Monitoring and Detection of  Caulerpa taxifolia  in Florida Florida Department of Agriculture  and Consumer Services Divis...
Caulerpa taxifolia <ul><li>Marine macroalage from South Pacific, coastal Australia, also native to Caribbean </li></ul><ul...
Invasive Characteristics <ul><li>Grows fast on different substrates </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduces by vegetative fragmentati...
Monitoring Program <ul><li>Must be supported on a low budget </li></ul><ul><li>Must provide a cost-effective survey of are...
Monitoring Program <ul><li>Learn from California </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys by divers very expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Dive...
C. taxifolia  (Med.clone vs. native)   Caulerpa taxifolia is present  in the Florida Keys. Is it distinguishable from the ...
Caulerpa  species of Florida C. mexicana C. paspaloides C. taxifolia (Florida Keys) C. mexicana var. lixor C. taxifolia (C...
PCR reaction intron rbcL gene Caulerpa DNA DNA primer DNA primer intron
PCR reaction intron rbcL gene Caulerpa DNA Separate DNA strands, allow primers to bind DNA intron
PCR reaction intron rbcL gene Caulerpa DNA Synthesize new DNA intron
PCR reaction intron rbcL gene Caulerpa DNA Separate DNA strands, allow primers to bind DNA intron
PCR reaction intron rbcL gene Caulerpa DNA Synthesize new DNA intron
PCR reaction intron rbcL gene Caulerpa DNA Synthesize new DNA 1000 bp  (Noninvasive Caulerpa) intron
PCR reaction intron rbcL gene Caulerpa DNA 1000 bp  (Noninvasive  Caulerpa ) rbcL gene 260 bp  (Invasive  Caulerpa ) intron
PCR results suggest Australian origin of invasive  Caulerpa taxifolia Fama et al, 2002, J. Evol.Biol .
PCR Assay A DNA fragment of ~260 bp is diagnostic for the  Mediterranean clone (and also Californian, South Pacific, and a...
PCR results with native Florida  Caulerpa  species 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1  No DNA 2  Caulerpa prolifera 3  Caulerpa paspaloides 4...
PCR testing alone is not sufficient to identify  Caulerpa   taxifolia  Med clone PCR results will need to be interpreted w...
DNA Sequence analysis may be required to distinguish  Caulerpa  species 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1  No DNA 2  Caulerpa prolifera 3  C...
Monitoring and Detection of  Caulerpa taxifolia  in Florida Florida Department of Agriculture  and Consumer Services Divis...
PCR reaction
 
 
 
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Monitoring and detection of Caulerpa taxifolia in Florida

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Monitoring and detection of Caulerpa taxifolia in Florida

  1. 1. Monitoring and Detection of Caulerpa taxifolia in Florida Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Division of Aquaculture
  2. 2. Caulerpa taxifolia <ul><li>Marine macroalage from South Pacific, coastal Australia, also native to Caribbean </li></ul><ul><li>Used as an aquarium plant in Europe and North America </li></ul><ul><li>Aquarium plant was likely source of infestation in Mediterranean </li></ul><ul><li>In the Mediterranean, Caulerpa (Med clone) overgrows other plants, altering the ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction detected at Carlsbad CA in 2001, DNA indicates Med clone origin </li></ul>
  3. 3. Invasive Characteristics <ul><li>Grows fast on different substrates </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduces by vegetative fragmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerates variable temperature and salinity regimes </li></ul><ul><li>Lacks predators, produces toxin that discourages grazing by sea urchins </li></ul>
  4. 4. Monitoring Program <ul><li>Must be supported on a low budget </li></ul><ul><li>Must provide a cost-effective survey of areas of highest risk </li></ul><ul><li>Must have capability to detect invasive </li></ul><ul><li>C. taxifolia and distinguish it from native </li></ul><ul><li>Caulerpa species </li></ul>
  5. 5. Monitoring Program <ul><li>Learn from California </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys by divers very expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Dive club volunteers offer alternative survey capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Identification by DNA analysis of samples </li></ul>
  6. 6. C. taxifolia (Med.clone vs. native) Caulerpa taxifolia is present in the Florida Keys. Is it distinguishable from the Mediterranean clone? How do the appearance of other Caulerpa species in Florida compare to the Mediterranean clone? C. mexicana C. paspaloides C. taxifolia (Florida Keys) C. mexicana var. lixor C. taxifolia (Carlsbad, CA)
  7. 7. Caulerpa species of Florida C. mexicana C. paspaloides C. taxifolia (Florida Keys) C. mexicana var. lixor C. taxifolia (Carlsbad, CA)
  8. 8. PCR reaction intron rbcL gene Caulerpa DNA DNA primer DNA primer intron
  9. 9. PCR reaction intron rbcL gene Caulerpa DNA Separate DNA strands, allow primers to bind DNA intron
  10. 10. PCR reaction intron rbcL gene Caulerpa DNA Synthesize new DNA intron
  11. 11. PCR reaction intron rbcL gene Caulerpa DNA Separate DNA strands, allow primers to bind DNA intron
  12. 12. PCR reaction intron rbcL gene Caulerpa DNA Synthesize new DNA intron
  13. 13. PCR reaction intron rbcL gene Caulerpa DNA Synthesize new DNA 1000 bp (Noninvasive Caulerpa) intron
  14. 14. PCR reaction intron rbcL gene Caulerpa DNA 1000 bp (Noninvasive Caulerpa ) rbcL gene 260 bp (Invasive Caulerpa ) intron
  15. 15. PCR results suggest Australian origin of invasive Caulerpa taxifolia Fama et al, 2002, J. Evol.Biol .
  16. 16. PCR Assay A DNA fragment of ~260 bp is diagnostic for the Mediterranean clone (and also Californian, South Pacific, and aquarium samples) Fama et al, 2002, J. Evol.Biol . DNA fragment of ~1000 bp is diagnostic for the noninvasive Caulerpa .
  17. 17. PCR results with native Florida Caulerpa species 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 No DNA 2 Caulerpa prolifera 3 Caulerpa paspaloides 4 Caulerpa taxifolia (Florida Keys) 5 Caulerpa taxifolia (Med clone) 6 Caulerpa mexicana 7 Caulerpa mexicana var. lixor 260 bp 1000 bp
  18. 18. PCR testing alone is not sufficient to identify Caulerpa taxifolia Med clone PCR results will need to be interpreted with the associated morphological appearance of sample.
  19. 19. DNA Sequence analysis may be required to distinguish Caulerpa species 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 No DNA 2 Caulerpa prolifera 3 Caulerpa paspaloides 4 Caulerpa taxifolia (Florida Keys) 5 Caulerpa taxifolia (Med clone) 6 Caulerpa mexicana 7 Caulerpa mexicana var. lixor 260 bp 1000 bp AGCTTTTA… AGGATAGT… AGCTCTGA… AGCTTCCT…
  20. 20. Monitoring and Detection of Caulerpa taxifolia in Florida Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Division of Aquaculture
  21. 21. PCR reaction
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