Energy Sources


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  • Table 7.1
  • gross domestic product ( GDP ) or gross domestic income (GDI) is a basic measure of a country's overall economic output. It is the market value of all final goods and services made annually.
  • GJ is Gigajoules = billion joules
  • Fig 17.4. Developing nations and developed nations show somewhat different profiles of energy use. These data from 2000 show that developed nations of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development a) use nearly twice as much energy for transportation as do non-OECD nations, b) while non-OECD nations use much more energy for agricultural, residential, and other uses
  • In the United States, there is a relative balance between the use of energy by industry, residences, and transportation. One very important aspect of energy use is the inefficiency of conversion of primary fuels, such as coal, into more useful forms such as electricity. On the average, fully half of the energy in primary fuels is lost in conversion. Much of research on energy is spent on trying to make systems for conversion of energy from one form into another more efficient. 3-4% energy exported Primary fuels: Fuels that directly produce heat on ignition are called primary type of fuels. They are                            raw fuels. Examples are wood, coal, petroleum, natural gas, animal dung, etc.   Secondary fuels: Fuels that are processed and prepared from raw or primary fuels are called                            secondary type of fuels. Examples are charcoal, coke, petrol, diesel, kerosene, coal                            gas, gobar gas, water gas
  • Figure 12.3 shows the sources and uses of energy within the United States. Notice that coal is the single largest source of energy produced internally, but oil will exceed coal if we consider imports plus domestic production. Natural gas is also a large source of U.S. energy. All other sources of energy total less than 20% of U.S. energy sources. The United States produces about three-quarters of its energy domestically and imports only about a quarter of total energy. However, it imports nearly two-thirds of its oil. Quadrillion is 10 15 (one thousand times a trillion) but in Britain it is septillion or 10 24
  • ANWR (Arctic national wildlife refuge )
  • Energy Sources

    1. 1. Ch 10 Energy <ul><li>Energy Sources and Uses </li></ul><ul><li>Coal - Oil - Natural Gas </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear Power </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photovoltaic Cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fuel Cells </li></ul><ul><li>Energy From Biomass </li></ul><ul><li>Energy From Earth’s Forces </li></ul>
    2. 2. Energy The capacity to do work heat, light, electricity, and chemical energy are all types of energy
    3. 3. Energy Sources and Uses <ul><li>Energy - The capacity to do work . </li></ul><ul><li>Work - Application of force through a distance . </li></ul><ul><li>Power - Rate at which work is done or rate of flow of energy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Units of energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joule - Amount of work done when a force of 1 Newton is exerted over 1 meter (or about 0.238cal). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calorie - Amount of energy necessary to heat 1 gram of water 1 o C. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watt - 1 joule/sec </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Daily Per Capita Human Energy Consumption through Time
    5. 5. Per Capita/yr Energy Use and GDP Source: Massachusetts Institute of Technology The higher the standard of living, the greater the use of energy. United States: 5% of the world’s population, uses about 20% of the total energy
    6. 6. Per Capita Consumption <ul><li>On average, each person in the U.S. and Canada uses more than 300 GJ of energy annually . </li></ul><ul><li>In poorest countries of the world, each person generally consumes less than one GJ annually . </li></ul><ul><li>Richest 20 countries consume annually : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nearly 80% of natural gas, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>65% of oil, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% of coal production. </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Energy Consumption per Capita
    8. 8. Energy Consumption Profiles in OECD and non-OECD Countries, 2000 (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development – 30 members) (most Industrialized Nations) OECD – Europe, North America, Japan, Korea, Turkey, Australia, and New Zealand Non-OECD – includes Russia, China, Brazil, Argentina, and other smaller and developing nations.
    9. 9. How We Use Energy in the US <ul><li>Industry - 33% </li></ul><ul><li>Residential , commercial buildings - 38% </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation - 27% </li></ul><ul><li>About 50% of all the energy in primary fuels is lost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>during conversion to more useful forms (eg, 2/3 energy of coal lost in thermal conversion, ie, combustion), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>while being shipped to the site of end use, or (eg, 10% energy lost in transmission lines) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>during use . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Natural gas is our most efficient fossil fuel (10% lost during processing & shipping, 75-95% efficient in furnaces). </li></ul>
    10. 10. Worldwide Commercial Energy Consumption BP 2003
    11. 11. U.S. Energy Flow, 2002 (quadrillion Btu or quads)
    12. 12. World Fossil Fuel Consumption
    13. 13. Renewable Resources Resources that can be replaced within a few human generations.
    14. 14. Nonrenewable Resources Resources that cannot be replaced within a few human generations.
    15. 15. Renewable vs Nonrenewable Resources <ul><li>Renewable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative fuels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solar power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biomass </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydropower </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Nonrenewable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fossil fuels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Gas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ore deposits of metals </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. What is a Resource? Source of raw material used by society How can it be used sustainably?
    17. 17. Resource Management Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) is : harvest rate = renewal rate
    18. 18. IF the Harvest rate > Renewable rate Then the renewable resource can become Depleted in the short term
    19. 19. Fossil Fuels <ul><li>Fossil fuels - organic chemicals that were created by living organisms millions of years ago , buried in sediments, and transformed into energy-rich compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Because fossil fuels take so long to form , they are essentially nonrenewable resources . </li></ul>
    20. 20.
    21. 21. Coal Extraction and Use <ul><li>Mining & drainage - dangerous to humans and the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Coal burning releases large amounts of air pollution (CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , dust, heavy metals, etc) , and is the largest single source of acid rain in many areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic damages - billions of dollars </li></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>One of the largest and most controversial strip mines is at Black Mesa, Arizona </li></ul><ul><li>Partially located on Hopi Indian land </li></ul><ul><li>Relies on non-renewable 10,000 year old groundwater to transport coal slurry </li></ul>
    23. 23.
    24. 24. Oil Extraction and Use <ul><li>The Middle East control two-thirds of all known oil reserves. </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. has already used up about 40% of its original recoverable petroleum resource. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drilling - soil and water pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combustion - substantial air pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controversies – ANWR, Coastal Drilling </li></ul></ul>Photo: Associated press
    25. 25. Crude Oil Prices
    26. 26.
    27. 27. Natural Gas Consumption <ul><li>Natural gas produces only half as much CO 2 as an energy-equivalent amount of coal . </li></ul><ul><li>Problems : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>difficult to ship across oceans or to store in large quantities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flaring off - wasted </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Nuclear Power <ul><li>“ Atoms for Peace ” in 1953 by Eisenhower (produce enough power ‘to cheap to monitor’) </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear power now produces only about 7% of the U.S. energy supply . </li></ul><ul><li>Problems have made nuclear power much less attractive than was originally expected : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>construction costs and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>safety concerns and…. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>waste disposal . </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29.
    30. 30. Distribution of Nuclear Power Plants in North America
    31. 31. Nuclear Energy <ul><li>Two types of nuclear power & both involve rearranging the structure of the atom. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fission - splitting of a radioactive isotope of a heavy element into daughter products (smaller atoms) with the release of energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fusion - joining of isotopes of a light element into a heavier element with the release of energy. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All commercial energy generation is run by fission . </li></ul><ul><li>The Sun generates heat and light by fusion . </li></ul><ul><li>Some nuclear weapons use fusion reactions but controlled fusion is still in the developmental stage. </li></ul>
    32. 32. Chernobyl - 1986 Accidents??? Public alarm but was under control. Reactors in US are different than the one in Chernobyl and are MUCH safer!! Bad accident!!! Also poor reactor design Three Mile Island - 1979
    33. 33. Nuclear Wastes <ul><li>One of the most difficult problems associated with nuclear power is the disposal of wastes produced during mining , fuel production , reactor operation, and decommissioning of reactors . </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean dumping – until 1970? </li></ul><ul><li>Radioactive mine wastes , mill tailings </li></ul><ul><li>Dry cask storage </li></ul><ul><li>High-level waste repository - Yucca Mountain, NV ?? </li></ul><ul><li>Monitored , retrievable storage ? </li></ul>
    34. 34. 1965+ - former Soviet Union disposed of 18 nuclear reactors (7 w/ fuel in the Kara Sea) Arctic Ocean permanently contaminated?
    35. 35. <ul><li>Hanford buried radioactive waste which began leaking, esp into the ground water & Columbia River. Shut down in 1960s. </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear testing peaks in 1950-60s. Trees absorb cesium which accumulates in wood. </li></ul>Plant roots absorbed the radioactive material and transported it to the ground surface. Wood ash from trees growing during this time period can be radioactive – 100X higher cesium than other environmental samples.
    36. 36. <ul><li>Utilization Efficiencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most potential energy in fuel is lost as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In response to 1970’s oil prices, average US automobile gas-mileage increased from 13 mpg in 1975 to 28.8 mpg in 1988. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Falling fuel prices of the 1980’s discouraged further conservation. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>ENERGY CONSERVATION <ul><ul><li>waste heat. </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Corporate Average Fuel Economy US Dept of Transportation, March 2005
    38. 38. Find more non-renewable oil? Eg, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
    39. 39. Hybrid gas-electric engines
    40. 40. Energy Conversion Efficiencies <ul><li>Energy Efficiency is a measure of energy produced compared to energy consumed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Household energy losses can be reduced by one-half to three-fourths by using better insulation, double-paned glass, protective covers, and general sealing procedures. ( Indoor Pollution ?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Orient homes to gain advantage of passive solar gain in the winter. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Heat Losses High heat losses = white, red, orange (Miller 2006)
    42. 42. Increasing Home Insulation Standard Insulation in U.S. homes = R-12 – R-19 Super-Insulated Homes = R-25 – R-60 Super-insulated homes in Sweden use 90% less energy for heating and cooling than typical homes in the U.S.
    43. 43. Mesa Verde NP (SW USA) – many energy efficient features
    44. 44. Domestic Energy Efficiency Earth-sheltered house in Taos, New Mexico
    45. 45. Buying energy-efficient appliances can cut your energy consumption considerably.