lot for heat, but waste heat is a by-product of electricity generation. Can't we just burn one lot of fuel to generate electricity, and capture the 'waste' heat at the same time? We can. Combined heat and power or CHP does exactly that. Combined heat and power CHP is the heart of an efficient, decentralised energy system. It's the most efficient way possible to burn fuel because so little energy is lost as waste heat. Because the heat needs to be captured and piped around the local district, CHP plants are usually sited in the towns and cities where the electricity and heat will be used. This makes it more efficient for electricity generation as well as heat; very little energy is lost in transmission. If we combined the efficiencies of CHP with improved efficiencies in the home (proper insulation say, and minimum efficiency standards for appliances), we'd practically eliminate the profligate wastage of our current system. Local renewable energy sources But decentralised energy isn't all about CHP. There's an abundance of energy out there in our natural world, ready to be harnessed. We could be harvesting energy from the wind, the sun's rays, the ocean, underground springs and even the earth itself. According to the government, just the wind, wave and tidal resources of our windswept island could meet 40 per cent of our energy needs by 2020. In the longer term, the sky's the limit.
  4. 4. NGO Friends of the Earth Friends of the Earth wants a healthy planet and a good life for everyone on it. In fact, we believe you don't get one without the other. We are trusted and determined and have been making life better for people and the planet since 1971. Energy is much cleaner that it used to be. But nuclear and burning fossil fuels cause problems of their own. Carbon dinosaurs The UK's biggest source of carbon dioxide (CO2) is burning fossil fuels - like coal, gas and oil - in power stations. Old coal fired power stations produce more dangerous C02 than gas ones. In the 1990s, our emissions fell as electricity companies switched from coal to gas. This trend has reversed as gas prices have risen making coal more economic. Why aren't big energy companies - like Shell - doing more? Nuclear power - the end? Some argue nuclear power is a solution to climate change. Nuclear Power is dangerous and expensive because: • Security threats Power stations could be terrorist targets. • Toxic waste Pollutes environment. Waste needs careful management for generations. • Global proliferation Availability of deadly materials increased. Friends of the Earth research has shown we don't need nuclear reactors to stop climate change. There is a safer, cheaper and cleaner solution to the problem of climate change - green energy. Natural forms of energy surround us - and they can be used to power our vehicles, homes and business. Renewable energy: Examples of renewable energy sources include: Solar Converting the Sun's energy into electricity and heat. Wind Electricity from wind energy Hydroelectric Energy in flowing water is harnessed Biomass Natural materials, like wood, are burnt or turned into gas to provide energy. They are: clean and won't cause climate change safe - unlike nuclear power won't run out - unlike oil, gas and coal - and there's a vast resource that's largely untapped. Energy efficiency - more from less Using less energy will also help stop climate change. It's also very cost effective. But it's not the complete answer.
  5. 5. Friends of the Earth says: Energy companies should change to make money from selling us less energy not more.
  6. 6. Renewables The National Energy Foundation Our Aim At NEF, our aim and values are to help people and businesses throughout the UK to reduce their carbon emissions through the use of energy efficiency measures and renewable energy sources to help combat climate change. Our Values WHAT NEF is encouraging a better use of energy through energy efficiency measures and the use of alternative sources of energy such as renewable energy which are not damaging our environment. WHY Our energy consumption keeps on increasing steadily. This has various detrimental effects on the environment. Today the biggest threat to us is the impact this has on the climate mainly due to the level of carbon emissions we release in the atmosphere through our energy use. HOW NEF work closely with businesses, local authorities and other partners to develop services that will empower people to reduce their carbon emissions. We inform, provide tools and bespoke services to our clients that will have the most impact in terms of CO2 savings. In all our work we ensure there is real action to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. See Attached PDF
  7. 7. Renewables British Wind Energy The British Wind Energy Association is the trade and professional body for the UK wind and marine renewables industries. Wind has been the world's fastest growing renewable energy source for the last seven years, and this trend is expected to continue with falling costs of wind energy and the urgent international need to tackle CO2 emissions to prevent climate change. In 2004, BWEA expanded its mission to champion wave and tidal energy and use the Association's experience to guide these technologies along the same path to commercialisation. Our primary purpose is to promote the use of wind power in and around the UK, both onshore and offshore. We act as a central point for information for our membership and as a lobbying group to promote wind energy and marine renewables to government. See Attached PDF
  8. 8. Coal (NGO) World Coal Institute The World Coal Institute (WCI) is a non-profit, non-governmental organisation of coal enterprises and associations - the only international body working on a worldwide basis on behalf of the coal industry. The objectives of WCI are to: • Deepen and broaden understanding amongst policy makers and key stakeholders of the positive role of coal in addressing global warming, widespread poverty in developing countries, and energy security. • Assist in the creation of a political climate supportive of action by governments to include: - Carbon capture & storage (CCS) in climate mitigation strategies and plans; - Clean coal technologies (CCT) in environmental strategies; - Coal to liquids technologies (CTL), with CCS, in energy security considerations; and - Coal in national and regional energy portfolios. • Inform and educate communities of the benefits of coal, the contribution that can be made through CCS and CCT, and the constructive role played by the coal industry in improving its environmental performance, and strengthening social and economic development. • Support improved performance in mine safety globally. Electricity generation is a major contributor to economic and social development. Coal will continue to play a vital role in electricity generation worldwide – while it currently supplies 40% of the world’s electricity, this figure will only drop one percentage point over the next three decades. With the availability of abundant, affordable and geographically disperse reserves, coal is able to provide secure and reliable supplies of affordable energy worldwide. Clean coal technologies have already achieved major advances in environmental performance, and new technologies are under development towards a 'zero emissions' future. The technologies employed and being developed to meet coal's environmental challenges are collectively referred to as clean coal technologies. Different technologies are being developed to suit different coal types, different environmental issues and different levels of economic development. Coal's technical response to the environmental challenge is ongoing - with three core elements: Reducing carbon dioxide emissions with the development of carbon capture and storage Improving combustion technologies to increase efficiency and to reduce carbon dioxide and other emissions Eliminating emissions of pollutants such as particulates, oxides of sulphur and nitrogen Through liquefaction and gasification coal can also provide low cost, secure alternatives to oil and natural gas for use in electricity generation, transport and domestically. Coal can also be used to generate hydrogen for completely clean future energy systems.
  9. 9. Fossil Fuels (mainly coal) UK Carbon Capture and Storage Consortium The UKCCSC is a consortium of engineering, technological, natural, environmental, social and economic scientists. The Consortium is a way to rapidly expand UK research capacity in the area of carbon capture and storage, commensurate with the large potential contributions to national energy targets. We aim to deliver viable large-scale Carbon Capture & Storage options for the UK. Fossil fuels will remain the dominant energy source in the UK for a number of decades and methods to manage the associated carbon emissions are fundamental to the UK's transition towards a sustainable energy economy. Carbon (dioxide) capture and storage (CCS) in geological structures is fast-emerging as a promising method for decoupling fossil fuel use and carbon emissions. As noted in the Prime Minister's recent speech on Climate Change [Blair, 2004] "There is huge scope for improving energy efficiency and promoting the uptake of existing low carbon technologies like PV, fuel cells and carbon geological storage." Blair, A. (2004) Speech by Prime Minister Tony Blair on the 10th anniversary of the Prince of Wales' Business and Environment Programme, London, 14 September 2004. UKCCSC Mission statement To promote an understanding of how options for decoupling fossil fuel use from carbon emissions through the use of carbon capture and storage could be used to assist the UK in achieving an energy system which is environmentally sustainable, socially acceptable and meets energy needs securely and affordably. What are the Objectives of UKCCSC? Overall objectives: To assist in the national aim of reducing UK CO2 emissions by 60%, by decoupling economic growth from energy use and pollution. To assist in maintaining the reliability and cost of UK energy, such that every home can be adequately and affordably heated. To rapidly expand the UK research capacity in carbon capture and storage (CCS), making a large contribution to national energy targets. To assist in enabling the continued use of the UK's coal reserves, both through conventional mining and underground coal gasification. Investigation of fossil fuel gasification as a bridge to the hydrogen economy. To assist in bridging the gap between the present day fossil fuel economy and the future hydrogen economy. Overall assessment of lifecycle costs and emissions of fossil fuel supply options. CCS objectives: Assessment of the impact of future energy supply/demand scenarios on the overall costs and emissions of non-CCS and CCS fossil generation. To explore the role of CCS in the update of the UK's energy infrastructure. Investigation of CCS synergies with other low-emission energy sources. To assist in extending the life of the UK North Sea oil industry by 1 or 2 decades by realising the potential of CCS. Investigation of the potential impacts of CO2 leakage during capture and storage, and compare these to the environmental impacts of non-intervention. Establish a Geographical Information System (GIS) based decision support tool.
  10. 10. Nuclear British Energy A FTSE 100 company, British Energy Group plc is the UK’s largest producer of electricity and the lowest carbon emitter of the major UK electricity generators. With a dedicated workforce of about 6,000 skilled professionals, we produce around one- sixth of the nation's electricity. We own and operate eight nuclear power stations. In addition, we own and run a coal-fired power station. Our nuclear stations have a combined capacity of almost 10,000 megawatts, whilst our coal-fired plant adds a further 1,960 megawatts of output. We operate two types of nuclear reactor: the advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR); and a pressurised water reactor (PWR). Sizewell B is the only PWR nuclear power station in our portfolio. The nuclear power industry plays a crucial role in tackling climate change by generating near-zero carbon electricity. The electricity sector's contribution Fossil fuel power stations are the single largest source of CO2 emissions both globally and in the UK. Coal and oil fired stations emit the most, with gas generation emitting around half as much. Nuclear and renewables are near-zero carbon technologies. British Energy’s nuclear stations play an important role in minimising CO2 emissions, since without them the electricity would have to be generated by fossil fuel stations. In 2006/07 our nuclear stations prevented the emission of about 33.7 million tonnes of CO2 (MtCO2) – the equivalent to removing around half of the UK’s cars. Since they were commissioned our stations have avoided a total of 800MtCO2. The focus of UK government efforts to reduce emissions from electricity generation is through efficiency improvements, and by encouraging greater use of renewable generation. To encourage energy efficiency the Government has established the Climate Change Levy (CCL), which is a tax on the business use of energy. However, the CCL does not distinguish between electricity generated by high carbon intensity plants (such as coal generation) and carbon-free plants (such as nuclear) so it’s not very well suited to tackling climate change. To encourage renewables the UK Government established the Renewables Obligation to encourage suppliers to buy renewable energy
  11. 11. Government Agency Environment Agency "We are the leading public body for protecting and improving the environment in England and Wales. It's our job to make sure that air, land and water are looked after by everyone in today's society, so that tomorrow's generations inherit a cleaner, healthier world." Sir John Harman, Chairman. The current Kyoto targets are very small compared to the cuts in emissions that will eventually be needed. Some European countries have set themselves informal targets for 60-per-cent emissions reductions by mid-century, which is a better measure of what is needed. But even if all the Kyoto nations did likewise, they are only responsible for a minority of today’s emissions. So more would still be needed by other nations. Eventually, if the climate regime develops as many hope, every country and every major energy and manufacturing company will need a licence to emit greenhouse gases. If we are to stop dangerous climate change, the number of licences available will need to be very limited. So the question of how they should be shared out becomes critical. It is political dynamite. In particular, the suggestion sets the industrialised and developing worlds at loggerheads. This is partly because the industrialised countries of Europe and North America have already used up something like half of the atmospheric "space" available for emissions. And partly because developing nations are coming under pressure to reduce their emissions before they have had a chance to industrialise. Big developing nations like China and India may rank high in the emissions league table. But measured per head of population, their emissions remain low. While the US and Australia emit around 5 tonnes a year for every citizen, and European countries average under 3 tonnes, China is still below 1 tonne and India below half a tonne. Developing countries feel they are being asked to forego economic development to help clean up a mess they did not create. On the other hand, they increasingly see that climate change threatens their prospects for economic development. The only solution may be to institute a rationing system for pollution entitlements, based on a shared view of fairness. That might ultimately mean a ration based on national population.