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  • 1. As a presentation INDICE 1. The thread that holds us or… the difficulty to live with others. 2. The scheming or threads which are essential for this fabric to be possible: the basic needs that the groups satisfy. 3. To learn that knitting needs time: the group and the development of the abilities to live in community. 4. All the threads are important, all the threads are important: education to citizenship under the patrol experience. Annex: A knitter with art and inventiveness: BP’s thought about the patrol system. 2
  • 2. 3
  • 3. “With the coming of good will and cooperation, trivial discords which have divided the nation will cease; classes and creeds will not profess being brothers while they behave as enemies and divide their home against themselves. With good will and cooperation, nations will understand themselves and politicians will not have possibilities of involving in war peoples that feel friendly availability for the other one. They will discover that what really matters is the will of the peoples.” B.P. (1926) As a presentation Our movement founder’s dream goes on being today an invitation for the world of the boys and girls, young ladies and adults: building a world where diversity is considered a value; overcoming the barriers which separate peoples and cultures, religious confessions and groups, people of different generations, convoking everybody to the construction of a more fraternal and fairer world for everybody. To be happy making the other happy, leave the world better than we found it is a challenge in a time when the biggest illiteracy seems to be the impossibility to live peacefully with the others, to recognize the rights that everybody has to have a decent life. Fulvio Manara, Italian philosopher expresses: “To learn in Justice means go into a logical transformation. We dream with a society where injustices disappear, that means the imbalanced system of regulation of asymmetric conflicts in the power. We dream with a society in which the destructive spirit (exploitation, violence, injustice….) is eliminated. We wish a society in which abolishing the microstructures violence and develop a culture of 1 peace and justice, which gets to the brain and conscience of people…” The Universal Forum of Cultures (Barcelona 2004) centered its reflection in the matter of learning how to live together in a complex world. Pascual Maragall expressed in this Forum: “We are more and more conscious of our common destiny, and however at the same time we go on wishing that the others understand us in what makes us unique, in what makes us singular”. This genuine wish of being understood as unique in all the richness of our personal and collective originality is frequently searched through violence and confrontation with those who recognize themselves as different. That way everyday life is full of pain which is generated by conflicts in all the latitudes and at every scale. 1 Soler, Mercedes en Reequilibrar un mundo desequilibrado. Misión Joven 348. Madrid - CCS 4
  • 4. Poverty and its exclusion mechanisms take children and teenagers as its more vulnerable victims. Growing unemployment, migrations because of economic problems, the impossibility of having access to education, health, culture and decent work, generate a deep uncertainty even in those ones who have a relative well being. The economic needs influence on frustration and discomfort that families are living and frequently become physical and emotional abandonment of children and teenagers, and also old people. In other social sections of the economic system which is elitist and highly competitive make people run all the time behind money, fame or power. Failure and error are forbidden. Belonging to the group of “chosen ones” may lead to sacrificing family and friend relationships, rest and real human values. Emotional prohibition in the smallest ones isn’t beyond families which seem “to have everything”. Children are subdued to the same exigencies as grown ups are, their agendas overloaded with obligations doesn’t contemplate time for games and creative leisure, in some places the disappearance of recreational places (squares and parks) leads to the loss of the opportunity to play with other children and closing oneself in front of the TV or computer. Frequently, the adult world is amazed by the lack of interest, boredom or apathy of the youngest ones, as if they didn’t have any responsibility in their gestation. An Argentinean educator, Telma Barreiro, says: “this subject of accepting progressively the expulsion of a great deal of population out of the productive system is also based in the consolidation of certain indifference with the other, a highlighted disinterest in the other and a determined fight to reach, one and one’s children, certain welfare…” adding in another section how it is being built “a link matrix that is not exactly the one of mutual care, mutual cooperation, support, solidarity, but a matrix associated with this idea of “thinking about yourself us much as you can” where a fiercely competitive logic predominates.” Education goes on being the opportunity to develop a new look on ourselves and the others, to open our hearts to the listening of other realities, to set energies and enthusiasm to work with the others in a common project. An education to peace and justice. That way understood it B.P. when he made from patrol system the way to integrate everyone’s individualism into a we able to produce ideas and dialogues, to plan and act, to evaluate and celebrate life and shared adventures, knitting solidarity nets from a small group to a reference community and from there to the entire world. 5
  • 5. That way understood it B.P when he recognized the exigencies to create a person in communion with him/herself as a citizen responsible of his/her neighborhood, country and planet. In front of competitivity, solidarity; In front of indifference; compromise; In front of emptiness, the sense of life and history; Instead of indifference, getting involved; Acceptance and respect, replacing rejection and violence. Passion for the other and for the world as a job and mission. We wish the pages we share make us present once more in the call to be communities that can be said “ look how much they love themselves”… Communities that live Jesus Gospel through the Guiding paths… Communities that don’t lock themselves enjoying the welfare that is for everybody… Because, conviviality, loving care for the other, understanding and peace are their most valuable outcome for everybody. Silvia Staib de Chanes World Executive June 2006 6
  • 6. 7
  • 7. “I hope my heart doesn’t get use to, Father, seeing people from outside as strangers, not going to meet them and help them,not creating spaces among us to make them feel in their homes” 1 The thread that holds us or… the difficulty to live with the others In many cultures sewing press, fabric, threads…have a special meaning. In our cold Patagonian south, the poncho is the peasant’s faithful mate in the middle of the rains, and blizzards, it warms, covers and protects. From the hands of skillful emerges this item of clothing that has been also incorporated by teenagers and youngsters from our movement as part of their camp clothing, guides like wearing them in their meetings and bonfires and staying covered by them they tie confidences and memories of the day that is finishing. Ponchos, covers, “matras” and rugs, bells, girdles and bags give account of a patient and silent job that is started in the wooden hand-made spinning and goes on in the selection of colors, staining with vegetal inks, the designs of the patterns, and the knitting of small or big sewing presses. There are jobs that take months and learning this art takes years, because of this we get annoyed when the person who buys it, local or tourist, discusses the price of the artisan without recognizing his/her careful job. The colors and designs of the south are different from those ones that are used in the north or centre of the country, in this or that province…because the color of the ground is different, natured marked the life of the origin 8
  • 8. peoples, the history and traditions that give meaning to each design and texture. However, there are many coincident things in this labor of infinite alternatives. The job is long and they have to be patient. From the spinning of the wood, from the ability to spin the thread, the combination of colors and the design will emerge the work which will satisfy the maker and the person who wears it. Learning how to live with the others has a lot of the art of the knitters. Society itself can be seen as a thread we are all registered, knitting with our daily actions a part of a common work and being, at the same time, knitted, with family, school, friend, and neighbor threads. The threads spread new designs, admit new tones, and give up others. We can read our community and personal stories in knitting keys, knotted in the past time and opened to the future. What happens when the thread seems to make the knitting impossible to have harmony? What happens when there are spaces without connection, when the knitting is extremely tight and other parts are extremely fragile? What happens when we don’t seem to have any part in the knitting or play the play we are convoked for has lost its sense? The Spanish Salesian Miguel Angel Garcia Mouscuerde offers us some interesting reflections about the contradictions of these times that we would like to share.2 Reflections which admit coincidences with Barreiro’s ones although they speak from different continents… ”The human experience doesn’t unify from a general vision of the world and life. The idea of a “personal speech” is introduced; each one grows its own garden. It would be easy to go through disc stores and take from songs, from what you hear, from what you buy to understand this speech. An excess of legitimized individualization, an extreme pluralism of options and attitudes that are always and only under the importance of the personal experience.” The author continues… ”This evidences the crisis of the institutions (especially the culture and memory transmitter as family, school, university, syndicates, political parties, the army and churches). These socialization centers seem to get weaker even though they go on feeding the citizen with its symbolic flow and ritual. The family and school are involved in this readjustment and keep being relegated to a concrete sphere of life in concurrence with others. The first one suffers a new relation problem which affects children. Family models which have to convert themselves to be the first place of socialization and welcome. Loneliness is not only or mainly not being with anybody, but also the absence of satisfactory relationships, vitally rich. 2 García Morcuerde, M. A Comunicados pero no acompañados en Misión Joven. CCS 9
  • 9. On the other hand, school take more and more time and earlier and earlier our children; in contrast, many education professionals denounce that school has lost its condition of leading institution) which dictated the reality theory, and nowadays move grown ups to other social institutions. In this context, youngsters – Peter Berger claims- have peeped the “neighbor’s garden” and have seen different things. Cyber means are the “new domestic altar” and the protagonists of this globalized society or “digital society” are young people. People’s inner world and what happens around don’t have a meaningful reference background; everything is lived immediately, in the present, moving in a space without horizon. Information society opens new accesses where everything is easier to obtain, quick, efficient and abbreviated (like mp3 music format). Without forgetting to recognize that analysis can describe certain social sectors of a particular reality, we are conscious that these sectors live common experiences beyond north south frontiers. To sum up, the author continues we get a pluralism of messages and attention catchers: everybody has something to say and also the opposite! Everything depends, and sometimes. Welcome puzzle youth. Youngsters and adults find themselves fulfilled with appearances, without distinguishing among important or insubstantial things. Reality becomes simulation. We go to virtual reality through the window of the “media” (means of social communication) which privates the news or actuality. The final result is the impossibility of reflection and critic, here comes to satisfy the manipulation that fragments and bones reality. The high speed rhythm of change, in digital technologies image and likeness, reduces the capacity of perceiving the truths and lies of what is happening. …Life is the catwalk of American Idol or Big Brother. These reflections by Mercedes Soler in her article Reequilibrar un mundo desequilibrado (Re balance an unbalanced world), also from the magazine Misiòn Jòven, can complete the view on this social fabric we paradoxically are part of and which at the same time produces us, particularly adults, a missing living. “If one of the two alternatives, ‘the human being is naturally good’ or ‘the human being is naturally bad’, were true, we wouldn’t have the need of acting, compromising ourselves, given that it wouldn’t’ be worth doing anything, because history would have its inner logic. However, if we think it carefully, attitude of people about the future of humanity is not rational hope, or desperation, but total indifference. We want to go out of the unyielding attitude and indifference vicious circle these postures impose themselves. We want to act to change, beyond thoughts and words. Acting means transforming”. This affirmation of the indifference made by different “reality readers” strongly impacts, that’s why I allow myself to add to the fabric the thread of some personal experiences. Working with children and teenagers in the area of emotional education, tutoring people and groups, with adult educators in formation Seminars and Workshops, I have frequently stated the idea of future, personal and collective future. After many years when fears in front of what would 10
  • 10. happen defined the emotions of people in relation with the things that would happen: fear for being unemployed, violence, fear of being excluded, fear of loosing the family, fear of economic lacks, future started defining itself “in a different place” which wasn’t the correct one. This other place resulted to process the unapproachable things. Indifference in front of future never appeared, however there was no doubt that what worried us was not humanity’s one, it was ours, the closest people’s ones, the one that could be contextualized in our own environment. 3 In a parallel way, a strong solidarity movement was growing with the participation of any kind of social actors: old people helping other old people that had been left alone; thousands of help projects and development performed by children, teenagers and young people from educational institutions and non-formal educational movement; churches, temples and parishes became in meeting places, welcome, support and care places; neighbor centre which grew initiatives for their neighbors; enterprises for the leisure field, health, environmental politic. Nets and more nets were kitted among institutions, religious confessions, and groups. An active and moving search to reaper, care, reconstruct and build, through new paths, with new textures, designs and colors even they were simple. “My own” started being “our”, the resignation vicious circle was broken, “it’s not my business”, the rules of a constructive game were created in which we could be protagonists overcoming the importance “in front of the enormous work” of modifying the reality even thought it’s complex. The experience of the strength and support of the groups was and is essential. Experience confirms the value of Educating for life in group, educating to live with others and grow with others, from the first moments of personal existence. For a fabric that is extremely intricate, these life experiences are knitted together with some opposite ones. Violence in classrooms is a reality in all the latitudes, violent confrontations in sport events occupy TV screens, labor claims frequently finish with hurt and dead people. We could add, in an infinite increase, from work abuse, sexual abuse, children and women who are abuse and hit in their families up to the point of living wars. And at this point I can understand Soler’s statement about the indifference to any world which isn’t my world, up to the point of denying the essential value that is the other’s life, my brother’s or sister’s life or even his/her own life. Soler says “we frequently live interpersonal conflicts painfully and we would prefer being able to eliminate them from our lives. The frequent sensation is the one of suffering 3 It is extremely important to have in mind the crisis we lived in my country, Argentina, in 2001. 11
  • 11. injustice, not being understood, tolerating the other’s violence…” . It’s worth thinking about the most frequent answer of the human being has chosen to solve conflicts in history: violence. Violence, as the psychologist Silvia Bonino says, is the behavioral answer more immediate to a conflictive situation…destructive aggression is rigid and because of that not so able to keep in mind the complexity and the different aspects of the conflictive situation. Everyday reality convokes us to Educate to discover the complexity of human relations an multiple faces of the conflict. Under the anthropologist Patfoort, quoted in the same article, in the root of the conflict there is usually a power unbalance. The one who feels powerful and wishes to imposed his/her will, ideas, interests or points of view must live with pressures. Many times, balancing the lost power he/she shouts takes revenge, hits or even attacks him/herself through illnesses or depression because of the received pressure. The accumulated and silent injustice can produce violent reactions. Everybody has experienced how difficult it is to dismantle a confrontation in a work group when the increase of the conflict has been started. How hard it is to solve when we only try to discuss reasons without mentioning our fears and our necessities. We have all experienced a moment we don’t face what we knew or saw just not to complicate things. And here indifference, in small or big things is covered by an unyielding attitude or blindness, is present again. Just like “Seeing the cards of our needs and fears can make us vulnerable, but can also allow us to recognize the humanity there is in the one we have in front of us, and may be dismantle the image of the enemy which frames the adversary” it is also essential to recognize what we have to leave aside the phrase “it has been always been this way”, the phrase “changes aren’t possible”, the phrase “this doesn’t affect me”, or “I’m neutral”. From the simplest and closest… Educating to recognize our emotions and feelings and at the same time recognize the other’s ones… Educating to express our needs and our fears…Educating so that we could not be indifferent to nothing which is human. Representation capacity and symbolism typical of the human being establish the bases of the most creative and healthy solutions to face the conflict: “cooperate means to find a way which takes in mind exigencies” of all the parts. “Language, the capacity of verbalizing, expressing emotions, and points of view…help us to reconsider all the complexity of a situation and imagine alternative situations”. 12
  • 12. So… Educating to be assertive, making decisions, think in a divergent and creative way, evaluate and self-evaluate to understand, improve and mediate. Educating to express in words what happens to us, what we perceive in our everyday realities, educating to recover dialogue, to denounce, not to involve oneself with indifference in complicities “whether they are innocent or comfortable”. This way, the prejudice that characterizes the others as different ones and distant from an us we are part of, some “others” suffer from mockery and jokes to stigmatizations and exclusions up to the point of embracing a spring with all kind of destructive behaviors, we are offered the empathy antidote… recognition of the others alike ourselves… Every time we manifest the identical humanity of the other one we step towards peace. Because of that it is necessary to work over our own prejudices whether they are ideological, cultural, economic, ethnic, and this only happens in the meeting face to face with the true other, not with the idea we have of the other person. Overcoming “the sense of meaningless”, recovering the own power of acting, going out resignation, discovering the resources, the talents we have, alliterate ourselves and alliterate hearts and minds to live in community. So, it would be a matter of becoming good knitters and teach the trade of linking strings, dreaming threads which include and cover, creating designs for everybody and which highlight the personal originality in a collective us.  A personal story to enjoy by the fire From an anonymous story… The man comes from anywhere. After walking long ways he arrives at a town, a grey and cold day. The wind is blowing, advancing the snow. The foster is hungry. He stops at a house door and asks something to eat. But from the other side of the door somebody answers: “We don’t have anything, not even for us.” The foster understands and goes on. He stops at the next door and asks for a piece of bread. - We don’t have anything, even for us- a voice explains - Have you got a big pan at least? The man asks - Yes, we have a quite big one- somebody replies. - Have you got any water left? He adds suggestingly - Luckily, we don’t lack water- they answer - Put some water in the pan on the fire, I’ll be in charge of the rest: I’ll bring a stone to make some soup!- says the imaginative stranger. So many things happen in the town, which many times people feel like believing something. - A stone to make soup? They asked- what’s that? - Well, a stone to make soup, is a stone that helps to make soup. Do you understand? Asks the man. You don’t understand, but maybe because you are tired of understanding or bored of understanding you just don’t do it anymore. Everybody meets around the stranger without much expectancy. The owner fills 13
  • 13. the pan with water and puts it on the fire. The stranger takes a stone out of his pocket and drops it in a big recipient. - Now, we just have to wait until it boils- he says. And everybody decides to sit and wait. That weak complicity of waiting makes them talk. The man tells a story of silences that makes everybody sad. - Could you give me a little salt? The stranger asks - Of course- the woman said as she takes some salt out of a jar. The man takes a handful and put it in the pan. Sometimes waiting leads to say some things. The stranger remembers something he was told and starts telling a story. - One or two carrots wouldn’t be bad in this delicious soup- talks about carrots with nostalgically. - Well, if it is a carrot, I think I can help- the woman says. - Taking one or two out of the basket, maybe three as one of the little daughters peels them and dice them. - During life, a man is alone with his shadow- goes on the stranger. Everybody seems to agree. - The woman isn’t anymore just with her shadow- says the black eyed daughter. At that moment the child who is playing with a knife comments that the town is full of stories about loneliness. One of the girls says that she has a friend who has a one- eyed dog. - How good could some potatoes be!! There is nothing like a thick soup- comments the stranger. The oldest daughter of the family, as she peels some potatoes tells that a woman got pregnant not to be so lonely. Without a husband with no other purpose than taking care of somebody. - An onion could make it tastier, if you allow me- says the woman, at the same time she remembers that she couldn’t say a word until the age of five. The dumb girl, she was apparently said. Until one day. After crying non-stop for 9 days, she started speaking. - Silence is an illness- says the grandmother, as she adds a red sweet potato and a bay leaf. - I’ll bring a cabbage just taken out from the ground- says the owner of the house going towards the pan. And he adds, changing the voice- the saddest day of my life was when my father died. I was thirteen, I remember his big hands. - A little pepper- if I may- adds the landlady - It will be ready soon- says the stranger stirring the stock with a huge ladle. At that moment the youngest child comes with a hen. - Just what we needed for the final touch- everybody says. In a few minutes the hen is clean, cut and in the pan. - ¡Hum! How nice it smells- says the just arrived one. - The traveler has a stone- his father explains- We are preparing a soup with it.  To pray together Holy Father take care... Good Father you are among us. We feel your presence when you take care of us Through our brothers and sisters. Merciful Father you invite us to be careful With the ones who suffer. This way we give testimony Of your endless love for all the creatures. We wish you be present in our world, Through the people who compromise themselves to live, The message of fraternity, dignity and justice 14
  • 14. To each human being and to all complete creation. We want to give the first step to be that way. Do your will towards all the beings It is our mission in life. To devote ourselves for the others. Give for free what we receive for free. Take care as you take care of us: caressing the one who is sad Rising the one who has fallen down, curing the one who has been hurt Fighting for the weakest ones, growing peace of truth. Living carefully, humbly. We are hungry of bread and tenderness. Of justice and beauty. Of knowledge and silence. Of contemplation and fight, Of happiness and Compromise. Of sharing and friendship. Serenity and Hope. Tears and delight. We may not be completely happy until the rest Of humanity is happy, Until every human being reaches dignity, Until we treat our mother gently, the Earth. We will be forgiven when our life is a permanent testimony of fraternity. Don’t allow us to settle ourselves, to cold ourselves, To lie down in the oversight hammock. Let’s never put down the light that burns our inner part, The spark that emerged from your fire, the burning need of sharing you loving care with the other human beings. This way, to fulfill our lives We ask this to you, good Lord, who takes care of us so tenderly. Miguel Ángel Mesa 15
  • 15. “Thanks, God, because of the hugs I’ve received from the child,Because of the body that formed me, because of the caresses that covered me, Because of the food that made me grow; And because of the thoughts that make me grow” 2 The warp, the essential threads for the knit to be possible: he basic needs that the groups satisfy We are born, we live, we grow, and we develop our potentials in the centre of human groups. 16
  • 16. The family, first peer group, offers us essential opportunities of interchange. It reaffirms us as individuals, as existing people, unique and different, in the way a mirror contacts as with who we really are and from its caresses, cares and tenderness allow us to build the basic trust which will sustain a healthy development. “We have started seeing since the most tender infancy, through perception that our important others have had about ourselves and from the image that they projected on 4 us” . Cruelty, a way of violence, oversight, the experience of being ignored or uncared on the other hand, will build distrust in front of themselves and the world, self-perception will frequently be dyed by devaluation. Following Barreiro we can remember that even though family is essential in the genesis process of identity construction, the groups will be essential in all the steps of our lives. These ones give confirmation and acceptance. The Basic need of peers finds this way its satisfaction in friends groups and school, study group and work group, in the patrol and the neighborhood groups, because we are relation beings, growing in the meeting with the others. “Among the different groups we have been going through, there was and there will be some paths we have felt great and others we have felt bad; there was and there will be groups and personal interactions in their groups that gave us happiness and joy, and others that made us suffer; or even in a same group there may be moments that make us feel better or worse than others; moments or aspects of the link weft that made us grow, that were positive for our lives, and others which “blocked” or placed pitfalls in our development and our progress as people. Anyone the experience is foreseen by, the peer groups frequently result being for people a devastating experience of isolation. Rejection, the exclusion experience is for many kids and teenagers the most feared maltreatment. But apart from peering what do we look for in a group? The group is the place for confirmation or disconfirmation. The group gives us the experience of being useful and valuable for the others, of being competent in front of an assigned responsibility to concrete a project or job. If we look in a guide patrol, everything in it is activity. Activity that requires the use of multiple abilities and competences: jumping, running, climbing, setting fire, setting up tents and understanding a topographic card, planning a project and conceiving ideas and discussing, making decisions by consensus, making reflections, foreseeing advantages and disadvantages, making budgets, testing achievements and overcoming difficulties; singing, disguising, dramatizing and surfing the internet to meet friends around the world and many more things. 4 Barreiro, Telma Trabajo en grupos “Working in groups” Buenos Aires Kapelusz (1992) 17
  • 17. These abilities that are discovered get deeper and spread in the patrol: social ones, cognitive ones, physical, artistic ones, or if we understand them from Gardner, as expressions of multiple intelligence confirm each child as a valuable person, able to learn and go on learning. These abilities and competences are put to the group service, each girls or each teenager can live the enthusiasm of her/his personal achievements and the shared achievements in an atmosphere where error is recognized as an opportunity. The group atmosphere of welfare facilitates “the opening, giving up masks”, power- Barreiro would say- the most constructive aspects of the members of the group. The common work convokes personal improvement and growing for everybody, allows experiencing a distributed leadership and discovers potentials many times unknown. The group is the place of circulation of feelings, in this one the need of loving and being loved find expression opportunities. From being called by name to smiles, from greetings to gestures of tenderness or approval. Free love which is not tied to what we know or the abilities we have, the point of having got the points for the team or how nice one is. Affection just because of being part of this “we” that the healthy group builds. Life experience in group with or cheered by the presence of an adult demands a compromise on what we call emotional education. To help the girls and teenagers to be conscious of their emotions and feelings, their wishes and hopes, to be able of sharing them in the inner part of the group to be able to understand and open to the world of the emotions and feelings for the others. Tolerance is not a goal to reach, it just the threshold, the starting point towards tenderness, compassion, sympathy. And this goes hand in hand with the company of an adult and the practice of an education in dialogue and freedom. This group is also the practice of a responsible freedom, the acceptance of the law, in Guiding, it is a proposal to improve in all the dimensions of the person. The law defines a conviviality style not done from prohibitions but from the always checked version of living a project of life to the other’s service and in loyalty with the God of Life. The group recognizes the efforts to live everyday a proposal that is not impossible, a proposal that states goals personalized for each age, which is demanding and announces itself as a challenge, that invites a fair look on itself admitting strengths and weaknesses. 18
  • 18. The experience of the law respect, responsibility in front of our own actions, of dialogue that builds better decisions, it is part of the education to citizenship that is always in the educational proposal of the movement. The group is a place for emotion, responsibilities, peering; it is also a place to build a value frame and shared senses. The group, the welcoming place for new generations, it is also giving time to find an answer to basic questions of identity and vocation: who am I? and Who do I want to be? If the group experience allows the children and teenagers to recognize them in first place as fruit of God’s unconditional love in the loving presence of their educators, they can knit a project to be in the world as the other people’s brothers and sisters.  A story to share by the bonfire One day a person who said to be the abbot of a big monastery went by the old man. -What do you want? Asked the master. The visitor as an answer, told him a sad story: in other times his monastery had been famous in all the western world. There was harmony among all of them, and they breathed happiness air. As a consequence of that, the number of people that wanted to belong to that community grew. Now, there were many, nobody could understand each other. The abbot explained the old man that they had done psychological exams, pedagogical ones and that they couldn’t find any solution. -That is chaos. Your fame as a wise person has arrived at us and because of that I come to ask you for advice. -Calm down-said the old man-see how everything has solution. The old man went with the abbot to the monastery and he lived with the community for some days. 19
  • 19. And as time passed, he called the abbot and told him: - I know where the problem is. You have in your hand a beautiful flower and fruit garden, with fruit trees of any kina, but you have to know well all and each of the fruits to know how to treat them, so that they give the appropriate fruit. Here, there are people that are like nuts: they are covered with a hard outer core, it is very hard to reach them, but when you can do it, they are very nice. There are people that are like cherries: small, sweet and with nice aspect, but they always have to be high and when you taste them they can break you a tooth with the pit. There are some that are oranges: if you taste them before the right season they are sour and disgusting, but if you give them time to ripen they are very nice, tasty and give a lot of vitamins. There are others who are like prickly pears: always with prickles, always bothering and leave spikes hard to take out. There are some asparagus, they don’t taste and however they are useful to eliminate toxins. Then you have bananas: always at hand, always sweet, always good but they are very fattening. Others are custard apple: they are good, but they have an amount of seeds that are not edible and you have to take them out one by one. The rest is good, however little. There others who are pears: the outer aspect is green, they give the impression they haven’t ripened, but when you taste them, they are ready. There are others who are water melons. Very tasty, very colorful and very fresh. What a pity that only in summer there are water melons. Maybe there are more fruits. Follow these clues to recognize how you really are. I have also observed how these fruits behave, sorry, these people, inside the group they belong. There are groups that are fruitful, each person keeps its shape and taste. They are unable to mix. They think that the prickle pear, prickle pear has to die. They are very beautiful to decorate. There are groups that are juice. They are able to mix the rest, but they do it in such a way that they totally loose their identity; they loose their shape and color. The result some times is nice, other times a strange flavor. There are groups that are Macedonia, fruit salad: they are able to join the rest giving their taste, but still being themselves. The little ones keep entire and the big ones are divided in dice to contribute more to the group. The result is a good mixture. And this way, they understood where their mistake was and the monastery was what it used to be. Merche Heredero  Some words to make them pray The non-violence strength A people and a man’s strength is on the non-violence. Try it. It is only possible because of the massive return of men to the deep human values, as humbleness, sobriety, solidarity, hospitality and friendship. I have a conviction deeply rooted: only non-violence can save humanity. To practice violence, you have to learn how to hate. For non-violence you have to learn how to love. 20
  • 20. I have tried to avoid violence, I really want to avoid it. The non-violence is the first principle of my faith and the last one. M. Gandhi To build Peace Peace is a tree that has to grow tall. Just like the cedar, we have to absorb a lot of stones to ground the bases of its unity. To build peace is to build a huge stable where all the cattle can sleep calmly. It’s to build a castle so huge that in it could meet everyman without having to leave their luggage. It is not about amputating them to be inside. To build peace is to get that God gives us his shepherd shroud to welcome in it everybody with the width of their wishes. As a mother loves all her children. This one, who is shy and tender. This one, who is anxious to live. That hunchbacked, feeble, inappropriate. Everybody, in their diversity, they touch her Herat. Everybody, in the diversity of their love they are good for her glory. Peace is that tree, that we have to grow slowly. We need more light than what I have. Nothing is still evident. I have to choose, and at the same time, reject. It would be too easy to achieve peace if everybody were similar. Antoine de Saint-Exupéry  A dynamic to work with our children (Taken from the magazine Misión Joven by CCS) Peace Texts - Herminio Otero The following texts make reference to general attitudes, ether to become aware of reality or to concrete which attitudes can be more efficient an possible in the creation of a better world. Loyal to the statement of Manos Unidas («Change your life to change the World»), we highlight personal attitudes, which leads to fulfill the compromise in the fight for justice and solidarity. We haven’t chosen very well-known texts (San Francisco Pray) or biblical texts or by the Holy Fathers. Neither have we included songs, which can put my foot in it. Neither a narration or parabola. 5 REFLECTION, ANALYSIS, PROPOSALS We don’t set concrete standards to work with each text. We just remind you that you van use them in multiple ways.  Reflection and comment in group. 5 See many examples in J. J. Gómez, Educar para la paz, “Educating for peace” Ed. CCS, Madrid 1 9 92 ; H. Ot er o , Parábolas en son de paz,”Parabolas for peace” Ed. CCS, Madrid 1 9 93 . 21
  • 21.  As a greeting and motivation at the beginning of a meeting  As a starting point for following comments or deepenings.  Just to read them or listen to them.  To put them in a board.  As material that can be included in the activity programs or on informative pages.  To disseminate them in magazines of the group or church.  To adapt them through music or drama and represent them in any collective event. Utopia of peace It is in the horizon, When I walk two steps, it takes two steps back. I walk ten steps, and it is ten steps further away. No matters how much I walk I never reach it What is Utopia for? It is for this, for walking. Eduardo Galeano The most important thing It doesn’t matte what you are: a man, a woman, old or young, worker, peasant, soldier, student or salesman. It doesn’t matter your political creed, nor your religious creed… If you are asked what is the most important thing for humanity, Answer before, after and always: peace. Li Tien Min The reality of war If you hear that a war has started. If you hear that some young soldiers have died in the hands of other soldiers. If you hear that on the other side of any frontier a camp has been set for Refugees, who were a few yesterday and thousands today, ten thousands. If you heart that because of the war’s fault there are mutilated people. If you hear that millions of mothers cry their children because they have not only given birth to them in pain but also in pain they have been taken out of their hands. If you hear that hundreds of bombs have exploded in any city or in the centre of any miserable town. If you hear that some chemical weapons kill “without damaging”. If you hear about raze division, brothers division. If you hear bomb explosions instead of explosion of plows. If you hear about the need of revenge and wish to kill. If you hear that somebody has the wish of blood. If you hear threatens, words of anger or resentment. 22
  • 22. If you see children with submachine-guns on their shoulders. If you see kisses drowning in floods of tears. If you see hearts wondering exhausted. If you see many men hat don’t have a man’s face or body… It is because the Earth has stepped towards its extermination And you and me are also responsible of it. M. Jiménez To reach peace We can only reach World peace through the inner transformation of teh being. It is a hard process, but it is the only way. Peace must be developed, mainly, in the person. Love, comprehension, generosity are the basic elements of peace. Only when these elements germinate in the inner part of a person, this one is able to create an atmosphere of peace and harmony. This atmosphere can be widened and spread from the being to the family, from the family to the community, and finally, from the community to the entire world. We serve the peace cause if we learn little by little to perceive not only the injustice we are victims of, but also the injustice the others are victims of. We are peaceful if everyday we fulfill little virtue actions: being nice with those we have power on, no lying in front of those who are stronger, not considering oneself too important or believing irreplaceable. Karl Rahner (Adaptation) 23
  • 23. “ Thanks to the ones that with their words, gave me faith in myself, Made me more enthusiastic, and taught me to love.Thanks for crossing my way.You rounded me with Your presence, made me feel your hug,And transmitted Your Love. 3 Learn how to knit takes time: the group and the development of abilities to live in community 24
  • 24. “The group meets many beings in a system that doesn’t live and act as an addition of 6 parts, but as a whole” and this space where we live the condition of being ourselves in all our originality and being, at the same time, part of ourselves, is undoubtedly a hard construction. The fable of the porcupines by Schopenhauer, says that one long winter night in a cave they try to heat themselves without hurting each other with their bristles, the long dance of finding the right distance that allows to share the heat and simultaneously don’t suffer exaggerated tensions, is an appropriate metaphor for the meaning of building ourselves as a group. Without denying the autonomy of each member, defining the group as a totality means to recognize the influence that everyone’s behavior has in the others, the mutual dependence that takes part in the affection level, the work, the roles, the values and power. The guide is conscious that it is not enough to incorporate a girl to a patrol for this one to be part of it, that not being anymore a group of people of similar age to become a unity that solves and projects, discusses and decides, that takes distance and gets closer, that has conflicts and solves them as a part of a long way. The adventure of communication is registered in the group, the dialogue looking for consensus, the interchange of points of view, and the conflict; express the importance that covers the construction of common meanings. The group is the everyday opportunity to play and plan together, but it’s basically the opportunity to build a horizon we can try to reach together. In the small group, the patrol, “it is a deep an authentic experience of the other” . 7 . Going out from our own personal world, understanding what the other, who speaks with words or silences, wants to communicate, the angers or affirmations in a demanding exercise. Around the others’ words we tend to knit a meaning weft. In order not to be monologue speakers, we require a listening and sight exercise, and accepting that it is necessary to build a space for meetings, a space for participation and real cooperation. The patrol as a small group allows this possibility. 6 Pollo, M. El grupo, lugar de comunicación “The group, communication place” 7 Ibídem 25
  • 25. The patrol is the place to meet face to face, the place for words and gestures, of guffaws and cries. Everything has an affective tone, information and data can flow fluently, believes and symbols can be shared and celebrated. Life made of action and reflection is lived in the centre of the patrol, is narrated once and once more in the memory of the patrol book in the shared fires, they get meaning beyond everyday life in ceremonies and prays. The small group creates a code, a private language the differs it from other groups. This language has a shared dimension in the movement with the other groups through the wide world (a language that speaks of values, a way of life, a horizon we walk towards) a particular dimension more tied to the specific experiences of life, allowances and particular elections. This group code “is the place in which particular individuality of the group meets connection with the individualities of the other groups and each one of the beings that compose them…the code, in effect, it guarantees the difference, intimacy and group 8 reserve, preserving it from dispersion” . Pennants, patrol ribbons, names mottos, corners and album-books are elements from the educational proposal of the movement that cooperates to build this group “grammar” Working Roles that favor the leadership distribution, chiefs sub-chiefs that assume responsibility to manage the democratic participation of the group, they favor the formation of rich communication nets and a distribution of power which is linked to the possibility to assume different challenges. 8 Ibídem 26
  • 26. However, unrest is not something beyond group life, it is frequently bound to the predominance of a way of configuration as a group, a matrix which is defined as competitive. The competitive matrix, generator of confrontations and antagonisms has become “naturalized”, to be “considered a typical feature of human nature, when really it is a characteristic of personality that results totally dependent of the motivational structures of each culture” 9. The Challenge of the Guide is to contribute to develop a cooperative and supportive group matrix, in which it could be possible to participate without being judged, where fear to be displaced doesn’t exist, where it could be possible to create and believe, give and receive fondness, being part and being recognized. A cooperative and supportive matrix in a mutual acceptance and trust background, in a freedom and respect we can experience being ourselves, unique and original and at the same time an “us” able to work, play or project as a whole. Cooperation doesn’t avoid conflict, confrontation or anger, proper of any group, and we know this, we the ones who work with children and teenager and, of course, with adults!!!. However, this way of solving conflicts gets different shapes, this way the things that predominate are: learning from our own mistakes, the group search of solutions, and the capacity to stress the common welfare on the solutions that only satisfy only us. 9 Barreiro, Telma Conflictos en el aula “ Conflicts in the classroom” Buenos Aires Novedades educativas 2000 27
  • 27. The author we have been quoting, Telma Barreiro, highlights the myth of competence stimulus. It is interesting when we are tempted to centre all the game and work proposal in the competence among patrols, obtaining scores, the proposal of prizes in front of every project that is concreted. In front of the risk of loosing the gratitude sense and the joy of doing things well without wanting a “reward” we can let these reflections echo inside us. “…the stimulus that competence gives doesn’t stimulate an authentic grow. Personally it leads to an alienate way of relation with work, activity and goals…” “…the inherent pleasure of creativity that is replaced by the non-stop search of the prize; the work is a mean to win the others…” “…as we talk about a moving goal, it obliges us to be constantly alert and generates anxiety…” Talking about learning, the author says “…faced as a living process, that implies discovering, investigating, questioning, creating and building, it doesn’t need external stimulus and its realization itself implicitly leads to a personal grow, if we add the possibility of group work and the satisfaction of cooperation, discovering with the others, the process becomes 10 something completely enjoyable…” 10 Barreiro, Telma Trabajo en grupos. “Work in groups” Buenos Aires Kapelusz 1992 28
  • 28. This scheme adapted from a proposal by Coll for the group-class, can clarify the role that the influence project of the movement has in the groups through the educational presence of the guide and on the other hand, everything the guides contribute as unique people with the characteristics typical of their age, with their family history and all the richness and originality coming from their culture. Both questions Hill have to do with the inner processes that spread to the inner of the patrols and the guide communities. How to educate in social abilities from the experience which is founder of life in patrol. Listen to, thank, ask with a “please”, ask, answer, ask for help, give help, participate, say sorry, defend our rights, and be supportive in defense of the others’ rights, respect a game’s rules, make a decision, state objectives and work to achieve them, understand our own feelings to understand the others. Abilities to live in group that we learn in family little by little, our first group and the most meaningful one. 29
  • 29. The literacy in social matters or first socialization seems to be weakened. Teachers, catechesis teachers, cheerers of groups express their worry because they have to teach essential conviviality rules. The family also expresses their worry when it discovers that the attitudes in which his child is educated are not shared by the families of his/her friends. Something that is a rule or value for somebody, in other homes is not valuable. On the other hand, everybody agrees that they must share a powerful opinion creator and molder of social attitudes: the communication means and new information technologies. Whether a high audience television program, computer games, the role games or many other “presences” in the world of the children and teenagers”. If we link this with the loose of places to play and leisure places, we state at the beginning of this reflection, we can recognize in hundred social sections of the increase of the amount of hours we spend in front of the screen in at the expense of interchanges with other children, group activities, outdoors group activities, sports practice, etc. The adults’ World is not beyond this deficit of social abilities, difficulties to live and work with the others and together with the things that are expressed in the family. Activities multifrenia, the quickness to fulfill all the obligations, stress, the amount of information to process every moment, exigencies whether real or created by us that later become unreachable goals, are some describers of our everyday life. Because of that, when numbering some of the axis that the small patrol group helps to spread, it is not a bad idea to ask ourselves how we evaluate ourselves as leaders and adults in these dispositions to be and work with us:  Dialogue capacity  Formulation of own ideas  Sensibility in front of the others’ reality  Respect to our own privacy and the other’s privacy.  Identification of wrong thoughts  Capacity to get involved in the collective search of solutions  Use of creative alternatives for the solution of problems  Analysis of the consequences of our own experiences  Capacity to listen  Statement of critics  Statement of self-critics  Democratic practice to make decisions  Acknowledgment of the ethic and social responsibility of our actions .11 11 Ferrer, V. Las habilidades sociales “ Social habilitéis” En revista Innovación educativa N 102. Barcelona Grao 30
  • 30.  ... ... How to teach social abilities or develop attitudes for life, whether some of the presented in the previous paragraph or any other, has had diverse answers along the years. Preoccupation in this field has an important part of the reflection on educational pedagogy and psychology. Even though, conducting models have predominated in the creation of programs for the development of social competences, in the last decade many meaningful contributions have been disseminated which can help to enrich our point of view. We show some of them:  The Multiple Intelligence Theory by Howard Gardner, in which the development of intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligence are particularly interesting for this reflection topic.  The emotional Intelligence theory hand in hand with Goleman.  The philosophy proposal for kids by Lipman. Gardner’s theory is without ignoring the genetic component, recognizes intelligence as a liable to be developed. Recognizes the existence of eight different intelligences that can interact and empower reciprocally, defining intelligence as “the capacity to solve problems or create products that are valuable in one or more cultural environments”. Interpersonal intelligence, on of the eight ones, “it allows us to understand the others and communicate with them having their different moods, temperaments, motivations and abilities. Including the capacity to establish and keep relations to assume diverse roles in 12 groups, whether as members or leaders.” . Collaborating with the group of development of one activity, contribute with opinions or organize the others’ proposals in a viable project, being curious and opened to discover the richness of personal, cultural, or social differences, sensible to the others’ feelings, able to consider different points of view, to share laughter and jokes. Expressions of an intelligence that grows, as it is possible, to interact with the others in an acceptance and trust environment. “In the centre of our inner World there are the capacities w ego t oto understand ourselves and other people, to imagine, to plan, to solve problems. There also live qualities such as motivation, decision capacity, ethic, integrity, altruism, sympathy…” Intrapersonal Intelligence understands our thoughts and feelings. As long as we can make them conscious, more solid the relation between our inner and outer world will be. Both worlds are bond; both intelligences are developed in the environment of guiding experience. 12 Campbell,L.; Campbell, B.; Dickenson, D. Inteligencias múltiples “Multiple intelligences” Buenos Aires Troquel 31
  • 31. Learning by doing as is proposed by the movement, cooperative learning gets wider as we cooperate. In the game, in service to community, in the international-friendship project, in the reconstruction of the patrol’s corner, parents’ meetings, in the setting of the weather office or in the confection of disguises for the play, as we cook under the rain or plan the night bonfire. The dialogue exercise made silence or listening, words and gestures is not a content of the guide who speaks, that one who interchanges ideas and chooses, after evaluating possibilities and difficulties, that one who is the most pertinent to the project in which the patrol or community will board; requires confrontation of points of view, arguments which keep opinions, analysis among diverse alternatives, conformity or disconformity expressions in front of the definite election, constructions of consensus and acceptance of dissent and acceptance of designs. The rest of the made decisions and the construction of a working plan, the effort made for the construction of a project (whether it is an annual service that will demand to keep the assumed compromise during tie or the play that implies to use different abilities to achieve a common objective) that will allow to grow in essential attitudes for citizen life. Evaluation along the project or closing of each meeting, the analysis of what we have done and the attitudes we show in every meeting of the chiefs and sub chiefs of the patrol allows the exercise of the critical view about oneself. The evaluating view facilitates to meet those aspects to improve and allows redirecting our own actions and the group’s ones to the defined objectives. It discovers as perfectible and takes from mistakes an opportunity of grow and reconciliation. Evaluation, even though difficulties, the wish to grow, the passion for understanding are transmitted when children and teenagers meet guides who assume enthusiastically their own permanent learning way. The patrol meeting, personal conversation as we walk through a path, the preparation after the promise, the shared pray, the celebrating spaces, the desert experiences, the personal book or notebook, the opportunities to use imagination, individual time to think in a special part of the camp. Spaces and times that facilitate a better self-knowledge, the establishment of personal goals, making questions about yourself, about the others, about a complex and multidimensional reality. To trust in oneself and in our own capacities, to recognize oneself us worthy of esteem, worthy of being loved, able to love, welcome to the group, all that is learning. 32
  • 32. The educator is, again, essential. An attentive creator, able to manifest esteem, affection and acceptance, creator of opportunities, sensitive and sympathetic, just and coherent in its actions. Recreating the reading of this scheme we can say that the inner part of the patrol this permanent interchange of values, authority, work, affection and organization is experienced in the daily meetings, services, camps, projects and activities. 33
  • 33. To re-read the guide method under the light of the nowadays pysocology and pedagogy, a passioning and challenging job.  A pray to preach together The Funder’s pray to be used in international meetings "Father of us all, We meet before Thee here today, numerous in the lands we come from and in the races we represent, but one in our Brotherhood under Thy Divine Fatherhood. We come before Thee with hearts grateful and gladdened by the many blessings Thou hast granted us and thankful that our Movement has prospered as acceptable in Thy sight. In return we would lay on Thine Altar, as our humble thank-offering, such sacrifice as we can make of self in service to others. We ask that during our communion here together we may, under Thy Divine Inspiration, gain a widened outlook, a clearer vision of all that lies open before us and of our opportunity. Thus we may then go forth with strengthened faith to carry on our mission of heightening the ideals and powers of manhood, and of helping through closer understanding to bring about Thy happier Rule of Peace and Goodwill upon Earth." Listen oh Father. Baden Powell 34
  • 34.  An image to contemplate and share Which seeds are growing today in the ground our patrol of cheerers, in the patrols of our guides? Which seed, as abilities for life in group, have given us biggest difficulties to grow in this or other patrol? With which concrete attitudes as adults and educators do we facillitate that life grows in each group? Whose are the hands that hold the growing life?  A story to share by the bonfire (Taken from Misión Joven by CCS) Parabola- The hardest Lesson In Jesus’ life, he had counted occasions he could meet his apostles in a calm place. They were usually surprised by a crowd that was as sheep without shepherd, and wanted to listen to Master’s words. Jesus felt pity because of that, and started teaching them calmly… Once he told them: _ Love your enemies, make the good to the ones that hate you, bless to ones that curses us, pray for the ones who lie. The one who hurts you on one cheek, give him the other; the one who takes the shroud, don’t deny the robe. The others, up to that moment, undaunted of the crowd started to adopt strange shapes (as when we don’t understand something) and silence started to dissolve giving place to an endless number of questions: _ Master; do you mean I have to forgive my brother even when he keeps our father’s inheritance? _ And Lord; do I have to speak back with the neighborhood beggar who tried, knife in hand, to rob from my children? _ According to your words, do I have to come back the “The Nani” even though he is a big mouth and is always putting his food in things? _ Lord I have hear wrong or…don’t tell me that I have to start greeting again my ex chief, the one who made me a fake contract and also fired me in two months. _ I can’t believe it! Do I have to forget the money my neighbor owes me and start the two families go out again? _ I don’t understand that Lord…Do you mean I have to start buying again in “The Dory’s” shop even knowing that everybody only criticizes me? So, Jesus standing up and looking at them in tenderness, told them: _ You do, friends, and not only that but you must treat the others as you want them to treat you, because if you only love the ones who love you, what merit have you 35
  • 35. got?...Love the ones you don’t get on well with, those ones who have done “something tricky” to you, this way your reward will be big… The crowd congregated in that place started to whisper with the ones who were around them, so Jesus stopped talking, understanding that this lesson he had just given, would have to be given many times along history…. José María Escudero To do 1. Imagine that we also listen to Jesus words. What would we would we have asked? What excuses would we have done? 2. See other people’s regrets. Are they also ours? Which are the repeated ones in our groups, which situations can we see them? 3. Share some experiences where we show how hard it is to give Jesus the other cheek…but also search when we have behaved as Jesus shows: what has happened? What was simplified healed or overcame in the relationship with the other people? 36
  • 36. 37
  • 37. “...The real goal is not the search of principles and the knowledge of rules in general, but their real application. Talking about virtue, it can’t either enough to know what it is; it is essential, apart from this, to make an effort to possess it and practice it…” Aristóteles 4 Every thread is important, every thread is necessary: education to citizenship in the experience of the patrol “The 20th Century has left, among us, an essential legacy: education o citizenship, as well as the rights that guarantee them, they are an essential requirement for consolidation an the development of a fairer and more democratic society” . With these words, Pablo Gentili, Argentine educator, introduces his reflection about the ethic and political formation. And what’s the meaning of educating for citizenship, “for some people it will express in the future to form people who know their rights, duties and obligations, trained for the conscious exercise of the political participation. For other people, it means educating individuals able to adapt themselves quickly to the changes of the productive world, contributing with the growth of the 13 country. Responsible chooser, intelligent consumer, competitive worker.” If we carefully observe our societies we perceive very diverse attitudes in front of the citizenship living, some of them contradictory, others new, many of them uneasy. Our social actors install inedited ways of presence in society, of protection of its rights or of representation of its claims; a plebiscite style that leads to permanent discussion of the public matter that takes place, and also, big spaces in the means of communication with journalists that behave as opinion creators. The youngsters who are compromised in many projects to improve their spaces have, on the other hand, little presence in political parties, syndicates and traditional structures of the democratic system. The dislegitimacy of the authority questions, sometimes from its own opinion many times without serious arguments. It seemed to advance in a huge distrust in the public duty. In everyday life tends to prevail confrontation on the possibility of dialogue and 13 Gentili, P. Códigos para la ciudadnía “ Codes for a good citizenship” Buenos Aires Santillana 2000 38
  • 38. consensus construction. And this happens at the level of small intermediate associations, in the neighborhood and school dynamic as well as at the level of local, regional or national structures. When we read Gentili’s contribution “citizenship as a desirable practice is socially built as a space of values, actions and common institutions that integrate the individuals, allowing a mutual recognition as members of a community” we think immediately about our founder. He understood the movement as am essential space of citizen formation through the practice of participation values, freedom, autonomy, respect for the others, values of the differences, supportive service to everybody. He understood citizen formation as a construction that had the dynamic of the patrol, the branch and the community of the space and privileged time for the service of everybody. An anticipation of the active compromise that every girl and boy expected in their adults lives in a particular society. Education in values, sustain of citizen formation, goes little by little from values recognition to orientate our own lives according to the moral principles that they state. The Guide Law, The Scout Law are not only a horizon of sense we orientate our lives towards, they are behavior rules that allow each one to recognize good things, desirable things. They establish a desirable way of being, “the lead us to behave in a determined way: they are moving principles” 14 . Education in values develop and move our conciousness and mora sense. Chauì says: “the sense and moral conciousness speak about values, senses, intentions, desicions and actions reffered to good and evil and, because of that, they are born, are as part of our intersubjective life”. What constitutes us as moral subjects...in his Invitation to phylosophy, the same author will mention... Consciousness about ourselves and the others, experienced in our movement in relation face to face with the inner part of the patrol and the community and the link among children and teenagers with the adult leaders; To the capacity to control the will exercise of our decisions, feelings and actions to be coherent with our consciousness. To the responsibility in front of our own actions being able to assume their consequences. To the freedom practice as a self-determination capacity. Objectives of the practice of this freedom that from these Alitas to the Big Guides give place to a greater autonomy. 14 Ibídem 39
  • 39. It is undoubtedly that this education in citizenship founded in an ethic formation is education in practice, in the big game of guiding; it is always learn by doing. From the given word and creation of spaces of dialogue in the patrol and in the branch of guide teaches participation. From the valorization of the contribution of each girl or teenager, the guide teaches in respect and valorization of the richness of all the diversities and acknowledgement of herself, as well as a healthy self-esteem. By accepting the mistake and its contribution to learning, the guide allows the girls the acceptance of their vulnerabilities, the importance of will to grow and the value of time and the effort in the concretion of an achievement. The guides learn from their leaders about themselves, as reflection as in a mirror the adult gives about her progress, of her possibilities, her difficulties; and about the others and the world because of the guide attitudes they take everyday of her compromises as adults, mothers, professionals, women. The Guides learn from the practice of the democracy in the respect the guides show for the decisions made by the patrols and the meetings of the patrols chiefs. The comprehension and acceptance of differences of any kind is a meaningful axis of the education to citizenship. There is no uniformity among people , each of our girls and teenagers heritages a personal history, a family one, motivations, interests, dispositions, rhythms to learn, wishes, dreams and expectations that become her unique. With other girls of her same age she shares some common interest and Basic needs that we can identify and this is important to be acknowledged. To respect the diversity of each girl means to offer many and rich experiences of learning because Guiding is opened as a range of infinite possibilities, it is also to facilitate the big game we play in the patrol evidences other opportunities that we surely hadn’t thought about. To respect diversity is also avoid every stereotype, classification or title to identify our guides, if we do what we do they learn not to give titles or denominations to the others, accepting every and each one as an unique being. The patrol as an experience of democratic life is an experience of inclusion, initiative, self discipline, solidarity, first among peers, later opening to all the environments of daily life. As a small group the patrol can also act as:  competitive mechanisms,  subtle ways of excluding the new members,  misunderstanding self-discipline with submission to a patrol chief who is energetic and dominant; 40
  • 40.  easily accepting the initiatives that come from the same people;  installing in comfort or passivity leaving in the adults the responsibility that are proper, making compliment a way to avoid changes and compromise. The practice of democratic life leads the guide to teach how to look with a fair and objective look of the group, social background, the world. She implies them in the job of teaching to judge, and analyze causes and consequences, alternatives, dimensions of a complex reality. How to read from the values of the movement everyday. She compromises them to teach how to behave to transform reality, not to adapt, but on the contrary to make a personal contribution for family life, school life, patrol life and community life, building a fairer and fraternal society for everybody, to be a witness in the history of the God who wants the good for his sons and daughters. Educating for democratic life will be also educating for the resistance in front of values that a fragmented society imposes from a compulsive press ion of conformity. How to face the pressure of the means of communication, bombing of fashion, publicity, opinion creators who shout their happiness sales if it can be bought, be possessed, pretended, we close our eyes in front of the pain and exclusion of millions people. Educating to deny teh thought closing, validity that imposes the conses of ill ways, which are also selfish, individualistic, of being in teh world. Educating for citizenship, for some specialists, is to spread the possible opportunities to facilitate how to live together; in this sense to answer from the education to the right to “freedom”, to individualization in socialization, the habitat to live in”. Because of that, an excellent book (that meets many citizens of the world as an homage to two well-known publications by the UNESCO: Learn how to live and Education encloses e treasure) sets the need to educate: Democratic citizenship as a construction of a democratic culture (...) that is not fundamented on knowledge and acceptance of other cultures (...) as a will to live with the others (...) as tolerance which means patience, condescension o indulgence, but implies the knowledge of the others and respect for the beauty of its culture. Democratic culture (…) doesn’t reject any particular identity, ethnic, religious, linguistic or cultural nor can be developed in detriment of 15 the national fundaments, the collective solidarities ones, and common hopes. This citizenship is kept in the participation and the practice of freedom, in defense of human rights, in the fight against poverty. Mayor Zaragoza would say: “democratic culture can’t develop in the desert land of ignorance, or take roots in the centre of a fragmented society in blocked behaviors, unable to communicate among them… Education is, so, in the centre itself of the democratic culture, because it allows to for human 15 Mayor Zaragoza, Federico. Ciudadanía democrática en Cinco ciudadanías para una nueva educación “ Democratic Citizenship in five citizenshps for a new education.” Barcelona Grao 2002 41
  • 41. beings provided with the capacity to differ, to chose, to make own decisions and not to act under the instruction of others’ instances”. Social citizenship, as a sensibility to know the reality we are registered, the basic needs of humanity in a healthy life, intellectually rich, around a positive affection. As consciousness it makes closer the use of resources and its fair distribution, inequality situations, privilege, exclusion and poverty in the social field. As responsibility for the creation of a fair and equitable society. Education in this dimension of citizenship leads to give reflection spaces so that “the youngsters that integrate our societies do it in an adequate consciousness about which are the social challenges they have to face, and they will have to adopt a personal position that implies a certain responsibility in their behavior and also a political position to make her voice to be heard.” 16 Equalitable Citizenship, like the right to have education, an education which contributes with the construction of a fairer and equitable society. Juan Carlos Tedesco would say that this is necessary for education to solidarity from the creation of the wish to live together; trust in the educators in the capacities to learn that children and youngsters have and a resilient focus in the education job. Intercultural citizenship, as the acknowledgement of the cultural identities and richness of the cultural diversity of the peoples. Education for the recognition and valuation of cultural diversities anticipated in BP’s thought with his friendship and fraternity proposal without frontiers, it also means the construction of unity, the opening to “learning of other ways of thinking, feeling and doing”, “the transmission of values as an integrate vision of the memory, nature, community, and family, not only in the own culture, but also of the other ones that live 17 in the same territory space and in the rest of the planet” Being citizen of the neighborhood and the planet, and finally, it is the proposal to link environmental education with citizenship education. Worry and compromise of children and the youngsters about the environment gives account of the growth of a planetary consciousness about te complexity, interrelation and vulnerability of our world. We are realistic and we know that even being very far from “living the wisdom land”. The dangers of contamination of the environment, the irrational use of the resources, catastrophes that are due to irresponsibility, shake us every day. Go from a domain relation to a relation of reparation, responsibility and care about nature is a demanding way we have no to much time for. Environmental education, assumed compromise made by many movements, organizations and school is a reality to deepen, knitting nets that allow an articulated participation. Our movement, which has always considered Nature as a manuscript of God, has multiple opportunities for the development of this citizenship. From education in silence to admiration in front of the creation wonders, to the austere life in simplicity, from self- knowledge to the recognition of the multiple relations with the human beings, from participation in actions of environmental protection to promotion of an 16 Majó, Joan. Ciudadanía social en Cinco ciudadanías para una nueva educación 17 Menchú Tum, Rigoberta. El sueño de una sociedad intercultural en Cinco ciudadanías para una nueva educación 42
  • 42. upheld development, from responsible consume to the denouncement of the violation of environmental laws.  A Pray to preach together I believe in peace I believe in always young peace. In believe in the peace new men have. I peace, recorded in flesh hearts. In peace without times. I believe in peace that destroys weapons. In peace of laughter explosions. In believe in justice peace. I believe in solidarity peace. I believe in mercy peace. I believe in the peace of the Peace Creator. Our Father, everybody’s father, neither mine nor yours, I believe in Peace  A dynamic to work with the groups: Gallery of constructors of peace The proposal is preparing for the group, the church, the neighborhood, or school a Gallery of people for peace How to mantle it: 1. Using interchange experiences Using that each one of the members of the groups understand of society in peace an justice, a group that lives in peace, in family that enjoys tenderness of living in a small community, a group of friends who solve their conflicts using the diversity of the others y their originality. 2. Using interchange and consensus A common definition of peace is built 3. That can be expressed with colors with songs with words with photographs with pictures with movements 43
  • 43. 4. So this way we explore life and testimony of people, men and women that along the last years have been witnesses of peace in our neighborhood, in the middle of our community, in our countries, regions, or continents. 5. In small groups we reconstruct their biographies, we search their stories, if they are our neighbors we interview them, if they are far of us we investigate with in news material, if they are dead we read their biographies and we plan an imaginary interview. 6. We explore the realities they are or were involved, conflicts that they denounced and the participated in, the story of those conflicts or realities, It is possible that from some of them we find a film that describes his/her life, that we can see in groups and make a cinema-debate we can share with other children and youngsters. Some of them have left scripts (as example we include some texts) we can contextualize the in a concrete epoch and reality, we can discuss what say those words testified with life in the inner part of people, from the source they become stronger to be witnesses of peace and justice. 7. We finally have the gallery, we invite other groups to participate, we create a debate day, testimonies, round tables, cinema-debate, state concrete ways of building better relations with our environments, in front of questions that worry us as church, neighborhood and city community.  We give you some texts as presents... Overcoming contradictions If you hate someone, you will kill him with your imagination, with your words, with you curses and your actions. If you love someone, you will make him live, grow and develop in the heat of your friendship. Non-violence is the central message of the Bible, as well far I understand “holy peaceful ones” mentioned by Christ in the Sermon of the Mountain. When I read Gospel, I feel Christian, but when I see Christians in wars, oppressing peoples, colonizing them, getting drunk… I realize they don’t live in gospel. M. Gandhi Betting on peace If the Earth were your body, you could feel where it hurts. Wars, politic and economic oppressions, contamination wreak havoc everywhere. Millions of children are hungry; I can see their hands poking in lots of rubbish looking for some food. Adults die in prison punished by their attitudes against violence. There are a lot of people who are conscious about World suffering: their hearts are compassionate. They know what to do and, in their tries to change things, they compromise themselves in politic, social environmental work. 44
  • 44. However, if they lack from the necessary vigor to keep an action life, they are discouraged after a period of intense activism. The authentic vigor can not be found in power, money or weapons, but in the immense inner peace. Tich Nhat Nanh We hope Jesus teaches us to be knitters of groups, communities, societies able to be the support, shelter and welcome. 45
  • 45. Annexes A knitter with art and inventiveness: BP’s thought about the patrol system By Mario Sicca- AGESCI General The Patrol System represents the stroke of genius of Baden-Powell’s method. He himself realised it: “The Patrol system is the key to success in Scout training”. It “is the 18 one essential feature in which Scout training differs from that of all other organisations” . In fact, the traditional way of training a youth group is for the adult to give a course of instruction in talks and lectures. Not so in Scouting and Guiding, 18 Foreword to: J.Lewis, How to run a patrol, and Aids, WB, 40. 46
  • 46. where the Patrol System is properly applied. Through it each Scout/Guide is assured of individual treatment, and his/her increasing responsibility and self- reliance become assets of citizenship. It is also the distinctive feature of the central section – the Scout section – of the educational method founded by B.-P. This is why it is necessary to take a closer look at this system, in order to understand its purpose and functioning. 1. The psychological aspect The gang spirit is natural in the average boy or girl. Scouting/Guiding only give a structure (here as in other aspects of the youth psychology) to a natural instinct. Nevertheless the Scout/Guide patrol is not an instinctive, disorganised and spontaneous grouping. It is not a class team in which all are at the same level, but rather a family where the brothers or sisters have different ages, abilities and tastes and are led by the oldest of them. 2. The purpose The Patrol System is an essential means for the training of the boy’s or girl’s personality. It is a school of responsibility. “It leads each boy to see that he has some individual responsibility for the good of his Patrol. It leads each Patrol to see that it has definite 19 responsibility for the good of the Troop” . The purpose of the Patrol System is, therefore, to give real responsibility to as many of the boys or girls as possible, with a view to developing their personality (which B.-P. calls “character”). “The Patrol is the character school for the individual boy. To the Patrol Leaders it gives practice in responsibility and in the qualities of leadership. To the Scouts it gives subordination of self to the interests of the whole, the elements of self-denial and self-control involved in the 20 team spirit of co-operation and good comradeship” . For the system to work correctly the Patrol Leader has to receive a real responsibility, real power in the running of his Patrol, and a real say in the affairs of the Troop. “If you only give partial responsibility you will only get partial 21 22 results” . “The Patrol Leader is responsible for the efficiency and smartness of his Patrol” . 19 Aids, WB, 20. 20 Aids, WB, 24. 21 Ibid. 22 SFB, DE, 26. 47
  • 47. And the Scout/Guide leader has to hold Patrol Leaders “answerable for every 23 little thing which happens in their Patrol, whether it is blameable or praiseworthy” . This is why the Scout/Guide Leader, as a rule, abstains from giving orders directly to the Troop: he/she rather does it through the Patrol Leaders. Also, it is normal for the Patrol Leaders to be charged to instruct their Patrols in the various Scout techniques: knots, First Aid, Signalling, cooking etc. This is also useful to establish the Patrol Leader’s prestige among his/her Scouts/Guides. 3. The functioning The Scout/Guide Leader has to use the Patrol System for passing on not only the technical instructions, but the moral values as well. This is only possible if the Patrol has a really autonomous life and activities of its own: it should be capable of getting organised and taking real decisions, it is a body having a personality and a distinctive atmosphere. Too often people tend to forget that “the Patrol, not the Troop, is the unit of Scout organisation” 24. It is the unit for all activities: work, games, hikes, camps. Patrols have to be able to carry out their own outdoor life: Patrol hikes and, for experienced Patrols, even short Patrol camps. The Scout Leader will assist the Patrol Leaders in the planning of these activities and discreetly monitor them. The Founder insisted on this Patrol autonomy even in Troop camps: “I strongly advise small camps of about half a dozen Patrols; each Patrol in a separate tent and on separate ground, so that the Scouts do not feel themselves to be part of a big herd, but members of 25 independent responsible units. Patrols should be kept intact under all circumstances ”. Every member of it has a definite personal responsibility, with a specific role and duties, whether in den or in camp. 4. The Patrol Leader The Patrol Leader, as the key element of the system, has to possess at least some leadership. This is something that is in part innate, in part it may be acquired. B.-P. looked for natural leaders. As he put it once, “one of our methods in the Scout movement for taming a hooligan is to appoint him head of a Patrol. He has all the necessary initiative, the spirit and the magnetism for leadership, and when responsibility is thus put upon him it gives him the outlet he needs for his exuberance of activity, but gives it in a 26 right direction ”. 23 Lecture to a Scoutmasters’ Training Course, early 1911. 24 Foreword to: J.Lewis, How to run a patrol. 25 HQG, June 1910 (rep. BPO, 14). 26 From the article Are Our Boys Degenerating?, circa 1918, in SAA. 48
  • 48. The Patrol Leader, a 13-15 year old boy/girl, is given the technical and, to some extent, educational responsibility of his/her fellows in the Patrol. He/she should possess some magnetism for leadership, but should also be among the older boys or girls of the Patrol. Boys/Girls are not likely to follow someone who is much younger than them. And he/she must be good in the scouting techniques: “he must be at least as good as any of his Scouts at the different jobs they have 27 to do. He must never ask a fellow to do anything he would not do himself” . Then the leadership of a Patrol is too important to be ensured only by a boy or girl. He/she needs the help of a Second who will assist him/her and replace him/her in case of absence. The Second is normally proposed by the Patrol Leader and appointed by the Scout Leader. Concerning the style, “the Patrol Leader should get his discipline among his Scouts, not by ordering them about and shouting at them, but by winning them over through personal friendship, and by his own example of being able to do everything himself, so that each one of 28 them should do his work through energetic loyalty to and desire to back up his Leader” . When speaking directly to the Patrol Leader, B.-P. stressed the importance of the example: “It is no use having one or two brilliant boys and the rest no good at all. You should try to make them all fairly good. The most important step to this is your own example, because what you do yourself, your Scouts will do also. Remember that you must give them the 29 lead, and not the push” . The profile of the Patrol Leader, leading the Patrol through its personal enthusiasm and example, is exactly the same for boys and girls. This is what B.- P. tells the Guides: “When you come to be a Patrol Leader you must remember that you are really taking up a very responsible and important position, because you are going to be in charge of a number of girls under you, who will form their characters under your example and guidance, and if you choose to be a slacker they will become slackers, if you choose to be a good Guide they will all become good Guides, or nearly all of them. You have got to command your Patrol; well, you can only have their confidence if you have confidence in yourself; you can only have confidence in yourself by knowing your work thoroughly and well. You lead entirely by your own personal example, don't forget that; that is what tells, and that is the easy 30 way to get success; not only the easy way, but it is the only way” . 5. The Patrol spirit By Patrol spirit we mean that each Scout/Guide in the Patrol has to feel he/she is an essential part of a whole. Under the leadership of the Patrol Leader, who all the time is exercising personal responsibility, the Patrol progresses by healthy rivalry with other Patrols; it becomes a family in which loyalty is a strong bond; as the Scouts discuss ways and means of increasing 27 SFB, DE, 26-27. 28 HQG, March 1916. 29 SFB, DE, 27 and (in part) GG, 171, Aids, WB, 66, and SFB (26th), 93. 30 GG, 170-171. 49
  • 49. efficiency, so they learn the art of community living and the give and take necessary in common affairs. It is “all for each and each for all”. “The members of the Patrol obey the orders of their Patrol Leader, not from fear of punishment, but because they are a team playing together and backing up their Leader for the 31 honour and success of the Patrol” . “If the true Patrol spirit is there, each member takes a pride in her Patrol and does her best to keep up its reputation in its competition with other Patrols in the Company. Thus each Guide develops in herself the team spirit of individual self-control and unselfish co-operation with 32 others” . The Patrol spirit is strengthened by a number of details: the Patrol motto, the Patrol cry, the signature with a sketch of the Patrol animal; the Patrol corner or den in the Troop Headquarters, a spot where the Scout/Guide immediately goes when he/she come to the Troop meeting. The Patrol spirit is what makes the boy or girl feel that he/she is no longer a Scout or Guide like anyone else, but a “Squirrel”, or a “Bear” or a “Deer”, or whatever the Patrol animal is. 6. The Patrol Council The Patrol Council is composed by all the members of the Patrol and chaired by the Patrol Leader. The main purpose of such a meeting is to take decisions on the Patrol activities and on the Patrol’s contribution to the Troop’s life. The Patrol Leader takes part in the Court of Honour or Patrol Leaders’ Council not so much to present his/her personal views as to be a representative of his/her Patrol. There are no questions that cannot be discussed in the Patrol Council. If, for instance, there is a competition in which every Patrol has to run with two boys or girls, the two will be chosen by the Patrol Council. Patrol hikes, camps, Good Turns, badges to go in for etc. will be discussed there. “The Council will also suggest questions to be considered and ruled upon by the Court of Honour, which becomes then 33 a sort of upper Chamber” . Attendance to meetings by the members of the Patrol will also be reviewed by the Council. 7. The Court of Honour In the Court of Honour or Patrol Leaders’ Council, where the Patrol Leaders meet to discuss Troop matters, a further training is gained in that democratic life which is the characteristic of full citizenship. 31 PYOC 141-142. 32 BSA Microfilm 00904, untitled, re: Girl Guide Patrol 33 HQG, August 1922. 50
  • 50. The Court or Council consists of the Patrol Leaders and Seconds of the Troop and is chaired by the Senior Patrol Leader if one is appointed, or by a Patrol Leader by rotation. The Scout/Guide Leader, his/her Assistants, and the Troop Chaplain if there is one, attend the meetings in an advisory capacity. Their role is essentially to listen and observe: occasionally they can contribute a suggestion. The Court or Council arranges the programme of Troop activities and may also attend to Troop administration and expenditure. It is important that the Court follows a formal procedure. One of the boys is chosen to serve as Secretary and draws up the minutes of the meetings. These are read out at the following meeting as usual to be corrected prior to their signature by the Chairman (the Patrol Leader). Each speaker speaks only when given the floor and addresses the Chairman. Motions may be introduced and seconded. In this way boys and girls familiarise themselves with the democratic procedures. Each Patrol Leader reports on his/her Patrol since the last meeting. If the Scout Leader has some announcement to make to the Troop, this is the right time: the Patrol Leader will transmit it to the Patrols. Any member can ask questions to the Scout Leader. “The voice of the boys is . heard and the rules are made for their own guidance by the boys themselves”34 The Court and the Council also deal with the behaviour and efficiency of individual Scouts: this is where the Patrol Leader really feels responsible for each one of his boys. 34 HQG, June 1918. 51
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