GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND INTELLIGENCE NEWSLETTER

415 views
370 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
415
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND INTELLIGENCE NEWSLETTER

  1. 1. GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND Page 1 INTELLIGENCE NEWSLETTER 2010, No. 11 TABLE OF CONTENTS ABOUT THIS NEWSLETTER.................................................................................................................................................2 NATIONAL SECURITY ANALYSIS .........................................................................................................................................2 SEA LEVEL RISE..................................................................................................................................................................3 Antarctica: Glacier Less Stable, Sub Finds ......................................................................................................................3 EXTREME WEATHER ..........................................................................................................................................................4 South China: Devastated by Rain and Landslides ...........................................................................................................4 United Kingdom: Drought Risk Hits Cumbria Just Months after Floods ..........................................................................4 New England: Forests Transition as New England Warms ..............................................................................................5 Vietnam: Drought Threatens Central Rice Crop .............................................................................................................5 HEALTH.............................................................................................................................................................................6 United States: Dengue Re-emerges in United States, Spurring Race for Vaccine ............................................................6 CLIMATE REFUGEES ..........................................................................................................................................................7 Australia: Could Face Climate Refugees .........................................................................................................................7 MITIGATION & ADAPTATION.............................................................................................................................................7 Peru: Saving Glaciers with Whitewash [VIDEO] ..............................................................................................................7 Britain: Seeks to Curb Emissions by Abandoning Airport Growth ...................................................................................8 South Korea: SK [Group] to Invest W17.5 Trillion over Next 10 Years.............................................................................8 REPORTS ...........................................................................................................................................................................9 International Energy Outlook 2010 Highlights ...............................................................................................................9 BP Statistical Review of World Energy: June 2010........................................................................................................10 Overview of Health Considerations within National Adaptation Programmes of Action for Climate Change in Least Developed Countries and Small Island States ..............................................................................................................10 2009 Arab Environment: Climate Change. Impact of Climate Change on Arab Countries .............................................11 GEMI Newsletter – 2010, No. 11 – Page 1
  2. 2. GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND INTELLIGENCE NEWSLETTER Page 2 2010, No. 11 ABOUT THIS NEWSLETTER Marstel-Day, LLC and Jane’s Strategic Advisory Services (JSAS) offer a global environmental monitoring and intelligence (GEMI) capability designed to identify and track indicators associated with environmental and climate change trends and dynamics that will drive environmental threats and opportunities for U.S. national security interests. Such environmental trends include rising sea levels, extreme weather patterns, flooding and severe droughts, arable land loss and reduced access to fresh water, ocean acidification, and health catastrophes, as well as human-caused environmental drivers (e.g., contamination and overuse of water, deforestation, overfishing, urbanization, and population growth). The newsletter seeks to help policymakers and decision makers understand the underlying environmental trends that are shaping the current and future security environment, and that could directly or indirectly affect U.S. interests abroad by limiting or expanding U.S. policymaking options, or raising vulnerabilities or opportunities for the United States, U.S. friends and allies, as well as competitors. This semi-monthly newsletter offers a news compilation and analysis of current events/developments around the globe that represent environmental indicators, along with short synopses of recently-released reports on climate change and environmental trends. Each month the newsletter will feature an in-depth geospatial analysis of one of the indicators identified in the previous month. NATIONAL SECURITY ANALYSIS This week’s selection of articles may be read as a description of tradeoffs between environmental and economic security. It includes a report that describes a large-scale movement toward fuel-efficient energy use and several localized efforts to alleviate negative impacts of climate and environmental changes. In 2009, CO2 emissions decreased, but this may have been a temporary phenomenon related to the economic downturn and the concomitant drop in fossil fuel consumption. This issue also reports on the impact of severe droughts in countries around the world and describes the concerns and responses of U.S. friends and allies to climate change that provide insights into the types of conditions defense planners should be anticipating. The BP Statistical Review of World Energy: June 2010 notes that consumption of all fossil fuels and nuclear energy either declined or was stagnant through 2009, while only consumption of renewable energy increased, implying that global CO2 emissions from energy use declined for the first time since 1998. However, the data indicates that the decline was due largely to the collapse of the global economy and was confined to emissions from energy (excluding greenhouse gas emissions from other sources). In a notable example of environmental and economic tradeoffs, the British government declared that it would cancel longstanding plans to build additional runways for the country’s largest airports because they are incompatible with its declared aim of reducing emissions, according to The New York Times. Around the globe different regions have suffered from record-breaking heat waves, droughts, and erratic rainfall that have had a range of deleterious impacts on the respective countries and regions. In China, it is reported that atypical patterns of drought and flooding have destroyed more than 12 million acres of crops, caused people to flee their homes, damaged infrastructure, and left people without sufficient drinking water. In Vietnam, the Vietnam News reports that GEMI Newsletter – 2010, No. 11 – Page 2
  3. 3. GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND INTELLIGENCE NEWSLETTER Page 3 2010, No. 11 authorities estimate that the worst drought in 50 years could reduce the country’s rice crop by up to 500,000 tons in 2010, potentially creating a food crisis. According to The Guardian, in response to a record-breaking drought, Northern England and Scotland are undertaking extreme measures to conserve water and ensure supplies in a region that usually receives the UK’s highest levels of rainfall. As a second order impact, warmer weather in the United States and Canada is bringing both pests and pestilence. Scientific America reports on a northward expansion of insects caused by warmer winters, that is denuding forests in North America. At the same time, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) warns that dengue fever has returned to the continental United States after a 65-year absence. These articles offer just a few insights into types of first- and second-order impacts of drought and warming temperatures that have the potential to affect U.S. military installations around the world both in the near and long term. Many of the United States’ friends and allies are assessing how they will be affected by climate change and developing strategies to adapt to new realities. For example, United Press International reported on a conference organized by Australia’s National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility and attended by over 900 climate researchers, to develop practical adaptation strategies that can be implemented over time (e.g., organized mass-migration of Pacific Island residents and new agricultural practices). The Arab Forum for Environmental Development is also focused on diagnosing the climate change impacts for the Middle East. A report of its findings underscores three potential impacts of greatest concern to the Arab world: increased average temperatures, erratic precipitation, and global sea-level rise. How U.S. friends and allies approach environmental concerns and climate adaptation responses could be useful inputs to U.S. military assessments of regional vulnerabilities, and could affect how defense planners should plan military operations. SEA-LEVEL RISE Antarctic Glacier Less Stable, Sub Finds Source: MSNBC Location: Antarctica Original Date: June 20, 2010 Summary: Studying Antarctica allows scientists to predict rises in sea levels caused by climate change, due to the fact that Antarctica contains enough ice to raise sea levels as much as 200 feet if it were to melt. A 2009 mission by the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) that deployed a robot submarine under the ice shelf at the end of the Pine Island Glacier determined that the glacier is no longer resting on a subsea ridge that slowed its slide up until 30 years ago. This loss of contact with the subsea ridge indicates that ice has been thawing and flowing faster as warmer sea water has rushed into the growing cavity. Stan Jacobs, co-author of the study who works at Columbia University’s Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, explained that this finding reveals that Antarctica’s impact on sea-level rise has increased significantly, and that this region is a weak spot in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. West Antarctica’s thaw is estimated to account for 10 percent of the recent rise in sea levels. A bump on the surface of the ice shelf that was visible in satellite photographs in the early 1970s is no longer visible, and the ridge is now 300 feet below the ice shelf. BAS scientist Adrian Jenkins and other team members question whether the current loss of ice is a result of climate change, a continuation of a longer- term process related to the glacier’s break away from the ridge, or perhaps an unknown mechanism—such as a wind GEMI Newsletter – 2010, No. 11 – Page 3
  4. 4. GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND INTELLIGENCE NEWSLETTER Page 4 2010, No. 11 shift—that might be linked to climate change. U.N. climate scientists have predicted that sea levels could rise as much as 24 inches by 2100 even without melting ice in Antarctica and Greenland. Article Link: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/37815158/ns/us_news-environment/ EXTREME WEATHER South China Devastated by Rain and Landslides Source: The Irish Times Location: China Original Date: June 21, 2010 Summary: Severe floods have recently wreaked havoc in south China’s nine provinces, affecting more than 10 million people as reservoirs have collapsed, roads have been damaged, and power cuts have occurred. Heavy rains and landslides have been responsible for at least 132 deaths, hundreds of persons missing, and the evacuation of over a million residents. The Yangtze River, which divides north and south China, and the Pearl River delta in Guangdong Province, flood annually, but this year’s excessively heavy floods that followed a recent, severe drought in the region are being attributed to a growing climate-change-related trend. The drought destroyed more than 12 million acres of crops and left millions of people without drinking water. The intense rainstorms began in mid-June in Fujian, Jiangxi, Hunan, and six other provinces, turning streets into waterways, forcing people to flee homes, causing hundreds of flight cancellations, and destroying infrastructure. Total economic losses in the nine provinces are estimated at 14.5 billion yuan ($2.14 billion), and include the loss of 535,500 hectares of crops and the collapse of 68,000 houses. Flood control authorities have urged local governments to increase anti-flood measures, and dispatched experts to the region to assist with rescue efforts. The meteorological bureau continues to forecast more thunderstorms and rainfall that could exceed 200 millimeters in some areas. The region has experienced three times’ its usual level of rain already, and climate change is expected to bring worse floods and droughts in the future. Article Link: http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/world/2010/0621/1224272951084.html Drought Risk Hits Cumbria Just Months after Floods Source: The Guardian Location: England, United Kingdom Original Date: June 24, 2010 Summary: The United Kingdom has experienced a series of erratic weather patterns in 2010 that are increasingly associated with climate change. Areas of northwest England that experienced intense flooding during the winter of 2009-2010 are now threatened by the most serious drought to strike the region in almost a century. The dry spell is affecting Cumbria, as well as Dumfries and Galloway in southwest Scotland, which lie directly north of Cumbria. The region traditionally receives the highest amount of rainfall in the country, but is dependent on manmade surface storage GEMI Newsletter – 2010, No. 11 – Page 4
  5. 5. GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND INTELLIGENCE NEWSLETTER Page 5 2010, No. 11 of water because it has limited natural underground water supplies. The reservoirs in Cumbria are only two-thirds full after the region received its least winter and spring rainfall since 1929, and May and June saw only 38 percent of their average rainfall. United Utilities, the regional water company, is applying to the Environment Agency for a drought permit that would temporarily allow water to be transferred from lakes and rivers to areas where shortages are most acute. Company spokesman John Sanders explained that the prospect of imposing the first hosepipe ban in 14 years could not be ruled out. Scottish Water is also considering requesting a drought order after seeing the lowest rainfall in Scotland in over 45 years. The company is closely watching much-lower-than-average reservoir and river levels in Ayrshire, Argyll, and Bute, and has urged residents and businesses in southwest Scotland to conserve water. Climate change and population growth, the Environment Agency warns, will pressure water resources across the UK in the long term. Article Link: http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2010/jun/24/drought-north-west-england Forests Transition as New England Warms Source: Scientific American Location: United States Original Date: June 22, 2010 Summary: The warming winters caused by climate change have been providing a nurturing environment for predators that threaten to destroy New England forests. Scientists such as David Foster, director of the Harvard Forest and Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, believe that this pattern will be neither gradual nor predictable, and that it will disrupt existing dynamics in nature. There is evidence that climate change could be to blame for the outbreak of caterpillars in New England. For the past three years, the outbreak has led to hundreds of acres of dead oak tree forests across New England. Although most trees survived the first year of the outbreak, fewer survived the second. Now in its third year, areas such as Martha’s Vineyard are left with swaths of barren and denuded trees. New England hemlocks are another type of tree that is being threatened by the steady advance of pests in warmer winters. This phenomenon, however, is not limited to New England; forests across the United States are succumbing to pests as the climate warms. For example, vast stretches of pine are being denuded by mountain pine beetles in Canada and the Pacific Northwest while flourishing deer and earthworms are stripping the forest groundfloor and pushing out natural conifers in the upper Midwest. Foster stresses that although the increased number of pests are directly to blame for the diminishing forests, these pests are fostered by climate change. Article Link: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=forests-transition-as-new-england-warms Vietnam: Drought Threatens Central Rice Crop Source: Viet Nam News Location: Vietnam Original Date: July 1, 2010 GEMI Newsletter – 2010, No. 11 – Page 5
  6. 6. GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND INTELLIGENCE NEWSLETTER Page 6 2010, No. 11 Summary: Due to the summer’s prolonged drought, provinces in the Mekong Delta are researching new rice strains and improving local varieties to make them more resistant to climate change. Currently, officials in the central region are attempting to save thousands of hectares of rice threatened by the drought by building dams and purchasing water pumps. According to Nguyen Thanh Phong, director of the Quang Nam Province Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, 10,435 hectares of the season’s rice and other crops have been affected. The prolonged drought has also dried up the Tra Bong, Tra Khuc, and Ve rivers in Quang Ngai Province, causing thousands of hectares of rice to face a severe water shortage. Nguyen Tri Ngoc, head of the Cultivation Department under the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, said this has been the most severe drought the region has experienced in the past 50 years, and that some people may not have enough to eat if too many rice crops are lost. According to initial calculations, the total rice- growing area destroyed by drought could reach 100,000 hectares, or the equivalent of 500,000 tons of paddy. Article Link: http://vietnamnews.vnagency.com.vn/Environment/201085/Drought-threatens-central-rice-crop-.html HEALTH Dengue Re-emerges in U.S., Spurring Race for Vaccine Source: Greenwire Location: United States Original Date: June 28, 2010 Summary: The risk of contracting dengue fever is set to increase due to climate change. Nearly five to six billion people will be living in areas suitable for transmission by 2085. This is compared to three to five billion people who would be at risk without climate change. Across the world, the disease has already shown signs of spreading. According to an advisory issued by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, dengue fever has returned to the continental United States after a 65-year absence. Since August 2009, U.S. doctors have diagnosed 28 people with dengue fever, all of whom had caught the disease in Florida. Dengue epidemics have become routine in Latin America, a continent on the verge of becoming highly endemic. Thailand, within a week of its annual dengue season this year, has already reported 18,000 cases and 20 deaths, according to the Ministry of Public Health. Given that there are over 110 countries where transmission can occur and that there are currently no drugs for the disease, the spread of dengue has huge worldwide repercussions. Article Link: http://www.eenews.net/public/Greenwire/2010/06/28/10 GEMI Newsletter – 2010, No. 11 – Page 6
  7. 7. GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND INTELLIGENCE NEWSLETTER Page 7 2010, No. 11 CLIMATE REFUGEES Australia Could Face Climate Refugees Source: United Press International (UPI) Location: Australia Original Date: June 30, 2010 Summary: Martin Parry, a visiting professor at the Center for Environmental Policy at Imperial College in London, explained to a conference of more than 900 climate researchers in Australia in late June that Australia will likely receive many climate refugees from neighboring islands in the Pacific. Parry, who formerly led the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, warned that because the Pacific islands are very vulnerable to sea-level rise caused by global warming, large-scale migration of island residents will be necessary. He added, however, that rich countries could help poorer countries manage the process over the course of 50 years so that it would not be perceived as waves of refugees. He advocated that Australia safeguard its coast from sea-level rise by means other than using concrete blockades, which destroy mangroves and wetlands. Jean Palutikof, director of the National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility, which organized the conference, noted that Australia was likely to be one of the developed countries most affected by climate change as evidenced by the impacts already underway. He said that regardless of actions taken to cut greenhouse gas emissions, only a combination of mitigation and adaptation measures could address the magnitude of the problems to come. It was also noted that Australia is the world’s leading coal exporter and per- capita producer of greenhouse gas emissions. Other issues addressed at the conference included: the economic costs of adapting; health options; emergency and community services needed to help cope with the strain of climate change; and adapting crops to changing weather to protect food security. Article Link: http://www.upi.com/Science_News/Resource-Wars/2010/06/30/Australia-could-face-climate- refugees/UPI-39891277904772/ MITIGATION & ADAPTATION Saving Peru’s Glaciers with Whitewash [VIDEO] Source: BBC Location: Peru Original Date: June 17, 2010 Eduardo Gold, a Peruvian scientist, has embarked on a project funded by the World Bank to whitewash the surface of exposed mountains that were covered by glaciers until recent years. Gold heads a nongovernmental organization (NGO) called “Glaciers of Peru” that hopes to reverse the melting process by painting Andean mountain peaks so that they will reflect the sun rather than absorb heat. The group has painted two hectares of surface area on one peak so far, and intends to paint a total of 20 hectares at this location, followed by 70 additional hectares on two nearby peaks. If the project is successful, the eventual goal is to paint 200,000 hectares—or all the mountain tops in the Peruvian Andean GEMI Newsletter – 2010, No. 11 – Page 7
  8. 8. GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND INTELLIGENCE NEWSLETTER Page 8 2010, No. 11 region. Gold believes that creating a cold, white surface such as that of a glacier will cool the area around the painted surface and thus create a “micro-climate.” He hopes to effectively “grow another glacier” by duplicating the climate conditions necessary for a glacier to form. Gold explains that winning the local community’s support and encouraging involvement with the project have been important, because the territory belongs to the local people and the project’s outcome will affect their livelihood—particularly as they see that less water ultimately equals fewer alpacas in the region. Article Link: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/world/latin_america/10333079.stm Britain Seeks to Curb Emissions by Abandoning Airport Growth Source: New York Times Location: United Kingdom Original Date: July 1, 2010 Summary: The British government has canceled longstanding plans to build a third runway at Heathrow Airport and refused to approve new runways at London’s second-string airports of Gatwick and Stansted, in an effort to curb the high levels of greenhouse gas emissions from aviation. The government decided that making more flying possible would be contrary to Britain’s goal of lowering emissions to comply with the country’s 2008 Climate Change Act, which requires a minimum of a 34-percent emissions reduction by 2020 from levels reached in 1990. With emissions acting as a significant factor to cancel the runway development plans, local environmental concerns such as noise and pollution around Heathrow also factored into the decision. According to Teresa Villiers, Britain’s Minister of State for Transport, “The 220,000 or so flights that might well come with a third runway would make it difficult to meet the targets we’d set for ourselves.” Many businessmen were shocked to hear of the government’s decision because Heathrow, one of the world’s busiest airports and yet the only airport of its size with two runways, is already notorious for its flight delays and cancellations. The British government, however, believes that although the economic effects of not continuing with the expansion are “unclear,” the environmental costs of an additional runway are unacceptably high. Ms. Villiers stated that developing a high-speed rail network to replace short-haul flights would better resolve the airport’s congestion problem than adding an additional runway, and that “*the British government+ recognized that just putting more flights and more passengers into the skies over southeast England wasn’t worth the environmental costs we’re paying.” Article Link: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/02/science/earth/02runway.html SK (Group) to Invest 17.5 Trillion Won over Next 10 Years Source: The Korea Times Location: South Korea Original Date: July 1, 2010 Summary: SK Group, the fourth largest conglomerate in South Korea, plans to invest 17.5 trillion won ($14.32 billion) over the next 10 years in alternative energy and new technologies. SK will allocate 4.2 trillion of this 17.5 trillion won into the environmental infrastructure by creating 9,000 new jobs and establishing a smart-grid network. SK considers GEMI Newsletter – 2010, No. 11 – Page 8
  9. 9. GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND INTELLIGENCE NEWSLETTER Page 9 2010, No. 11 smart grids a key factor in addressing climate change and the energy crisis. This investment in energy coincides with SK’s significant focus on the energy sector as it recognizes the increasing demand for alternative energy. The company also plans to invest 4.5 trillion won in the energy sector, particularly focusing on exploring and developing overseas natural resources like oil, gas, iron ore, and rubber, as well as securing low-carbon energy like solar and rechargeable batteries. Finally, new information and communication technology, including telemedicine, will receive 8.8 trillion won—more than half of the total investment—which will generate more than 22,000 new jobs. SK Group also announced plans to strengthen its global businesses, particularly in China, Southeast Asia (to develop petroleum, coal, rubber, and telecommunication), the Middle East (to construct power generation facilities and plants), and South America (to develop crude oil). Article Link: http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/biz/2010/07/123_68627.html REPORTS International Energy Outlook 2010 Highlights Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Location: United States Publication Date: June 9, 2010 Description: The International Energy Outlook 2010 (IEO2010) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration of the outlook for international energy markets through 2035. According to the report, non-Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries account for 86 percent of the increase in global energy use. OECD countries are typically comprised of high-income economies with a high Human Development Index (HDI), and are regarded as developed countries (with Chile being the only OECD member that is also a member of the organization of developing countries). Not only are developing countries accounting for most of the increase in energy use, but economic activity and population growth are also driving the increase. The report also notes that the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) maintains an approximately 40-percent share of total liquids production, with growth in OPEC production of conventional liquids coming primarily from Saudi Arabia and Iraq while Brazil, Russia, Kazakhstan, and the U.S. lead in increases in non-OPEC conventional supplies. In addition, other key report findings include that: 1) the Middle East accounts for almost one-third of the increase in global gas production; 2) virtually all growth in global coal use occurs in non-OECD Asian nations, especially China and India; and 3) energy-related carbon dioxide emissions will grow by 43 percent from 2007 to 2035 if no policy changes are made. EIA Report Link: http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/pdf/highlights.pdf GEMI Newsletter – 2010, No. 11 – Page 9
  10. 10. GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND INTELLIGENCE NEWSLETTER Page 10 2010, No. 11 BP Statistical Review of World Energy: June 2010 Source: BP Location: Global Publication Date: June 2010 Description: The report opens with a brief summary that highlights several insights from the data presented in the Review. Global primary energy consumption declined in 2009 for the first time since 1982 due to the global economic recession. Energy consumption in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) [a forum of 31 countries that define themselves as committed to democracy and the market economy] was lower in 2009 than 10 years ago, despite the fact that GDP has risen 18 percent since then. Consumption in the Former Soviet Union also fell, in contrast to the rest of the developing world, which increased its energy consumption faster than GDP. As consumption of oil, natural gas, and nuclear power fell, energy prices declined, though in a varied pattern based on fuel type. Coal consumption remained flat and hydroelectric and other renewable energy sources increased. The data suggest that global CO2 emissions from energy use declined for the first time since 1998. Oil prices also fell for the first time since 2001, hitting their low early in the year and then rising steadily as OPEC production cuts exceeded the decline in consumption. Prices of all traded energy fell, particularly for natural gas and coal in North America and Western Europe, although Chinese import growth lessoned the decline in Asian coal prices. Natural gas prices in North America and Western Europe declined sharply throughout 2009 due to falling consumption and the United States’ focus on development of unconventional resources. The report presents detailed, specific production and consumption data for oil, natural gas, and other fuels (hydroelectric, nuclear, renewables, etc.) BP Report Link: http://www.bp.com/liveassets/bp_internet/globalbp/globalbp_uk_english/reports_and_publications/statistical_energy _review_2008/STAGING/local_assets/2010_downloads/statistical_review_of_world_energy_full_report_2010.pdf Overview of Health Considerations within National Adaptation Programmes of Action for Climate Change in Least Developed Countries and Small Island States Source: World Health Organization (WHO) Location: Global Publication Date: June 10, 2010 Description: As a provision of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), developed countries have been providing support to least-developed countries and small island states to help them prepare National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) to address the impacts of climate change. To date, 44 NAPAs that represent countries’ concrete adaptation responses have been prepared. This report reviews three aspects of the NAPAs—identified health impacts, adaptation needs and proposed adaptation actions, as well as the implementation framework. The review found that 95 percent of NAPAs considered climate change’s impact on the health sector, although only 23 percent provided a comprehensive health-vulnerability assessment. The report concludes that the GEMI Newsletter – 2010, No. 11 – Page 10
  11. 11. GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND INTELLIGENCE NEWSLETTER Page 11 2010, No. 11 current consideration of public health interventions in most NAPAs is not adequate to support the resilience processes or protect public health from the negative effects of climate change. Recommendations made to least-developed countries and island states include: 1) establish teams within ministries of health to conduct climate change health vulnerability assessments and adaptation planning; 2) conduct complementary assessments that focus on health and use standardized tools and methodology; and 3) include integrated environment and health surveillance and strengthening of health systems within the NAPAs. Additional recommendations are also made for the World Health Organization (WHO) and the UNFCC and its subsidiary bodies. WHO Report Link: http://www.who.int/phe/Health_in_NAPAs_final.pdf 2009 Arab Environment: Climate Change. Impact of Climate Change on Arab Countries Source: Arab Forum for Environment and Development (AFED) Location: Middle East (Lebanon) Publication Date: November, 2009 (released June 27, 2010) Description: The Arab Forum on Environment and Development (AFED) report is structured to provide governments, business, academia, and the public with information about the impact of climate change on the Arab countries, and to encourage concrete actions to face the challenges. The report describes the vulnerabilities of natural and human systems in the Arab world (e.g., coastal areas, food production, fresh water, human health, biodiversity, housing, transportation, and tourism) to climate change, as well as the impacts on each sector of human activity. Given the region’s already-natural inclination toward aridity, recurrent drought, and water scarcity, the report identifies increased average temperatures, less precipitation occurring more erratically, and sea-level rise as the most significant potential climate change impacts. The report also discusses Arab public opinion of climate change, mitigation efforts to curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Arab countries, and the interrelationship between climate change and Arab trade negotiations. AFED Report Link: http://www.afedonline.org/afedreport09/Full%20English%20Report.pdf GEMI Newsletter – 2010, No. 11 – Page 11

×