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    energy? energy? Document Transcript

    • module 1 Next Contents BP energy education programme what is energy? Click on the icons to go to the other modules. 2008
    • Previous Next Contents Learning Area, Outcomes and Phase what is energy? Learning Area Science Society and Environment Outcomes Energy and Change (SCI) Earth and Beyond (SCI) Investigation, Communication and Participation (S&E) Resources (S&E) Phase Early Adolescence Program BPEEP Module 1: What is Energy? Copyright This training module is copyright. Apart from fair dealing for private study or research as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced, copied, transmitted in any form or by any means without the prior written permission of BP Australia Pty Ltd. All requests and enquiries should be directed to the BPEEP Coordinator on (08) 9419 9623. Disclaimer The content of this training module is provided for educational purposes only. In no event will BP Australia Pty Ltd or any related corporation be liable for the accuracy of the information contained in the module or the reliance placed upon it. The module is provided on the basis that all persons using it take responsibility for assessing the relevance and accuracy of its content. The content was compiled by teachers Chris Hickman and Kate Bowman of Perth, Western Australia who have sourced and written the content. ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy?
    • Previous Next Contents Overview of Learning Module what is energy? Module 1, titled ‘What is Energy?’ is the introductory teaching and learning sequence to the BP Energy Education Program. The main objective of the module is to establish student understanding of key concepts that provides integral background knowledge requirements for other modules of the program. Key understandings addressed in this module are delivered through 3 major conceptual areas: 1. Understanding Energy: • Define the term ‘energy’. • Identify where energy is used in everyday life. • Explain how energy is measured. • Identify different energy consumption for everyday items. 2. Types of Energy: • Define the two forms of energy (kinetic and potential) • Classify the two forms of energy. • Describe each type of energy, using everyday examples. • Explain how energy can change from one form to another, using everyday examples. 3. Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Resources: • Define key terms. • Categorise resources. • Identify locations of examples of renewable and non-renewable energy resources. • Explain how people use energy resources to cater for individual and group needs and wants. Each conceptual area is presented as a series of learning experiences that can be used sequentially or as stand alone learning experiences. However when delivered in sequence these learning experiences provide a comprehensive background understanding necessary for the Science and Society and Environment Curriculum, and the other extended modules in the BPEEP learning program. Module 1 ‘What is Energy?’ is linked to Western Australia’s Department of Education and Training’s Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Policy (CAR Policy) and associated documentation. The program, presented as a series of teaching and learning experiences links teacher planning and learning area (Science and Society and Environment) coverage back to the initial planning documents, namely the ‘Curriculum Framework’ and ‘Outcomes and Standards Framework’. Planning documentation provides teachers with the explicit links to the Curriculum Framework; Knowledge, Skills and Values focus; and learning area Outcomes and Standards coverage. Relevant learning area documentation, and teaching and learning links, are colour coded for both Science (ORANGE) and Society and Environment (PURPLE). ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 1
    • Previous Next Contents Overview of Learning Module what is energy? Teachers should refer to both Learning Area Curriculum Guides (What students should be taught) and Learning Area Outcomes and Standards Framework (What levels of achievement students can demonstrate/achieve across the relevant Learning Area outcomes) when considering the application of the BPEEP modules to their individual teaching and learning program requirements. Due to the fact that Module 1 aims to establish essential understandings which will be consolidated and developed in further BPEEP teaching and learning modules, no formal major assessment task is included in Module 1: ‘What is Energy’. Rather smaller formal and informal assessment tasks can be utilised by the teacher to collect evidence of student achievement of levels. Paragraph frameworks, worksheet completion and other aspects of suggested learning experiences should be monitored for evidence. A suggested timeframe is provided as a guide only to how long teachers may expect to spend on the learning experiences contained in each of the 3 conceptual areas of the module. A teacher guide is provided for each of these conceptual areas. Lesson support material is also provided. PAGE 2 ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy?
    • Previous Next Contents Contents what is energy?  This symbol denotes worksheets Overview of Learning Module ..............................................................................................................1 Relevance to BP ...................................................................................................................................5 BPEEP Learning Area Outcome/Aspect Coverage ..............................................................................6 Educator’s Summary of Module 1........................................................................................................7 Suggested Teaching Timeframe...........................................................................................................9 Conceptual Area 1: Understanding Energy ........................................................................................10 Learning Experience 1.1: ‘Energy in the media’ ............................................................................ 11 Learning Experience 1.2: ‘Where’s energy?’ ................................................................................ 11 Learning Experience 1.3: ‘What does it mean?’ ...........................................................................12 Learning Experience 1.4: ‘Energy around us’ ...............................................................................12 Learning Experience 1.5: Paragraph Framework (Modelled) ........................................................12 Learning Experience 1.6: ‘It’s all about joules!’ ............................................................................13 Learning Experience 1.7: ‘Energy for life’ .....................................................................................13  Learning Experience 1.2 ....................................................................................................15  Learning Experience 1.4 ....................................................................................................17  Learning Experience 1.5 (Modelled Paragraph Framework) .............................................21  Learning Experience 1.5 ....................................................................................................23  Learning Experience 1.6 (Modelled Worksheet) ...............................................................25  Learning Experience 1.6 ....................................................................................................27  Learning Experience 1.7 ....................................................................................................29 Conceptual Area 2: Types of Energy ..................................................................................................33 Learning Experience 2.1: ‘Kinetic or Potential’ ..............................................................................35 Learning Experience 2.2: ‘Energy Experts’...................................................................................35 Learning Experience 2.3: ‘Changing Forms’ .................................................................................35 Learning Experience 2.4: Paragraph Framework (Assessed) .......................................................36 ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 3
    • Previous Next Contents Contents what is energy?  Learning Experience 2.1 ....................................................................................................37  Learning Experience 2.2....................................................................................................39  Learning Experience 2.3....................................................................................................43  Learning Experience 2.4 ....................................................................................................47 Conceptual Area 3: Renewable and Non-Renewable Resources ......................................................49 Learning Experience 3.1 ‘Words to do with Resources’...............................................................50 Learning Experience 3.2 ‘It’s all about choice!’ ............................................................................50 Learning Experience 3.3 ‘They’re not where you think’ ...............................................................50 Learning Experience 3.4 ‘What are we doing?’ ............................................................................51  Learning Experience 3.1 ....................................................................................................53  Learning Experience 3.1: ..................................................................................................54  Learning Experience 3.1: ..................................................................................................55  Learning Experience 3.1: Solution .....................................................................................56  Learning Experience 3.2....................................................................................................57  Learning Experience 3.3....................................................................................................67  Learning Experience 3.4....................................................................................................71 References for module 1 ....................................................................................................................75 PAGE 4 ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy?
    • Previous Next Contents Relevance to BP what is energy? One of BP’s stated Community Investment objectives for Education is: “To promote excellence in the knowledge of the energy industry, especially its impact on the environment, to enable members of society to make more informed choices as future consumers, opinion formers or potential employees. Also… to stimulate continued interest in science and technology as a career option. Effective programmes should contain a number of these: • Involve BP employees in education support • Support appropriate education curricula… including science & maths • Support general educational initiatives… such as focused exhibitions or information days • Link with other Community Investment Programs • Utilise existing knowledge and training materials within the BP Group” – BP Community Investment Guidance Notes Version1 The BP Energy Education Program (or BPEEP, as it has become affectionately known) has been developed to meet these objectives. Based on discussions with teachers, it was decided to take a modular approach so that the activities can fit neatly into teachers’ term plans. “The Energy Business Booklets” are a BP educational resource that have been used within this module. If you would like a copy of the Energy Business Booklets please contact: BP Energy Education Program Coordinator BP Refinery (Kwinana) PO Box 2131 Rockingham WA 6168 Phone: (08) 9419 9623 We hope you enjoy the BP Energy Education Program and find it useful. Feedback from teachers and students regarding the program would be most welcome. ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 5
    • Previous Next Contents BPEEP Learning Area Outcome/Aspect Coverage what is energy? Click on the module number to go to that module. OUTCOME BPEEP MODULE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 SCIENCE Earth and Beyond Sustainability of life and wise resource use X X X X X X X X X Earth forces and materials X X X X X X X X Relationships between the Earth, our Solar System and the Universe. X Energy and Change Energy, sources, patterns and uses. X X X X X X Transfer and transformation. X X Natural and Processed Materials Structures, Properties and Uses X Interactions and Changes X SOCIETY AND ENVIRONMENT Resources Use of Resources X X X X X X X X Management and Enterprise X X X X X X X X X X People and Work X X X X X X Place and Space Features of Places X X People and Places X X X Care of Places X X X Investigation, Communication, Participation Planning X X X X X X X X X X X Conducting X X X X X X X X X X X Processing and Translating X X X X X X X X X X X Applying and Communicating X X X X X X X X X X X PAGE 6 ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy?
    • Previous Next Contents Educator’s Summary of Module 1 what is energy? DESCRIPTION OF CROSS CURRICULAR PROGRAM Module 1, titled ‘What is Energy?’ is the introductory teaching and learning sequence to the BP Energy Education Program. The main objective of the module is to establish student understanding of key concepts that provides integral background knowledge requirements for other modules of the program. CONCEPTUAL FOCUS SKILLS FOCUS Define energy. Energy use. Measuring energy. Paragraph Framework. Different energy consumption. Forms of energy. Types Group Work (think-pair-share, jigsaw). of energy. Change in the form of energy. Classification of energy resources. Location of energy resources. Keywords/ideas. Note-taking. DESCRIPTION OF ASSESSMENT Module 1 aims to establish essential understandings which will be consolidated and developed in further BPEEP teaching and learning modules. As a result no formal major assessment task is included in Module 1: ‘What is Energy’. Rather smaller formal and informal assessment tasks can be utilised by the teacher to collect evidence of student achievement of levels. Paragraph frameworks, worksheet completion and other aspects of suggested learning experiences should be monitored for evidence. LITERACY FOCUS NUMERACY FOCUS PEDAGOGICAL FOCUS A major on-going focus on Units of measurement and simple Group Work Paragraphing utilising paragraph calculations. Some statistical Inquiry based learning. framework. Also emphasis on analysis and interpretation. keywords, note-taking and other literacy oriented strategies. CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK VALUES STRAND NO. A pursuit of knowledge & a commitment to achievement of full potential. 1.1 – 1.7 (CF) Self Acceptance and Respect of Self. 2.1 – 2.5 (CF) Respect and Concern for Others and Their Rights. 3.1 – 3.7 (CF) Social and Civic responsibility. 4.4, 4.8, 4.9 (CF) Environmental responsibility. 5.2, 5.3 ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 7
    • Previous Next Contents Educator’s Summary of Module 1 what is energy? OVERARChING LEARNING OUTCOMES CONTEXT 1. Students use language to understand, develop and communicate ideas Literacy Focus and wide range of and information with others. learning experiences. 2. Students select, integrate and apply numerical and spatial concepts Units of measurement and simples and techniques. calculations. Map interpretation. 3. Students recognise when and what information is needed, locate Focus of S&E I.C.P. outcome and and obtain it from a range of sources and evaluate, use and share it associated skills e.g. keywords, with others. note-taking, sources. 4. Students use, select and apply technologies. Internet (website) research. 5. Students describe and reason about patterns, structures and Analysing current trends to predict relationships in order to understand, interpret, justify and make future outcomes. predictions. 6. Students visualise consequences, think laterally, recognise opportunity Renewable VS Non-Renewable and potential and are prepared to test opinions. Energy sources and future decisions. 7. Students understand and appreciate the physical, biological and Conceptual Areas 1, 2 and 3. technological world and have the knowledge and skills to make decisions in relation to it. 8. Students understand their cultural, geographical and historical Conceptual 1, 2 and 3. contexts and have the knowledge, values and skills to make decisions in relation to it. 9. Students interact with people and cultures other than their own and are N.A. equipped to contribute to the global community. 10. Students participate in creative activity of their own and understand Learning Experiences comprising and engage with the artistic, cultural and intellectual work of others. of variety of tasks throughout Conceptual Areas 1, 2 and 3. 11. Students value and implement practices that promote personal growth Group Work and values oriented and well-being. learning. 12. Students are self motivated and confident in their approach to learning Range of teaching strategies – and area able to work individually and collaboratively. individual and group work. 13. Students recognise that everyone has the right to feel valued and to Explicit teaching and be safe and in this regard understand their rights and obligations and implementation of group learning behave responsibly. strategies. PAGE 8 ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy?
    • Previous Next Contents Suggested Teaching Timeframe what is energy? LEARNING DAY TIME LEARNING AREA LEARNING TASK EXPERIENCE CONCEPTUAL AREA 1: UNDERSTANDING ENERGY 1 60 minutes total Experience 1.1: Science Paragraphing 15 minutes ‘Energy in the Media’. Lab 25 minutes Experience 1.2: 20 minutes ‘Where’s Energy?’ Experience 1.3: ‘What does it mean?’ 2 60 minutes total Experience 1.4: Science Mind map ‘Energy around us’. 3 60 minutes total Experience 1.5: Science Paragraph ‘Paragraph Framework’ 4 60 minutes total Experience 1.6: Science Worksheet ‘It’s all about joules.’ 5 Home task, plus Experience 1.7: Science Food diary/Worksheet 60 minutes total ‘Energy for life’. CONCEPTUAL AREA 2: TYPES OF ENERGY 1 60 minutes Experience 2.1: Science Worksheet ‘Kinetic or Potential’. 2 60 minutes Experience 2.2: Science Expert Groups – 10 minutes ‘Energy Experts’ note-taking. 30 minutes • Planning 20 minutes • Expert Groups • Share expertise 3 60 minutes Experience 2.3: Science Worksheet ‘Changing Forms’ 4 60 minutes Experience 2.4: Science Paragraph Task ‘Paragraph Task’ CONCEPTUAL AREA 3: RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES 1 80 minutes + Experience 3.1: Society and Keyword Sentences/ homework ‘Words to do with Environment/Science Definitions. 60 minutes resources’. Hidden Word Search. Homework Dictionary/Sentence 20 minutes task. (Class/Home). Hidden Word Search. 2 60 minutes + Experience 3.2: Society and Worksheet homework ‘Its all about choice’. Environment. Paragraph Task Class Worksheet/Questions Homework Paragraph Task. 3 60 minutes + Experience 3.3: Society and Mapping homework ‘They’re not where Environment. Table Summary Class you think!’ (observations) Homework Mapping and Table. Paragraph Task Summary. Paragraph task. 4 120 minutes + Experience 3.4: Society and Concept Map homework ‘What are we doing?’ Environment. Note-taking 20 minutes Concept Map. Presentation 40 minutes Note-taking. (demonstrating key 60 minutes Presentation Planning understandings). Homework Completion of Presentation. ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 9
    • Previous Next Contents Conceptual Area 1: Understanding Energy what is energy? LEARNING AREA: Science OUTCOME/S: Energy and Change PhASE OF DEVELOPMENT: Early Adolescence CONCEPTUAL AREA: Understanding Energy KEY UNDERSTANDINGS: Students will be able to explain what energy is and how it is used in everyday life. CONCEPTUAL SKILLS VALUES UNDERSTANDINGS • Define the term ‘energy’. • Paragraphing 1.1 – 1.7 • Identify where energy is used in • Mind mapping 2.1 – 2.5 everyday life. • Group work 3.1 – 3.7 • Explain how energy is measured. • Source Interpretation 4.4, 4.8, 4.9 • Identify different energy 5.2, 5.3 consumption for everyday items i.e. food. TEAChER INFORMATION: This series of learning experiences aims to develop the students understanding of the term ‘energy’, the key concept that is developed and consolidated in other modules as part of the BPEEP teaching and learning program. At this early stage a general understanding of ‘energy’ is sought, thus the focus of this series of learning experiences is to build upon the student’s real life experiences to establish their initial understanding. The learning experiences examine how energy is an integral part of everyday life requiring students to examine their own energy usage. For the purpose of this module energy will be defined as “the ability to do work”. Energy is measured in joules. One joule is the work done by a force of one newton moving one metre along the direction of the force. For example, in the case of lifting a 100g object one metre against the force of gravity: Work (energy) = force x distance; and Force = mass x acceleration, therefore Work = mass x acceleration x distance Work = 0.1 kg x 9.81 m/s/s x1 m = ~ 1 joule RESOURCES EqUIPMENT Copies of worksheets attached to learning experiences Colour pencils Markers Access to computers preferable Student Prior Knowledge: It is presumed that the students existing knowledge is varied, thus all basic fundamental knowledge will be covered in the module to either establish or consolidate student understanding. PAGE 10 ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy?
    • Previous Next Contents Conceptual Area 1: Understanding Energy what is energy? Learning experiences: Learning Experience 1.1: ‘Energy in the media’ As an introductory activity the students are set the task of locating examples of advertising in the media that they feel have something to do with energy. For example they might describe a TV advertisement for an energy drink or bring an advertisement from a magazine for a petrol company. Students are to share the advertisements they have found in a class discussion where the teacher is to record all the different types of advertisement on the board. This is to lead to a teacher led discussion of the different forms/types of energy used in the world. As an alternative this activity may simply just be completed as a brainstorm. The teacher may opt to provide a few initial examples, such as: • “A Mars a day helps you work, rest and play” • BP Ultimate: more performance, less pollution • Gatorade • Alinta • Solahart hot water • The Energiser bunny Learning Experience 1.2: ‘Where’s energy?’ Students are given a copy of the picture provided. Individually students study the picture, they are to identify, by colouring and labelling, the different examples of energy being used in the picture. This will lead to a teacher directed discussion on the different examples of energy used in everyday life. Student observations can be shared by collating them on the board or simply through a class callout or partner share session. Examples to look for include: For the street scene: • Sound energy from the jackhammer and the ambulance • Fuel being used by vehicles • Electrical energy used to power the traffic lights (and light energy) and the jackhammer • Fuel for the crane to construct buildings • Kinetic: cars, buses, people moving. In the home: • Gas for cooking • Electrical power for cooking toast, boiling the kettle, and powering the phone, the refrigerator and the lights • Food – energy for people (potential energy) • Battery to keep the clock ticking (chemical) • Heat Energy: cooking eggs, cooking toast, boiling water. • Kinetic: children moving, mother cooking, clock hands moving. ➜ go to Learning Experience 1.2 worksheet ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 11
    • Previous Next Contents Conceptual Area 1: Understanding Energy what is energy? Learning Experience 1.3: ‘What does it mean?’ The stimuli presented in Learning Experience 1 and 2, as well as the students’ already-existing understanding forms the basis of this learning experience. Using the ‘think’ (on your own), ‘pair’ (with a partner), ‘share’ (in a group or as a class) teaching strategy, students are to devise their own sentence definition of ‘energy’. During the share part of this strategy the teacher is to accept and commend student responses that are worthy, but must ensure that an agreed definition is “energy is the ability to do work”. This definition will be used throughout the BPEEP modules. An opportunity exists here for the teacher to revisit the key parts of a ‘sentence’. Learning Experience 1.4: ‘Energy around us’ Utilising a round robin group work strategy and graffiti page approach, students work in groups to brainstorm (graffiti ideas) where energy is used in different facets of their life. It is suggested graffiti pages could include: ‘home’, ‘community’, ‘school’ and ‘at play’ (as provided – A3 size preferable). After the round robin has covered all groups sheets return to their original group and a class feedback, share and discuss session is led by the teacher. To consolidate individual student understanding the teacher revises the skill of mind mapping and students complete a mind map on ‘Energy around me’. ➜ go to Learning Experience 1.4 worksheet Learning Experience 1.5: Paragraph Framework (Modelled) Using the ‘Think, Plan, Write, Edit and Present’ paragraph framework teacher models paragraph construction to the students based on the focus question ‘What is energy and how does it effect your everyday life’? The paragraph framework and example provided consists of several key stages. Students should be encouraged (if not expected) to use the paragraph framework every time they are required to write one – whether it be a large extended task or a stand alone paragraph. ➜ go to modelled paragraph framework ➜ go to Learning Experience 1.5 worksheet Paragraph Framework – Explanation: • The initial part of the paragraph framework requires the students to brainstorm all relevant information to the main idea of the paragraph. This is the ‘ThINK’ component. • With a set of initial thoughts students plan the structure of the content in their paragraph. Using the ‘hamburger’ framework students sort ideas into the four main types of sentences: Statement (or Topic Sentence), Explanation (or Developing Sentence/s), Examples (or Supporting Sentence/s) and Conclusion (or Concluding Sentence). This is the ‘PLAN’ component. • Students draft their paragraph at this stage, using their Plan as a guide. Emphasis should be placed on the students identifying each type of sentence to ensure the paragraph is correctly structured. This can be done by a colour a scheme for each sentence type or simply labelling after sentences with TS (Topic Sentence), DS (Developing Sentence), SS (Supporting Sentence) and CS (Concluding Sentence). This is the ‘WRITE’ component. • Once drafted, students should edit their paragraph. Spelling, grammar and punctuation should all be a focus, as well as ensuring all four types of sentences correctly structure the paragraph. As well as self, peer or parental editing should be encouraged. This is the ‘EDIT’ component. • Once a full edit process is completed the student is ready to present their paragraph. All corrections should be made and sentence identification (i.e. TS, DS, SS and CS) removed. This is the ‘PRESENT’ component. PAGE 12 ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy?
    • Previous Next Contents Conceptual Area 1: Understanding Energy what is energy? Learning Experience 1.6: ‘It’s all about joules!’ Teacher introduces concept of ‘joules’. Students use the word bank to fill in the cloze activity (see Worksheet ‘It’s all about joules’). Students use the completed cloze activity to complete the focus questions attached to the worksheet. The teacher should use questioning to consolidate student understanding. ➜ go to Learning Experience 1.6 worksheet ➜ go to Learning Experience 1.6 solution Learning Experience 1.7: ‘Energy for life’ Students are set the task of recording their food intake and physical activity completed over a period of 24 hours. This activity should be introduced by the teacher to clarify what constitutes physical activity (for example playing a play station is a form of physical activity) and that drinks are included as ‘food’. It is suggested a question and answer session may be used to clarify student understanding of these terms and the task. After this collation of data is complete students will need to complete the worksheet provided, access to computers is preferable though print outs can be used. Students results and findings should be consolidated through class discussion. Students should access the website http://health.ninemsn.com.au/tools/caloriecounter.aspx?cmp=dsm/g/ healt or another website located on www.google.com search. ➜ go to Learning Experience 1.7 worksheet Monitoring and Evaluation: Initial understandings should be monitored through student work completion, classroom discussion and teacher questioning. With paragraphing being modeled at this initial stage it is highly recommended that this essential literacy skill be continually reinforced and consolidated in future learning experiences. Thus, paragraphing will become a tool for teachers to monitor both the students conceptual understanding as well as the ability to write (or demonstrate improvement) in paragraph writing. ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 13
    • Previous Next Contents what is energy? This page is intentionally blank for aesthetic printing. PAGE 14 ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy?
    • Previous Next Contents Name: Class:  Learning Experience 1.2 Date: what is energy? ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 15
    • Previous Next Contents  Learning Experience 1.2 (contd.) what is energy? PAGE 16 ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy?
    • Previous Next Contents Name: Class:  Learning Experience 1.4 Date: what is energy? Home ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 17
    • Previous Next Contents  Learning Experience 1.4 (contd.) what is energy? School PAGE 18 ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy?
    • Previous Next Contents  Learning Experience 1.4 (contd.) what is energy? At play ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 19
    • Previous Next Contents  Learning Experience 1.4 (contd.) Community PAGE 20 ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy?
    • Previous Next Contents  Learning Experience 1.5 (Modelled Paragraph Framework) Paragraph Framework solution The main idea of the paragraph is … ‘What is energy and how does it affect your everyday life?’ THINK Part of every Energy is the ability We use energy to aspect of life. to do work. do the work. Everything we Many different do is connected What is energy and how uses of energy to energy. does it affect your daily life? – power: home, industry… Humans store and use Energy from sun energy contained in provides light, heat, food to do work. helps plant growth…. PLAN Statement (Topic Sentence T.S.) Energy is one of the most fundamental parts of life. Explanation (Developing Sentence D.S.) • Ability to do work. • We use energy to do work. Examples (Supporting Sentence S.S.) • Lights up our cities. • Powers our modes of transport. • Warms our home, cooks our food… • Energy from the sun gives us light, heat, helps plants grow – stored energy eaten by animals. • Energy in the food humans consume is stored and used to complete work – physical and mental Conclusion (Concluding Sentence C.S.) Everything we do is connected to energy somehow. ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 21
    • Previous Next Contents  Learning Experience 1.5 (Modelled Paragraph Framework) (contd.) WRITE (Identify each type of sentence using T.S., D.S., S.S., C.S.). solution Energy is one of the most fundemental parts of our universe. (TS) Energy is defined as the ability to do work We use energy to do work. (DS) Energy lights our cities. Energy powers our vehicles, trains, planes and Rockets. Energy warms our homes, cooks our food plays our music, gives us pictures on telavision. Energy powers machinery in factories and tractors on a firm. Energy from the sun gives us light during the day. It dries our clothes when they’re hanging outside on a cloths line. It helps plants grow. Energy stored in plants is eaten by animals, giving them energy. And predator animals eat their prey, which gives the predator animal energy. When we eat, our bodies transform the energy stored in the food into energy to do work. When we run or walk, we “burn” food energy in our bodies. When we think or read or write, we are also doing work. (SS) Everything we do is connected to energy in one form or another (CS) EDIT (note: errors in draft paragraph to highlight importance of edit phase to students) 3 Spelling 3 Punctuation 3 Grammar 3 Sentences 3 Keywords PRESENT Energy is one of the most fundamental parts of our universe. Energy is defined as the ability to do work, we use energy to do work. Energy lights our cities, it powers our vehicles, trains and planes. Energy warms our homes, cooks our food and provides us with entertainment. Energy powers machinery in factories and tractors on a farm. Solar energy gives us light during the day; it helps plants grow. Energy stored in plants is eaten by animals giving them strength, which is then transferred to the predator animals when they eat their prey. When we eat, our bodies transform the energy stored in the food into energy to do work. When we run or walk, think, read or write, we “burn” food energy in our bodies. Everything we do is connected to energy in one form or another. PAGE 22 ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy?
    • Previous Next Contents Name: Class:  Learning Experience 1.5 Date: what is energy? Paragraph Framework The main idea of the paragraph is … ‘What is energy and how does it affect your everyday life?’ THINK PLAN Statement (Topic Sentence T.S.) Explanation (Developing Sentence D.S.) Examples (Supporting Sentence S.S.) Conclusion (Concluding Sentence C.S.) ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 23
    • Previous Next Contents  Learning Experience 1.5 (contd.) WRITE (Identify each type of sentence using T.S., D.S., S.S., C.S.). EDIT Spelling Punctuation Grammar Sentences Keywords PRESENT PAGE 24 ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy?
    • Previous Next Contents  Learning Experience 1.6 (Modelled Worksheet) It’s All About Joules! solution Use the words in the WORDBANK to complete the cloze activity amount distance 1200kJ Joule work observed small thousand food throw Energy is the ability to do work. You need energy to run a race, play basketball or use your computer. It is not possible to see energy however when energy is used the changes it brings about can be observed. You can’t see the energy stored in the muscles of you arms, but you can see that this energy allows you to throw a ball. Energy is measured in a unit called the joule, which is often abbreviated as J. This unit is named after the British scientist James Prescott Joule, who discovered that heat is a form of energy. So how much energy is in one joule? One joule is the amount of energy needed to lift a weight of one newton (which is approximately the weight of a 100g mass) vertically upwards a distance of one metre. The joule is a very small amount of energy, so we tend to talk about kilojoule (kJ) which is a thousand joules or megajoules (MJ) a million joules. Just one teaspoon of sugar has about 64kJ of energy stored in it. Where have I heard about kilojoules before? The term kilojoules is used to describe the amount of energy stored in food, you might have seen the amount of kilojoules your chocolate bar contained on the outside of its wrapper. Some chocolate bars can have 1200kJ stored inside them. The energy contained in the food you eat is stored in your body until you need it. ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 25
    • Previous Next Contents  Learning Experience 1.6 (Modelled Worksheet) (contd.) Use the information from the cloze activity to complete the activities below solution 1) What is ‘energy’? 2) What unit is used to measure energy? How did it get its name? 3) Calculate how many joules of energy are used in each of the following situations: a. A weight of one newton is lifted up one metre____________________________________________ b. A weight of five newtons if lifted up one metre___________________________________________ c. A weight of one newton is lifted up nine metres __________________________________________ d. A weight of 750 grams is lifted up three metres __________________________________________ 4) Karen ate a muffin that contained 2493kJ of energy. a. How many joules were contained in the muffin? _________________________________________ b. How many megajoules were contained in the muffin? ____________________________________ 5) Draw a diagram that shows in picture form how much energy is contained in one joule. PAGE 26 ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy?
    • Previous Next Contents Name: Class:  Learning Experience 1.6 Date: what is energy? It’s All About Joules! Use the words in the WORDBANK to complete the cloze activity amount distance 1200kJ Joule work observed small thousand food throw Energy is the ability to do . You need energy to run a race, play basketball or use your computer. It is not possible to see energy however when energy is used the changes it brings about can be . You can’t see the energy stored in the muscles of you arms, but you can see that this energy allows you to a ball. Energy is measured in a unit called the joule, which is often abbreviated as J. This unit is named after the British scientist James Prescott , who discovered that heat is a form of energy. So how much energy is in one joule? One joule is the of energy needed to lift a weight of one newton (which is approximately the weight of a 100g mass) vertically upwards a distance of one metre. The joule is a very amount of energy, so we tend to talk about kilojoule (kJ) which is a joules or megajoules (MJ) a million joules. Just one teaspoon of sugar has about 64kJ of energy stored in it. Where have I heard about kilojoules before? The term kilojoules is used to describe the amount of energy stored in , you might have seen the amount of kilojoules your chocolate bar contained on the outside of its wrapper. Some chocolate bars can have stored inside them. The energy contained in the food you eat is stored in your body until you need it. ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 27
    • Previous Next Contents  Learning Experience 1.6 (contd.) what is energy? Use the information from the cloze activity to complete the activities below 1) What is ‘energy’? 2) What unit is used to measure energy? How did it get its name? 3) Calculate how many joules of energy are used in each of the following situations: a. A weight of one newton is lifted up one metre____________________________________________ b. A weight of five newtons if lifted up one metre __________________________________________ c. A weight of one newton is lifted up nine metres __________________________________________ d. A weight of 750 grams is lifted up three metres __________________________________________ 4) Karen ate a muffin that contained 2493kJ of energy. a. How many joules were contained in the muffin? _________________________________________ b. How many megajoules were contained in the muffin? ____________________________________ 5) Draw a diagram that shows in picture form how much energy is contained in one joule. PAGE 28 ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy?
    • Previous Next Contents Name: Class:  Learning Experience 1.7 Date: what is energy? Energy For Life The food you eat gives you the energy you the energy you require to complete all the work you need to do in a day. If you don’t eat enough food then you won’t have enough energy for your body to complete all its functions effectively. If you eat too much food, the extra energy you don’t use up in a day will be stored in your body as fat. So how much energy should you be consuming in one day? Recommended daily energy intake in kilojoules, for 12–15 year olds RECOMMENDED DAILY INTAKE (kJ) AGE (YEARS) MALE FEMALE 12 9 800 8 600 13 10 400 9 000 14 11 200 9 200 15 11 800 9 300 But how much energy are you consuming in one day? Calculate how much energy you consume in one day by completing the Food Diary Worksheet • How does the amount of energy you consume in one day compare to the recommended intake for your age? • Do you think the amount of physical activity you complete in a day should affect the amount of food you eat? • Do you think the form of energy (the type of food and drink) you decide to eat is important or just how much energy you consume? ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 29
    • Previous Next Contents  Learning Experience 1.7 (contd.) what is energy? Food Diary PART 1 1) Record everything you eat and drink in one day in the diary below. Remember to include snacks and any drinks you may have – except water. 2) Record how much you eat or drank. For example, I had a 600mL bottle of coke, 2 mini pizzas and a 50g packet of chips for lunch. PART 2 3) Find out how much energy was in the food and drink 4) Calculate how much energy you consumed over the entire day PAGE 30 ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy?
    • Previous Next Contents  Learning Experience 1.7 (contd.) what is energy? Food/Drink Amount (number/grams/ml) Amount of energy (kJ) BREAKFAST Food/Drink Amount (number/grams/ml) Amount of energy (kJ) SNACK Food/Drink Amount (number/grams/ml) Amount of energy (kJ) LUNCh Food/Drink Amount (number/grams/ml) Amount of energy (kJ) SNACK Food/Drink Amount (number/grams/ml) Amount of energy (kJ) DINNER Food/Drink Amount (number/grams/ml) Amount of energy (kJ) SNACK TOTAL AMOUNT OF ENERGY CONSUMED IN ONE DAY ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 31
    • Previous Next Contents what is energy? This page is intentionally blank for aesthetic printing. PAGE 32 ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy?
    • Previous Next Contents Conceptual Area 2: Types of Energy what is energy? LEARNING AREA: Society and Environment Science OUTCOME/S: Resources (S&E) Earth and Beyond (SCI) PhASE OF DEVELOPMENT: Early Adolescence CONCEPTUAL AREA: Types of Energy KEY UNDERSTANDINGS: Students will be able to define the forms of energy and classify into different types, using everyday examples. CONCEPTUAL SKILLS VALUES UNDERSTANDINGS • Define the two forms of energy • Group work 1.1 – 1.7 (kinetic and potential). • Information retrieval 2.1 – 2.5 • Classify the two forms of energy • Paragraphing 3.1 – 3.7 into different types (chemical, 4.4, 4.8, 4.9 electrical, wave, solar, heat, 5.2, 5.3 nuclear). • Describe each type of energy, using everyday examples. • Explain how energy can change from one form to another, using everyday examples. TEAChER INFORMATION: This learning experience introduces students to the conceptual understandings of forms, effects and uses of energy. Students will develop their understanding that energy occurs in different forms with each having its own characteristics. Students will draw upon everyday examples to illustrate their understandings on these concepts. For the purpose of this Learning Experience the following definitions apply: Kinetic energy is the energy an object has because of its motion, for example the wind or a moving car. Potential energy is the energy an object has because of its position or condition, for example a rock held above the ground or a stretched rubber band. It is important to highlight to the students that the six types of energy that will be examined; chemical, electrical, wave, solar, heat and nuclear are still just different forms of kinetic and potential energy. Some display both. This conceptual area examines the integral part different forms and types of energy play in everyday life. ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 33
    • Previous Next Contents Conceptual Area 2: Types of Energy what is energy? RESOURCES EqUIPMENT Copies of worksheets attached to learning experiences Alka-Seltzer tablets Film Canisters Water Plastic Trays (if performing inside) Strips of zinc and copper Marbles Plasticine Bunsen Burner Matches Retort stand, bosshead, clamp Student Prior Knowledge: As a result of completing the learning experiences on ‘What is Energy?’ students can define what energy is and how it is used in everyday life. These understandings will require continual reinforcement. This section of learning experiences is designed to extend student understanding of energy and its types and forms. PAGE 34 ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy?
    • Previous Next Contents Conceptual Area 2: Types of Energy what is energy? Learning Experiences Learning Experience 2.1: ‘Kinetic or Potential’ Using the worksheet provided, students use the text information to devise their own definitions of kinetic and potential energy. The teacher will need to check for consistency in the definitions to ensure correct student understanding. Students complete a table summary classifying different examples as either kinetic or potential energy. This can lead to a class discussion about other examples; these may also be added to the table summary. ➜ go to Learning Experience 2.1 worksheet Learning Experience 2.2: ‘Energy Experts’ This learning experience uses the group work exercise ‘Expert groups’. In their home groups (6 members are required for this exercise) students decide who will venture off to become the expert of chemical, electrical, wave, solar, heat and nuclear energy types (one type per student). This decision forms the basis for students to move into ‘energy type’ expert groups. In these groups students complete the note-taking framework provided for their energy type, ensuring they understand and are able to report back to their home group on defining the energy type, explaining how it works and providing examples of it at work. Students use the information sources provided by the teacher to collate this information. Once completed, students return to their home groups and report back to the other members on their energy type. As each group member reports back students need to record that information on the note-taking framework for each energy type (students will need 6 copies of framework – one for each source). Teacher will need to lead discussion and questioning to check student understanding. It is suggested that the quiz provided may be used to further reinforce student understanding. Suggested source material: Fundamentals of Science Book 2, (2nd edition), Longman, Pages 60-61, 65-72 (editor John Anderton) Science Action Book 4, HarperCollins Publisher, Selected Chapters, (authors Bason, Gott, Pomella, Thornley, Westwood) www.google.com (search using keywords) ➜ go to Learning Experience 2.2 worksheet ➜ go to Learning Experience 2.2 quiz solution Learning Experience 2.3: ‘Changing Forms’ Using the worksheet provided, students read the information about the law of conservation of energy, energy transformation and energy transfer. In order to familiarise themselves with these new concepts students complete the hands on activities in small groups. At the end of each activity students answer the set of questions given on the worksheet. It is recommended that the Alka- Seltzer Rocket activity be performed outside. ➜ go to Learning Experience 2.3 worksheet ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 35
    • Previous Next Contents Conceptual Area 2: Types of Energy what is energy? what is energy? Learning Experience 2.4: Paragraph Framework (Assessed) To allow students to demonstrate their understanding of energy types and to reinforce the literacy paragraphing focus it is suggested students use the paragraph framework to comment on the following statement: “Energy can be classified as chemical, electrical, wave, solar, heat or nuclear but it is always a form of kinetic or potential energy”. This task can be completed during class time, under test conditions, or as a homework task. Either way it should not exceed 60 minutes of working time. ➜ go to Learning Experience 2.4 worksheet Monitoring and Evaluation Initial understandings should be monitored through student work completion, classroom discussion and teacher questioning. The major tool of allowing students to demonstrate the extent of their conceptual understanding of ‘energy types’ is through paragraphing. The teacher is also encouraged to monitor the student’s grasp of paragraph structure and their ability to apply the paragraph framework. To demonstrate their ability to construct a structured paragraph students are asked to explain the following statement using examples: “Energy can be classified as chemical, electrical, wave, solar, heat or nuclear but it is always a form of kinetic or potential energy”. PAGE 36 ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy?
    • Previous Next Contents Name: Class:  Learning Experience 2.1 Date: what is energy? Kinetic Or Potential All energy can be described as either kinetic energy or potential energy. They are the two different forms of energy. Kinetic energy is the energy an object has because of its motion. For example a car driving along at high speeds has a large amount of kinetic energy. You can see just how much energy it has in the damage that can be caused if the car hits another object like a tree. Potential energy is energy that is stored in an object because of its position or condition. A rock that is held above the ground has potential energy because of earth’s gravity. When the rock is dropped its potential energy is converted to kinetic energy as it falls. This type of potential energy is called gravitational potential energy – because it relies on the force of gravity. A stretched rubber band also has potential energy. This is called elastic potential energy and it is caused when an object is bent or stretched in order to store energy. The potential energy in the rubber band can be used to fire a paper pellet across the room. A spring can also store potential energy which can be used later to move an object off the ground. Write your own definitions which include an example (that is not given in the text above) for kinetic and potential energy. ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 37
    • Previous Next Contents  Learning Experience 2.1 (contd.) what is energy? Complete the table by placing the following examples in the right columns. Continue to use pictures to fill in the table. When you have finished placing the examples in the columns add examples of your own. train moving battery apple holding a ball up running jack-in-the-box skateboarding packet of chips book on edge of desk surfing shooting a goal boiling water POTENTIAL KINETIC PAGE 38 ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy?
    • Previous Next Contents Name: Class:  Learning Experience 2.2 Date: what is energy? Energy Experts Complete the table below using your chosen type of energy. Type of Energy Definition Give a definition for your chosen type of energy How does it work? Examples of it at work Give specific examples of your energy source at work. You can draw and/or write your examples ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 39
    • Previous Next Contents  Learning Experience 2.2 (contd.) Energy Experts quiz Student Answer Sheet 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. (a) (b) 7. (a) (b) 8. 9. 10. PAGE 40 ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy?
    • Previous Next Contents  Learning Experience 2.2 (contd.) Energy Experts quiz solution Teachers are to read the questions aloud to students who are to write their answers to the questions on the answer sheets provided. Q1. Wave energy that comes from the sun is a definition for what type of energy? A1. Solar Q2. When a certain type of energy is removed from an object it gets cooler. Name this type of energy. A2. heat Q3. Light, Sound and Shock are all examples of what type of energy? A3. Wave Q4. Define chemical energy A4. Chemical energy is the energy stored in the molecules which make up food, fuel and explosives. Q5. How does nuclear energy work? A5. Nuclear energy can be released to do work by splitting certain atoms such as uranium. Q6. Give two examples of electrical energy at work A6. Electric motors, powering electrical devices and appliances, battery powered devices etc. Q7. Give two examples of heat energy at work. A7. Cooking dinner, drying hair, heating up a room, boiling water etc. Q8. What is energy? A8. Energy is the ability to do work. Q9. Is the chemical energy in an unused battery an example of kinetic or potential energy A9. Potential Q10. Is the sound energy created by a drum an example of kinetic or potential energy? A10. Kinetic ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 41
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    • Previous Next Contents Name: Class:  Learning Experience 2.3 Date: what is energy? Law Of Conservation Of Energy Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it may be transformed from one form into another, or transferred from one place to another, the total amount of energy never changes. The Law of conservation of energy is very important because it helps us to understand the way energy works. When we use energy it usually changes form or transforms before or during its use. For example a toaster converts electrical energy into heat energy. Electrical energy is the energy source; the toaster is the energy transformer because it changes electrical energy into heat energy and the bread is the energy receiver because it receives the heat energy and becomes toast. This can be represented as a flow diagram… ENERGY SOURCE ENERGY TRANSFORMER ENERGY RECEIVER ➔ ➔ Bread receives heat energy Electrical Energy Toaster and becomes toast Energy can also be transferred. For example heat energy can be transferred from hot tea to the metal spoon that is stirring it. You can observe this transfer of energy yourself when you feel the spoon getting hotter. The following activities allow you to explore the transformation and transfer of energy for yourself. During each of the activities try and answer each of the following questions • Is energy being transferred or transformed? • What are the energy source, energy transformer and energy receiver? • How can I tell that energy is being transferred? • What forms (kinetic and potential) and types of energies have I observed? • Can I record my observations as a flow diagram? ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 43
    • Previous Next Contents  Learning Experience 2.3 (contd.) what is energy? Alka-Seltzer Rocket Note: This activity is best performed outside as it can be slightly messy or on the floor of classroom in a large plastic tray Equipment • Empty film canister with lid that snaps inside • Water • Alka-Seltzer tablets • Large Plastic Tray (if performing inside) Procedure 1) Quarter fill the film canister with water 2) Add half a tablet of Alka-Seltzer to the film canister and quickly snap on the lid. 3) Place the film canister on the ground or in the large plastic tray, lid down. 4) Stand back and observe PAGE 44 ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy?
    • Previous Next Contents  Learning Experience 2.3 (contd.) what is energy? Marble-Drop Equipment • Strips copper and zinc (approx 1 x 10cm) • Plasticine • Marble • Retort Stand, bosshead and clamp • Bunsen burner • Matches Method 1) Attach the strip of copper metal to the retort stand with the bosshead and clamp 2) Attach the marble to the free end of the metal strip with the plasticine 3) Position the Bunsen burner under the end of the metal strip attached to the retort stand. 4) Light the Bunsen burner 5) Observe 6) Repeat using the strip of zinc Note: It may take a number of minutes for an observable result to be seen; so you need to be patient! RESORT STAND COPPER BAR AND CLAMP PLASTICINE MARBLE BUNSEN BURNER HEAT PROOF MAT ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 45
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    • Previous Next Contents Name: Class:  Learning Experience 2.4 Date: what is energy? Paragraph Framework The main idea of the paragraph is … “Energy can be classified as chemical, electrical, wave, solar, heat or nuclear but it is always a form of kinetic or potential energy”. THINK PLAN Statement (Topic Sentence T.S.) Explanation (Developing Sentence D.S.) Examples (Supporting Sentence S.S.) Conclusion (Concluding Sentence C.S.) ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 47
    • Previous Next Contents  Learning Experience 2.4 (contd.) what is energy? WRITE (Identify each type of sentence using T.S., D.S., S.S., C.S.). EDIT Spelling Punctuation Grammar Sentences PRESENT PAGE 48 ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy?
    • Previous Next Contents Conceptual Area 3: Renewable and Non-Renewable Resources what is energy? LEARNING AREA: Society and Environment Science OUTCOME/S: Resources (S&E) Earth and Beyond (SCI) PhASE OF DEVELOPMENT: Early Adolescence CONCEPTUAL AREA: Renewable and Non-Renewable Resources KEY UNDERSTANDINGS: Students will be able to group resources into a range of categories, including renewable and non-renewable and identify locations of these types of resources. CONCEPTUAL SKILLS VALUES UNDERSTANDINGS • Define the terms resource, • Group work. 1.1 – 1.7 renewable, non-renewable, • Source analysis 2.1 – 2.5 sustainability, goods, services, • Paragraphing 3.1 – 3.7 needs, wants, supply and • Note-taking 4.4, 4.8, 4.9 demand. • Atlas skills 5.2, 5.3 • Categorise resources into • Mapping elements renewable or non-renewable. • Identify locations of examples of renewable and non-renewable energy resources. • Explain how people use energy resources to cater for individual and group needs and wants. TEAChER INFORMATION: This learning experience aims to provide students with the understanding of, and ability to differentiate between, categories of resources. Students will consider the distribution of energy resources in a global context. Applying basic understandings of economics, students will understand that the needs and wants of a community dictate the supply and demand of resources. This conceptual area examines key terms associated with energy resources and their use and distribution. These understandings will be consolidated and expanded in future BPEEP modules. RESOURCES EqUIPMENT Copies of worksheets attached to learning experiences Class set of Atlases. Pencils, colour pencils Student Prior Knowledge: As a result of completing conceptual areas 1 and 2 students are able to define the term energy, identify its different forms and classify those into different types using everyday examples. Students should be aware of some of the different types of energy sources and may be familiar with the terms renewable and non-renewable. Conceptual area 3 aims to consolidate and extend the students understanding of these terms in the context of global energy sources. ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 49
    • Previous Next Contents Conceptual Area 3: Renewable and Non-Renewable Resources what is energy? Learning Experiences: Learning Experience 3.1 ‘Words to do with Resources’ To emphasise the important skills involved with dictionary usage students are provided with a vocabulary worksheet. They use a dictionary to define the key concepts associated with resources and energy resources – resources, renewable, non-renewable, coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear, biomass, hydroelectric, energy efficiency, fossil fuel, energy, distribution, sustainability, goods, services, needs, wants, supply, and demand. Students use their vocabulary list to create meaningful sentences with each word that reflect an understanding of the definition. For example, students could write that oil is a non-renewable resource because it took millions of years to create, thus it cannot be renewed readily. To reinforce students’ understanding of these key terms they are provided a section of time (in-class or away from class) to learn the definitions. This is tested by them completing the resource definition word search provided. ➜ go to Learning Experience 3.1 worksheet ➜ go to Learning Experience 3.1 solution Learning Experience 3.2 ‘It’s all about choice!’ Students are provided with the text source: ‘Energy Sources’. Using a reading strategy the class works through the source and discusses key points (providing the students an opportunity to jot down 3 to 5 important points in 2 minutes can prompt discussion of important points). Students complete the worksheet to demonstrate key understandings, classify energy sources and answer focus questions. Either in class or as a homework task, students use paragraph framework to comment on the statement: “The use of renewable energy sources to meet world energy demand must replace our dependence on fossil fuels.” Again this will allow students to demonstrate their conceptual understanding as well as their proficiency in paragraph writing and utilising the paragraph framework. For a revision activity students could complete the word sleuth worksheet provided. ➜ go to Learning Experience 3.2 worksheet ➜ go to Find-a-Word ➜ go to Find-a-Word solution Learning Experience 3.3 ‘They’re not where you think’ This Learning experience is predominantly a mapping task. Teachers will need to introduce the key elements of a map (title, scale, key/legend, grid and compass point) if no prior map based skills have been completed. Likewise atlas skills (How to use an atlas) may also become a focus. On a world map (or the black line provided) students are to use an atlas to locate the various places in the world where the three fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas) are found today. A colour key may be useful. On the map students also locate areas in the world that are using the highest amount of fossil fuels (a hatching key would be preferable). Students use their collated information on the map to answer the following question using the paragraph framework (homework task). PAGE 50 ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy?
    • Previous Next Contents what is energy? “How does the location of fossil fuels compare to the locations of highest energy use created by these fossil fuels?”. Student responses and the extent of their understanding of the global distribution and use of fossil fuels should be the initial discussion focus of the next session with the class. ➜ go to Learning Experience 3.3 worksheet Learning Experience 3.4 ‘What are we doing?’ The extent of this learning experience needs to be carefully considered by the teacher. It can be condensed into a single session (and homework task) or it may be extended into a more in depth work sample completed in class time. Initially students should complete a concept map demonstrating everything they have learnt so far about the concept ‘Energy’. The teacher may opt to collect this for monitoring student understanding. Students are then provided with source material provided under three headings: ‘Energy and the Environment’, ‘Climate Change’ and ‘Sustainable Development’. Students use the structured overview note-taking framework to complete key idea notes under these three headings. Using both their concept map and note-taking information, students are set the task of planning and presenting the key concepts in a structured form of their choice (see associated planning framework and task description). Emphasis should be placed on students developing a set of three levels of focus questions (literal, inferential and evaluative) to plan for the information to be presented (this is an essential planning skill of the S&E ICP outcome). Students use the planning framework provided (or already established planning frameworks) to support their planning of this task. A peer assessment procedure or peer share session may be used for the students to share their understandings and extent of their presentations. These should be displayed in the classroom as an easily accessible revision reference resource. ➜ go to Learning Experience 3.4 worksheet Monitoring and Evaluation Initial understandings should be monitored through student work completion, classroom discussion and teacher questioning. To consolidate the literacy paragraphing focus and to reinforce to the students the importance (and expectation) that the paragraph framework is utilised each time a paragraph is required to be written, two paragraphing tasks are provided. The extent of the presentation task outlined in the learning experience ‘What are we doing?’ should be determined by the teacher depending on the amount of teaching time available. In a cross-curricular context involving multiple learning areas this could be expanded into a larger scale research task. However, it may be kept as a small task because the concepts outlines in this module will be consolidated and developed in further BP Energy Education Program modules. ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 51
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    • Previous Next Contents Name: Class:  Learning Experience 3.1 Date: what is energy? Words To Do With Resources Use a dictionary to find the meanings of the following words. Then put each of the words into a sentence that shows that you understand the term. Resources: Renewable: Non-renewable: Coal: Oil: Natural Gas: Nuclear: Biomass: Hydroelectric: ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 53
    • Previous Next Contents  Learning Experience 3.1: what is energy? Efficiency: Fossil Fuel: Energy: Distribution: Sustainability: Goods: Services: Needs: Wants: Supply: Demand: PAGE 54 ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy?
    • Previous Next Contents Name: Class:  Learning Experience 3.1: Date: what is energy? Words To Do With Resources Solve the clues and write the answers in the matching line of the grid. Once you have solved all the clues the hidden word will be revealed. Your final task is to come up with the correct definition for the mystery word. 1) A stock that can be drawn on 2) Relating to the nucleus 3) Doing of work for an employer or the community 4) The division and sharing of things 5) Hard black mineral used as fuel 6) Viscous liquid with a smooth and sticky feel 7) Ability to do work 8) Desire for would-be purchasers for goods 9) Energy obtained from plant matter 10) Fuels formed over millions of years by the Earth’s heat and the pressure of soil and rock on dead plant and animal matter 11) To be able to replace 12) Producing electricity through water power 13) Desires for something 14) Productivity with minimum waste of effort 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Hidden Word: Meaning: ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 55
    • Previous Next Contents  Learning Experience 3.1: Solution solution R E S O U R C E N U C L E A R S E R V I C E D I S T R I B U T I O N C O A L O I L E N E R G Y D E M A N D B I O M A S S F O S S I L F U E L R E N E W A B L E H Y D R O E L E C T R I C W A N T S E F F I C I E N C Y PAGE 56 ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy?
    • Previous Next Contents Name: Class:  Learning Experience 3.2 Date: The information on these pages is taken from the BP Energy Business Booklet called “Gas, power and renewable energy”, p 3&8. what is energy? Energy Sources Throughout the world people are concerned about the impact of energy consumption and economic growth on the environment. In the global energy market, the demand is for cleaner energy as well as energy services that reduce costs and emissions. Renewable Energies The evidence that links climate change with greenhouse gas emissions means that many people believe that the world needs to reduce its dependency on fossil fuels, especially coal and oil, and turn to energy supplies from renewable sources, such as the sun and wind. In the longer term, these offer the possibility of sustainable energy resources without damage to the environment. For the present, however, the world will have to rely on the use of fossil fuels for most of its energy needs. Natural gas produces lower carbon dioxide emissions than coal or oil and will become more important in the world’s energy balance for several decades to come, along with low carbon fuels. At the same time, we need to ensure that the technology to produce lower-cost renewable energy will continue to be developed. Almost 87% of the world’s energy needs are met by fossil fuels. Currently, the only renewable energy source of any significance is hydroelectric power. World primary energy consumption 1979–2004 Hydro- 1979 2004 electricity Nuclear Coal Natural Gas Oil 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 Million tonnes oil equivalent The chart does not include the contribution made by fuels such as peat, wood and animal wastes, which, though important in many countries, have no reliable figures for consumption. ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 57
    • Previous Next Contents  Learning Experience 3.2 (contd.) what is energy? WhAT IS RENEWABLE ENERGY? Sources of renewable energy will never run out because they can always be replaced. Renewable energy sources include sunlight or solar energy and other sources such as wind and wave energy, which indirectly come from solar energy. Fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas come from the remains from plants and animals that were produced millions of years ago and which have transformed into fuels by geological changes. Because the world’s fossil fuel reserves are not endless (therefore finite) and are being used up, they are called non-renewable energy resources. Of course, the processes that produced crude oil are still taking place very slowly but it will take millions of years to replace the fossil fuels we are burning today. Uranium, which is used to produce nuclear energy, is not a fossil fuel but requires the extraction of finite physical reserves, so it is considered a non-renewable energy source. Renewable energy covers a number of energy sources. The main ones are: • Solar • Wind • Water • Geothermal • Biomass Each of these renewable energy sources depends on different technologies, which are at different stages of development. Wind, water and solar are dependent on location or climatic conditions. Some renewable energy sources, including solar and wind, can be classified as ‘clean energies’, because they have little effect on the environment and could do much to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass, when burnt as a fuel, produces carbon dioxide, which is a major greenhouse gas. However the impact of this is reduced by the fact that biomass absorbs carbon dioxide during growth. PAGE 58 ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy?
    • Previous Next Contents  Learning Experience 3.2 (contd.) what is energy? ACTIVITIES Use each of the following terms in a sentence to explain your understanding. a. Energy Source b. Fossil Fuel c. Renewable Energy Source d. Non-Renewable Energy Source e. ‘Clean Energy’ In the table provided classify each type of energy source as either renewable or non-renewable. COAL SOLAR WIND OIL WATER NATURAL GAS GEOThERMAL BIOMASS RENEWABLE NON-RENEWABLE ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 59
    • Previous Next Contents  Learning Experience 3.2 (contd.) what is energy? Use the information to answer the following questions. 1. What does the ‘World Primary Energy Consumption’ chart indicate about world use of renewable and non-renewable energy sources? 2. Why do many people believe we need to reduce our dependency on fossil fuels as energy sources? 3. Why, in the short term, will our dependency on fossil fuels to meet energy source supply have to continue? PAGE 60 ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy?
    • Previous Next Contents  Learning Experience 3.2 (contd.) what is energy? Paragraph Framework The main idea of the paragraph is … “The use of renewable energy sources to meet world energy demand must replace our dependency on fossil fuels.” THINK PLAN Statement (Topic Sentence T.S.) Explanation (Developing Sentence D.S.) Examples (Supporting Sentence S.S.) Conclusion (Concluding Sentence C.S.) ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 61
    • Previous Next Contents  Learning Experience 3.2 (contd.) what is energy? WRITE (Identify each type of sentence using T.S., D.S., S.S., C.S.). EDIT Spelling Punctuation Grammar Sentences PRESENT PAGE 62 ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy?
    • Previous Next Contents  Learning Experience 3.2 (contd.) what is energy? Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Different forms of energy are stored in different ways, in the energy sources that we use every day. These sources are divided into two groups – renewable (an energy source that can be replenished in a short period of time) and non-renewable (an energy source that we are using up and cannot recreate in a short period of time). Renewable and non-renewable energy sources can be used to produce secondary energy sources including electricity and hydrogen. Renewable energy sources include solar energy, which comes for the sun and can be turned into electricity and heat. Wind, geothermal energy from inside the earth, biomass from plants, and hydropower and ocean energy from water are also renewable energy sources. However, we get most of our energy from non-renewable energy sources, which include the fossil fuels – oil, natural gas and coal. They’re called fossil fuels because they were formed over millions and millions of years by the action of heat from the Earth’s core and pressure from rock and soil on the remains (or “fossils”) of dead plants and animals. Another non-renewable energy source is the element uranium, whose atoms are split (through a process called nuclear fission) to create heat and ultimately electricity. We use all these energy sources to generate the electricity we need for our homes, businesses, schools and factories. Electricity powers our computers, lights, refrigerators, washing machines, and air conditioners to name only a few uses. We use energy to run our cars and trucks. Both the petrol used in our cars and the diesel fuel used in our trucks are made from oil. The gas that fuels our barbeques is made from natural gas. Complete the following activities using the information contained in the paragraphs above. In your own words explain the difference between a renewable and a non-renewable energy source. ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 63
    • Previous Next Contents  Learning Experience 3.2 (contd.) Answer the questions and then find the solutions in the Find-A-Word 1. This type of energy source comes from the sun. 2. What is an energy source that can be replenished in a short space of time called? 3. Electricity and hydrogen are energy sources. 4. The petrol we use in our cars is made from what? 5. F F are non-renewable energy sources. 6. What element is a non-renewable energy source? 7. Name a renewable energy source that is formed from plants. 8. Non-renewable energy sources cannot be recreated in a period of time. 9. What secondary energy source is used to power your computer? 10. Geothermal energy is a renewable energy source that comes from the energy inside the . 11. is the non-renewable source used to fuel our barbeques. 12. Oil, natural gas and are all fossil fuels. 13. Ocean energy and get their energy from water. 14. Fossil fuels take of years to form. 15. All forms of energy are stored in different ways, in the we use everyday. F O S S I L F U E L S A G M J E I W A G K P Q Y P O H H H B N E M U I N A R U L J Y T C P E S S M R E O L R K D R N S D R E T U B I A E L R A E A N B G N R W L A L C O E L K T O K Y N O U U E O P Q B R N U I F S E H S C A O L A I I C R L W O O S T L W L W O O E Y A L R U D R Z E C E A R M M T L I O R I L R E N X H D A S D G M J C X M D E G S A L S Y K A F I E B W R A N F Z O S T I S T C S T I V S E C O N D A R Y V N PAGE 64 ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy?
    • Previous Next Contents  Learning Experience 3.2 (contd.) Solution to Find-A-Word activity in Learning Experience 3.2 solution F O S S I L F U E L S A G M J E I W A G K P Q Y P O H h h B N E M U I N A R U L J Y T C P E S S M R E O L R K D R N S D R E T U B I A E L R A E A N B G N R W L A L C O E L K T O K Y N O U U E O P Q B R N U I F S E h S C A O L A I I C R L W O O S T L W L W O O E Y A L R U D R Z E C E A R M M T L I O R I L R E N X H D A S D G M J C X M D E G S A L S Y K A F I E B W R A N F Z O S T I S T C S T I V S E C O N D A R Y V N ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 65
    • Previous Next Contents what is energy? This page is intentionally blank for aesthetic printing. PAGE 66 ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy?
    • Previous Next Contents Name: Class:  Learning Experience 3.3 Date: what is energy? World Distribution Of Fossil Fuel Energy Resources 60°N 30°N 0° 30°S 180° 150°W 120° W 90°W 60°W 30°W 0° 30°E 60°E 90°E 120°E 150°E 180° 60°S COAL OIL NATURAL GAS ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 67
    • what is energy? PAGE 68 NAME SPECIFIC COUNTRIES DESCRIBE ThE NAME SPECIFIC COUNTRIES DESCRIBE ThE AREAS OF ThAT USE ThE hIGhEST DISTRIBUTION OF ThE ThAT SUPPLY ThE FOSSIL hIGhEST ENERGY USE ENERGY USE CREATED BY FOSSIL FUEL FOSSIL FUEL. FUEL. CREATED BY FOSSIL FUELS. FOSSIL FUELS. Previous Coal ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 Next  Learning Experience 3.3 (contd.) Oil Contents BP energy education program Natural Gas module 1: what is energy?
    • Previous Next Contents  Learning Experience 3.3 (contd.) what is energy? Paragraph Framework The main idea of the paragraph is … “How does the location of fossil fuels compare to the locations of highest use of energy created by these fossil fuels?” THINK PLAN Statement (Topic Sentence T.S.) Explanation (Developing Sentence D.S.) Examples (Supporting Sentence S.S.) Conclusion (Concluding Sentence C.S.) ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 69
    • Previous Next Contents  Learning Experience 3.3 (contd.) what is energy? WRITE (Identify each type of sentence using T.S., D.S., S.S., C.S.). EDIT Spelling Punctuation Grammar Sentences PRESENT PAGE 70 ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy?
    • Previous Next Contents Name: Class:  Learning Experience 3.4 Date: what is energy? Energy 1. Complete a Concept Map to show what you know so far about our topic “ENERGY”… ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 71
    • Previous Next Contents  Learning Experience 3.4 (contd.) what is energy? [The information on the following three pages is extracted from ‘The energy business booklets 2005-2006: BP and the Environment.’, pages 3-5] Energy And The Environment Energy is fundamental to the lives, lifestyles and aspirations of everyone living on the earth. One of the greatest challenges we all face is how to supply enough energy to meet the needs of a growing world population and to improve people’s living standards, but at the same time ensure the planet’s environment does not suffer irreparable damage. Because of the evidence that links climate change with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, many people believe that the world needs to reduce its dependency on fossil fuels, especially coal and oil, and turn increasingly to energy supplies from renewable sources, such as the sun, wind and plants. In the long-term these renewable sources, along with greater energy efficiency and the storing of GHGs (chiefly carbon dioxide) by pumping them back into underground reservoirs, offer us the possibility of sustainable energy resources with less or no damage to the environment. For the present, however, the world will have to rely on fossil fuels for the majority of its energy needs. Natural gas, which consists mainly of the gas methane, and produces lower carbon dioxide emissions when burnt than coal or oil, will become more important in the world’s energy balance for several decades to come, along with other low-carbon fuels. However, we must ensure that we continue to develop the technology to produce lower-cost renewable energy and carbon free energy sources. Climate Change The earth is kept warm naturally by the greenhouse effect, in which a number of gases absorb the infra-red radiation reflecting off the earth’s surface and without which the world’s average temperature would be -18°C, rather than 15°C. Greenhouse gases include water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide. When the concentration of one or more of these increases, the greenhouse effect is enhanced and the earth’s temperature rises (global warming). The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing and the temperature of the earth’s surface is rising; the average temperature is 0.6°C warmer than 100 years ago. The balance of informed opinion is that these two things are linked and therefore humanity is having a discernible effect on the climate by emitting carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels. In 1997, governments signed an agreement on climate change called the Kyoto Protocol. The agreement was to reduce emissions of GHGs to an average of 5.2% below their 1990 levels by 2008-2012. The protocol came into force on February 16th 2005 following ratification by Russia. The US, one of the world’s major emitters of greenhouse gases, rejected it in 2001. To date, Australia has also not ratified the Kyoto Protocol. PAGE 72 ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy?
    • Previous Next Contents  Learning Experience 3.4 (contd.) what is energy? Sustainable Development ‘Sustainable development’ means development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Energy enables basic needs to be met – cooked food, warmth, lighting, health care, transport and the ability to pump and boil clean water. Coal, oil, gas and the electricity they can generate are central to the development of poorer countries as well as driving economic growth in the developed world. But they also create emissions, which affect air quality and may create long-term risks to the environment. The challenge of sustainable development is to sustain economic growth and reduce the income gap between rich and poor, while avoiding damage to the environment. It also means creating stable and diverse societies, with better educational opportunities for all, which appreciate the need to balance economic growth, social development and environmental protection. 2. Using the source information provided complete note-taking using the Structured Overview framework… Energy Energy and the Environment Climate Change Sustainable Development __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 73
    • Previous Next Contents  Learning Experience 3.4 (contd.) what is energy? 3. Design an advertisement, pamphlet, comic strip, cartoon, or poster promoting the need for a world wide reduction on using fossil fuels to cater for energy needs. Your chosen presentation must promote an understanding of the following terms: Energy, climate change, greenhouse gas emissions, fossil fuels, renewable energy sources, global warming, Kyoto protocol, sustainable development. To demonstrate your ability to devise relevant focus questions, you are to consider the source material and your notes to develop a series of literal, inferential and evaluative questions (3 levels of questioning) that will form the structure of your information presentation. Use the framework below to plan this task. MAIN CONCEPTUAL FOCUS. ENERGY AND ThE ENVIRONMENT Key ideas that need to be understood. Energy, climate change, greenhouse gas emissions, fossil fuels, renewable energy sources, global warming, Kyoto protocol, sustainable development… Literal focus questions. • WhO? • WhAT? WhERE? • WhEN? • • • Inferential focus questions. • hOW? • WhY? • • • • Evaluative focus questions. • WhY IS IT IMPORTANT? • WhAT DO I ThINK? WhAT DO OThERS ThINK? • • Type of presentation. • PAGE 74 ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy?
    • Previous Next Contents what is energy? References for module 1 As the following resources have been used in the construction of this module it is suggested that you can also use them as student resources. Source: ‘The energy business booklets’ 2005-2006: BP and the Environment. BP Australia, page 3-5. Available from the coordinator of the BP Energy Education Program. Alka-Seltzer, 2005 URL: http://www.alkaseltzer.com/as/student_experiment8.html Bayer HealthCare LLC. Energy Kid’s Page, URL: http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/sources/whatsenergy.html Anderton, John, 1997, Fundamentals of Science Book 2, 2nd Edition, Longman Lofts, Graeme & Evergreen Merrin J, 2006, Science Quest 2 3rd Edition, Jacaranda Source: ‘The energy business booklets 2005-2006: Gas Power and Renewable Energy. BP Australia. Pages 7-9 ©BP Australia Pty Ltd 2008 BP energy education program module 1: what is energy? PAGE 75