The problem we are presented with is: what could replace 25% of the World’s energy supplies tomorrow? If we lost 25% of our energy resources, what energy is available would dramatically rise in cost. Exacerbating t he problem is the fact that there is no commercial ready alternative fuel right now. However, do we think in these terms. No, not all of us, but this is a real problem. While we may not live in fear of losing 25% of the worlds resources, we must consider that in the near future the world will be using at least 25% more, with the emergence of China, India, Pakistan, and Mexico’s middle class, the encouragement of the Developing Nations and war torn nations to really develop into “Democracies” like Afghanistan and former states of the Soviet Union, and we can’t forget: Fossil fuels are finite. Estimates range from 25 years to 200 years of resources remaining.
-UTC PC25C fuel cell power plant at Yankee Gas Services Office in Meriden, CT 9 feet high and 20 feet across, 200Kw. (Source UTC Power: <http://www.utcpower.com>) -Hydrogen Economy diagram from: Bossel, Ulf, and Baldur Eliasson, “Energy and the Hydrogen Economy.” PDF file. < http://www.idatech.com/solutions/multi_fuel_solutions/Hydrogen%20Economy%20Report%202003.pdf > Therefore, to solve our problem of a 25% loss of the world’s energy resources, I propose the encouragement and development of Stationary Hydrogen Fuel Cells reforming Natural Gas used to power the commercial and residential buildings to develop a market for hydrogen fuel cells that will in turn promote RD&D to excel us toward critical mass where hydrogen fuel cells will be cheaply produced and widely used. This will take us to our ultimate goal of the Pure Hydrogen Economy, which I will discuss in a few slides.
Timetable slightly modified version of Jones, M. D., “Towards a Hydrogen Economy.” PowerPoint Presentation to the IEA Renewables Energy Working Party Seminar. March 3, 2003. Paris. << www.iea.org/workshop/2003/hydrogen/keynotes/bp.pdf >>
It is important to re-emphasize that Hydrogen will not replace anything tomorrow, meaning this year, or the next, but the goal of the hydrogen economy can be achieved with a strong start today. “Distributed hydrogen production via small scale reforming is less costly than centralized production until a large geographically concentrated hydrogen demand has built up. Distributed hydrogen production would be attractive especially in the early stages of a hydrogen economy. Hydrogen could be provided where it was needed, allowing supply to match demand, as more hydrogen vehicles were added to the fleet.” (Ogden, “Review of Small Stationary Reformers for Hydrogen Production.”)
Today we produce 9 M tons of H2 per year, that can fuel 20-30 M cars, or power 8 M homes. ( “National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap.” United States Department of Energy. November 2002. www.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/ pdfs/national_h2_roadmap.pdf> Storable—hydrogen is constantly produced, or with a programmable stationary Fuel Cell and reformer , hydrogen can be produced at off peak only, then energy created as needed. As storage technology advances, natural gas can be over-reformed in the summer, and used in the winter. This option has not been addressed, but it is an option.
Bossel, Ulf, and Baldur Eliasson, “Energy and the Hydrogen Economy.” PDF file. < http://www.idatech.com/solutions/multi_fuel_solutions/Hydrogen%20Economy%20Report%202003.pdf >
( Schatz Energy Research Center, Humboldt State University. )(http://www.humboldt.edu/~serc/animation.html) A proton exchange membrane is one type of fuel cell. There are several different types of fuel cells but the basics of how energy is created is the same for all of them. O2 is combined with H2 to create DC electrical power, the by products are water and heat. In Stationary Units the heat will be used to heat water or the house.
(Source: UTC Power: http://www.utcpower.com)
(Source: UTC Power) Power for commercial/industrial buildings Replace grid or backup grid 3 main components: Fuel processor: reforms hydrogen from natural gas, propane, butane, methanol or waste methane Power section: hydrogen is converted to electricity and usable heat with a phosphoric acid fuel cell Power conditioner: DC power from fuel cell is converted into useful AC power
Chart from California Stationary Fuel Cell Collaborative web site <http://stationaryfuelcells.org/>
“Reforming is defined as thermo chemical processing of a hydrocarbon feedstock in high temperature chemical reactors to produce a hydrogen rich gas.” (Ogden, “Review.”)
(Source: < http://www.idatech.com >) According to IdaTech: Reforming allows fuel flexibility in that alcohols such as methanol and ethanol, and hydrocarbon fuels such as natural gas, propane and diesel can be used to produce hydrogen. Hydrocarbon feedstocks require some additional steps in the hydrogen extraction process. Gaseous hydrocarbons such as natural gas and propane include de-sulfurization. First, the fuel is de-sulfurized over an absorbent bed. The de-sulfurized fuel is reformed at design temperature where the hydrogen is then extracted. Conditions are optimized to minimize coking (carbon deposition). Once produced in the reformation process, the hydrogen gas then enters the purification chamber. There, the hydrogen molecules pass through a palladium-membrane module. The membrane rejects unwanted impurities from the product hydrogen stream. The hydrogen is further purified in a catalytic bed and sent to the fuel cell. The rejected molecules, including CO and CO2 as well as some H2 and unconverted feedstock, are sent back into the combustion chamber, where they are cleanly burned to provide heat to the steam reforming process. The hydrogen that exits the reformer typically is >99.9% pure with less than one part per million (ppm) carbon monoxide and less than three ppm carbon dioxide, irrespective of the choice of feedstock. ( http://www.idatech.com/technology/fuel_processors.html ).
Meaning it is produced in several countries, and availability for the next ten to twenty years, as we shift away from fossil fuels altogether, is not an issue. AND MOST IMPORTANTLY . . .
California Fuel Cell Collaborative http://stationaryfuelcells.org/
2002 2003 2004 2005 MW 0 200 500 800 Cost $/kW 4500 3000 2000 1500 (Sources: “NFCRC: Fuel Cells Explained: Challenges.” < http://www.nfcrc.uci.edu/fcresources/ Fcexplained /challenges.htm > ; “DOE Fossil Energy-Advanced Fuel Cells for Stationary Electric Power Generation.” < http://www.fe.doe.gov/coal_power/fuelcells/ > ; “Stationary Fuel Cell. Strategic Plan: Status and the Next Steps.” March 26, 2002. < http://stationaryfuelcells.org > In March 2002, the California Stationary Fuel Cell Collaborative estimated the cost per kW would go from $3500 in June 2002, to $2500 in June 2003, to $2000 in June 2004, to $1500 in June 2005. In contrast a diesel generator costs about $800 to $1500 per kilowatt and a natural gas turbine even less. FCs being tested today will cost $1200/kW, but t hey are estimated at $4500/kW to da y. according to DoE. DoE’s goal is to get the cost down to $400 kW by end of the decade. <http://www.fe.doe.gov/coal-power/fuelcells/>
(Sources: British Petroleum, Hoffmann, Ogden, and Bossel/Eliasson.)
Rossmeissl, Neil “Hydrogen the Promise and Challenge” PowerPoint Presentation, available at < www.eere.energy.gov/cro/docs/ DOE%20HQ_Neil%20Rossmeissl.ppt >
Buy-Down DoD through DoE and National Energy Technology Laboratory will buy down with grants the cost of demonstrating a HFC the lesser of $1,000 per Kw or one-third the total cost. See <http://www.nfcrc.uci.edu/fcresources/regulations-initiatives/incentives/index.htm
FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) is a partnership between the USCAR auto industry partners and the U.S. Department of Energy. Announced in early 2002, the partnership is designed to focus primarily on transforming the transportation sector to run on renewable resources--namely hydrogen fuel cells. The 2004 Future Car Congress is an international conference and exposition presented by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) that will showcase the latest developments in automotive technologies that will reduce the world's energy dependence, reduce vehicle emissions, and encourage government/industry collaboration
Careful investigation of the Hindenburg disaster verified the opinion of the engineers on the Hindenburg and proved that it was the flammable aluminum powder filled paint varnish that coated the infamous airship, not the hydrogen that started the fateful fire . The Hindenburg repeated the famous experiment of Ben Franklin regarding collection of electric charge on an object in the sky. Ben Franklin flew a kite in a storm to learn about lightening. The captain of the Hindenburg provided the 800' long, 236 ton, aluminum-powder varnish covered airship as a much larger electric charge collector. As the Hindenburg was grounded by dropping landing lines, the experiment was complete and electrical discharge in the Hindenburg's skin started the fire. The Hindenburg would have burned and crashed if it had been filled with helium or simply held in the air by some other force. hydrogen fire started considerably after the Hindenburg’s surface skin started to burn and was over in less than one minute. The diesel fuel and other heavier-than-air components of the Hindenburg continued to burn many hours on the ground.
Sources: 1. Ogden, Joan, “Review of Small Stationary Reformers for Hydrogen Production.” March 9, 2001, available at: <http://www.afdc.doe.gov/pdfs/31948.pdf> 2. “DOE Fossil Energy-Advanced Fuel Cells for Stationary Electric Power Generation.” <http://www.fe.doe.gov/coal_power/fuelcells/> 3. “DSIRE: FAQs: Frequently Asked Questions.” <http://www.dsireusa.org/faq/faq.cfm?&CurrentPageID=9> 4. “NFCRC: Fuel Cell Resources: GOVT.REGULATIONS & INITITATIVES.” <http://www.nfcrc.uci.edu/fcresources/REGULATIONS-INITIATIVES/index.htm> 5. Williams, Robert H., “Addressing Challenges to Sustainable Development with Innovative Energy Technologies in a Competitive Electric Industry.” Energy for Sustainable Development, Vol. 5, No. 2. June 2001. pp 48-73. 6. “NFCRC: Fuel Cells Explained: Challenges.” <http://www.nfcrc.uci.edu/fcresources/Fcexplained/challenges.htm> 7. “Fuel Cell Vehicles: Race to a New Automotive Future.” Office of Technology Policy; Technology Administration; U.S. Department of Commerce. January 2003. <http://www.ta.doc.gov/reports/TechPolicy/CD117a-030129.pdf> 8. Javaherian, Arshia, “Hydrogen Fuel Cells: The Sooner the Better.” November 5, 2002. 9. “Draft: White Paper Summary of Interviews with Stationary Fuel Cells Manufacturers.” August 2002. Compiled by California Stationary Fuel Cell Collaborative. <http://stationaryfuelcells.org> 10. “Draft: California Stationary Fuel Cell Collaborative: Strategic Plan.” April 16, 2002. Compiled by California Stationary Fuel Cell Collaborative. <http://stationaryfuelcells.org> 11. “NFCRC: Fuel Cell Resources: CODES/STANDARDS: INCENTIVES.” <http://www.nfcrc.uci.edu/fcresources/REGULATIONS-INITIATIVES/Incentives/Index.htm> 12. “2003 Natural Gas Market Assessment.” Staff Report by the Office of Market Oversight and Investigations. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. January 2003. <http://www.ferc.gov/market-oversight/A-3.pdf> 13. “Draft: California Stationary Fuel Cell Collaborative: Demonstration Committee Implementation Plan.” August 2002. California Stationary Fuel Cell Collaborative. <http://stationaryfuelcells.org> 14. De Koning, Chris, “Shell Hydrogen: Perspectives and Activities Towards the Hydrogen Society.” PowerPoint Presentation of Generation H Conference, April 19, 2002. <http://www.hydrogensociety.com/Shell.pdf> 15. Bossel, Ulf, and Baldur Eliasson, “Energy and the Hydrogen Economy.” PDF file. <http://www.idatech.com/solutions/multi_fuel_solutions/Hydrogen%20Economy%20Report%202003.pdf> 16. Jones, M. D., “Towards a Hydrogen Economy.” PowerPoint Presentation to the IEA Renewables Energy Working Party Seminar. March 3, 2003. Paris. <www.iea.org/workshop/2003/hydrogen/keynotes/bp.pdf> 17. Jones, Stuart, “Natural Gas – A Bridge to Hydrogen.” PowerPoint Presentation based on a talk to Institute of Public Policy Research, Low Carbon Initiative—2nd Hydrogen Workshop, London, March 29, 2001. <www.ippr.org.uk/research/files/team20/ project12/stuartjones.ppt> 18. “Stationary Fuel Cell. Strategic Plan: Status and the Next Steps.” March 26, 2002. <http://stationaryfuelcells.org> 19. “National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap.” United States Department of Energy. November 2002. <www.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/ pdfs/national_h2_roadmap.pdf>
Fuel cells from natural gas-Javaherian
Kick Starting the Hydrogen Economy with Stationary Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Natural Gas Presented on May 2, 2003 By Arshia Javaherian
What If: <ul><li>25% of the World’s Energy Sources Disappear. </li></ul><ul><li>The cost of fossil fuels rise dramatically. </li></ul><ul><li>No alternative fuel is ready for immediate commercialization. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Emergence of a middle class in China, Pakistan, India, and Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>Developing Nations/War-torn Nations slow rise of consumption. </li></ul><ul><li>Fossil Fuels are finite. </li></ul>The Real Problem:
The Solution: <ul><li>Today: Stationary Hydrogen Fuel Cells (HFCs), Reforming Natural Gas into Hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Tomorrow: The Pure Hydrogen Economy </li></ul>
The Plan: <ul><li>Stationary HFCs reforming natural gas. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government support encouragement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Industry takes off </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simultaneous Deployment of H 2 fueled fleets. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs go down. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology advances. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Centralized H 2 production and improved transportation technology. . </li></ul><ul><li>Mass introduction of HFC vehicles. </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced production of hydrogen using wind, solar, and biomass. </li></ul>
Hydrogen is Not an Immediate Energy Solution <ul><li>Hydrogen used in Fuel Cells will not be a ready supply if 25% of the World’s Energy is unavailable tomorrow. </li></ul><ul><li>Nevertheless, if we begin the shift to Hydrogen as our central fuel today, we will never run out of energy. </li></ul>
Why Hydrogen? <ul><li>Environmentally clean. </li></ul><ul><li>Completely renewable. </li></ul><ul><li>Present everywhere. </li></ul><ul><li>Present in our current energy resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Storable. </li></ul><ul><li>Nationally independent, individually independent </li></ul>
UTC Power PC25C Fuel Cell Power Plant 16.5 ft PC25C at Yankee Gas Services Office in Meriden, CT 9 ft
PC25C: Overview <ul><li>Maximum output is 200kW. </li></ul><ul><li>In use since 1991. </li></ul><ul><li>PC25 provides both heat and power,and can replace grid power. </li></ul><ul><li>40% efficient. </li></ul><ul><li>Three main components: </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel processor, power section, power conditioner. </li></ul>
The Power of 200 kW Hotel, School, commercial peakshaving Small to medium hospitals and office buildings 80 –500 kW Commercial / Small Scale Distributed Generation Single or Multi-unit residential Premium, high reliability power for telecom, UPS, etc. 1 – 10 kW 10 – 80 kW Residential/ Light Commercial Laptops, handheld electronics Lawn and garden equipment 50 – 100 W Portable Examples of Proposed Applications Typical Power Ratings Application Category
Units Currently Available Using Natural Gas On Site 250 kW FuelCell Energy, Inc. 250 kW Siemens Westinghouse 200 kW UTC Fuel Cells 1, 3, 5, 10, 20, 40 kW DCH Technology, Inc. 5kW Nuvera Fuel Cells 5kW PlugPower, Inc.
How Steam Methane Reforming Works <ul><li>NG Reacts with Steam at 1500° to 1600° Fahrenheit and a nickel catalyst to strip out the H 2 . </li></ul><ul><li>Result is unpure mixture of H 2 , CO, CO 2 , steam and unreacted Methane. </li></ul><ul><li>Mixture is cooled to 750°. </li></ul><ul><li>More steam is added, creating more H 2 , and converting the CO to CO 2 . </li></ul><ul><li>Remaining impurities are then extracted. </li></ul>
Sequestering the Impurities: How to Keep it Clean <ul><li>Disposing of CO 2 by burying it deep in exhausted aquifers or in gas or oil reservoirs, or by piping it deep in the ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>Sequestering adds $1.80/GJ to the cost of Hydrogen Fuel from natural gas. </li></ul><ul><li>Will this happen now? </li></ul><ul><li>Is this the price we pay for a clean future? </li></ul>
. . . When Natural Gas <ul><li>Is so expensive; </li></ul><ul><li>Is so unpredictable in price and availability; </li></ul><ul><li>Is a cleaner fuel as it is used today, than when it is reformed into Hydrogen; and </li></ul><ul><li>Is a Fossil Fuel, and not a renewable resource. </li></ul>
. . . Because Natural Gas Is <ul><li>Widely available; </li></ul><ul><li>The cheapest readily available source of H 2 ; </li></ul><ul><li>The most efficient; </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to distribute; </li></ul><ul><li>One of the cleanest fossil fuels around; and </li></ul><ul><li>A great transition to a Pure Hydrogen Economy. </li></ul><ul><li>And most importantly . . . </li></ul>
Barriers to the Hydrogen Economy <ul><li>Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Safety/ Consumer Skepticism </li></ul><ul><li>Abundance of cheap fossil fuels </li></ul>
How Do We Get There? <ul><li>Reduce Costs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulk Purchases by State, Federal, Military, Universities, and Hospitals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government Subsidies, Incentives, and Grants. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improve Funding. </li></ul><ul><li>Public Relations Campaign addressing Cost and Safety Issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep using fossil fuels like we are. </li></ul>
Hydrogen is not prohibitively expensive to get started today. With Gas priced at $3/MBTU Hydrogen Production Method 50-100 Electrolysis (photovoltaic) 40-60 Electrolysis (solar/thermal) 20-40 Electrolysis (wind) 10-20 Electrolysis (hydroelectric) 8-15 Natural Gas Onsite Distributed Production 8-13 Gasified Biomass 20 Electrolysis of Water 9-12 Coal 5-8 Natural Gas Central Production Cost ($/GJ) 6-7 1-2 L-H 2 60-70 15-20 C-H 2 500 mi 100 mi $/GJ Delivery of hydrogen
Government Subsidies, Incentives, and Grants <ul><li>Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2003 Climate Change Fuel Cell Buy-Down Program. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualifying Facility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illinois will pay for up to $3,000 or half of a HFC. </li></ul></ul>
Getting the Word Out <ul><li>Department of Energy Papers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A National Vision of America’s Transition to a Hydrogen Economy – To 2030 and Beyond.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bush’s State of the Union Address 1/28/03. </li></ul><ul><li>FreedomCar </li></ul><ul><li>FutureCarCongress </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrations sponsored by DoD and DoE. </li></ul><ul><li>What do we need? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hollywood, Press, Full Ad Campaign </li></ul></ul>
Public Must Trust Hydrogen <ul><li>Ad Campaign, </li></ul><ul><li>Government Support, </li></ul><ul><li>Codes and Standards, and </li></ul><ul><li>Begin the Dialog. </li></ul>
Conclusion <ul><li>Stationary Hydrogen Fuel Cells Using Natural Gas Today </li></ul><ul><li>Supported by Government and Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Pure Hydrogen Economy, Independent of Fossil Fuels Tomorrow. </li></ul>
To Sum Up : Have You Ever Wondered What it’s Like to Breath Fresh Air?