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  • BP Exploration launched an 18-month project called The Virtual Teamwork Programme: to develop effective ways for members of teams to collaborate across different locations.
  • Davenport & Prusaka (1998:24)
  • Davenport & Prusaka (1998:24)
  • Davenport & Prusaka (1998:24)
  • Davenport and Prusaka (1998:153-160)
  • Davenport and Prusack (131) Hoover: Based on a set of keywords, it searches selected external databases for information deemed useful for a particular use or group within an organisation. The user need not supply/specify the sources. Grapevine: Notes is then used to disseminate the information. Monsanto uses Hoover + Notes to disseminate external market knowledge to its scientists.
  • Davenport and Prusack (131) Hoover: Based on a set of keywords, it searches selected external databases for information deemed useful for a particular use or group within an organisation. The user need not supply/specify the sources. Grapevine: Notes is then used to disseminate the information. Monsanto uses Hoover + Notes to disseminate external market knowledge to its scientists.
  • Davenport & Pruska (133) Grapevine, like Hoover, searches for external knowledge but it has a more structured set of terms - a knowledge chart - a hierarchical map of terms specific to an organisation and their interrelationship. Grapevine has facilities to comment on and prioritise external data before the knowledge is disseminated to all concerned.
  • Davenport & Pruska (133) Grapevine, like Hoover, searches for external knowledge but it has a more structured set of terms - a knowledge chart - a hierarchical map of terms specific to an organisation and their interrelationship. Grapevine has facilities to comment on and prioritise external data before the knowledge is disseminated to all concerned.
  • Davenport & Pruska (133) Grapevine, like Hoover, searches for external knowledge but it has a more structured set of terms - a knowledge chart - a hierarchical map of terms specific to an organisation and their interrelationship. Grapevine has facilities to comment on and prioritise external data before the knowledge is disseminated to all concerned.
  • Arthur Andersen have reportedly used the Network in successfully building enterprise-wide information system for a Venezuelan start-up oil company. Experienced professionals working in various areas within Andersen Consulting update the knowledge of the Network. In a narrow sense, the Network provides easy access to documents within the organisation to Andersen Consulting employees on demand. The technical make-up of the Network includes Internet security systems (so-called firewalls), proprietary software provided by, say, Microsoft Corp. including their Office Systems, and Internet access and browsing systems provided either by Microsoft or Netscape.
  • Arthur Andersen have reportedly used the Network in successfully building enterprise-wide information system for a Venezuelan start-up oil company. Experienced professionals working in various areas within Andersen Consulting update the knowledge of the Network. In a narrow sense, the Network provides easy access to documents within the organisation to Andersen Consulting employees on demand. The technical make-up of the Network includes Internet security systems (so-called firewalls), proprietary software provided by, say, Microsoft Corp. including their Office Systems, and Internet access and browsing systems provided either by Microsoft or Netscape.
  • Arthur Andersen have reportedly used the Network in successfully building enterprise-wide information system for a Venezuelan start-up oil company. Experienced professionals working in various areas within Andersen Consulting update the knowledge of the Network. In a narrow sense, the Network provides easy access to documents within the organisation to Andersen Consulting employees on demand. The technical make-up of the Network includes Internet security systems (so-called firewalls), proprietary software provided by, say, Microsoft Corp. including their Office Systems, and Internet access and browsing systems provided either by Microsoft or Netscape.
  • It has been reported that the Network was used by E&Y’s clients, including Honeywell , Motorola and Hughes, to pool the knowledge of their own employees to bid for contracts. Hofmann La Roche used the Network to reduce the time it takes to prepare applications for new drugs; here, not only was the knowledge of experts within Hoffman La Roche harnessed, the Network was also used to build a knowledge base of the expertise of the various national drugs regulatory authorities. E&Y also use the Network to produce PowerPacks comprising the details of the qualifications and sales presentations of other consultants within E&Y.
  • It has been reported that the Network was used by E&Y’s clients, including Honeywell , Motorola and Hughes, to pool the knowledge of their own employees to bid for contracts. Hofmann La Roche used the Network to reduce the time it takes to prepare applications for new drugs; here, not only was the knowledge of experts within Hoffman La Roche harnessed, the Network was also used to build a knowledge base of the expertise of the various national drugs regulatory authorities. E&Y also use the Network to produce PowerPacks comprising the details of the qualifications and sales presentations of other consultants within E&Y.
  • It has been reported that the Network was used by E&Y’s clients, including Honeywell , Motorola and Hughes, to pool the knowledge of their own employees to bid for contracts. Hofmann La Roche used the Network to reduce the time it takes to prepare applications for new drugs; here, not only was the knowledge of experts within Hoffman La Roche harnessed, the Network was also used to build a knowledge base of the expertise of the various national drugs regulatory authorities. E&Y also use the Network to produce PowerPacks comprising the details of the qualifications and sales presentations of other consultants within E&Y.
  • It has been reported that the Network was used by E&Y’s clients, including Honeywell , Motorola and Hughes, to pool the knowledge of their own employees to bid for contracts. Hofmann La Roche used the Network to reduce the time it takes to prepare applications for new drugs; here, not only was the knowledge of experts within Hoffman La Roche harnessed, the Network was also used to build a knowledge base of the expertise of the various national drugs regulatory authorities. E&Y also use the Network to produce PowerPacks comprising the details of the qualifications and sales presentations of other consultants within E&Y.
  • Sun-Netscape Alliance and Sun Microsystems Inc. today announced Sun’s acquisition of grapeVINE Technologies, the leading provider of collaborative knowledge management software. The integration of grapeVINE’s techology with iPlanet Portal Server software will enable customers to incorporate search, indexing and knowledge management capabilities into their portal initiatives. “ The knowledge management and information retrieval expertise of the grapeVINE team, coupled with the leading tools we gain through this acquisition, will extend our portal platform’s range of smart services to give iPlanet customers features and functionality that are unmatched by any other portal vendor,” said Mark Tolliver, president of iPlanet. The pairing of grapeVINE’s knowledge management technology and iPlanet Portal Server may allow organisations to leverage the skills and expertise of their employees by enabling them to draw on the knowledge and experiences of fellow users. grapeVINE’s technology helps users to define their topics of interest and receive information that matches their interests and priorities. “ Search and indexing capabilities are an integral part of any portal project” said Gene Phifer, Vice-Pres. and Research Director at GarnterGroup. “Portals are being used in great numbers to deliver knowledge management technology, making this functionality an increasingly essential feature of portal software”. A portal can serve as a starting point for finding information both internally and externally to the company. Its search engine combs internal and external Web sites for information and then idexes that information so that it can easily be accessed through the search function within the portal desktop or remotely from any Web browser.
  • A typical workflow system requires agile managers looking after the system: the knowledge engineers a la Nonaka and Takeuchi, and the knowledge managers within Andersen Consulting, Ernst & Young, are amongst the examples of agile managers working with systems that help to transfer data effectively. In each of the cases above, the knowledge creation crew uses a workflow system to exchange data amongst themselves and with others. It appears that one of the important tasks of the knowledge engineer is to facilitate the flow of contents; these contents are the trace, or essence, of the knowledge.
  • A typical workflow system requires agile managers looking after the system: the knowledge engineers a la Nonaka and Takeuchi, and the knowledge managers within Andersen Consulting, Ernst & Young, are amongst the examples of agile managers working with systems that help to transfer data effectively. In each of the cases above, the knowledge creation crew uses a workflow system to exchange data amongst themselves and with others. It appears that one of the important tasks of the knowledge engineer is to facilitate the flow of contents; these contents are the trace, or essence, of the knowledge.
  • A ground breaking research paper, a laudable best practice, notes of meetings between leading experts in a specialism or articulate end-users, are all but highly condensed versions of the knowledge of the author of the paper, the rapporteur of the best practice, or the knowledge of the experts and end-users involved.
  • These archives comprise interview transcripts for experience-based knowledge, notes of best-practice, engineering drawings, design and maintenance manuals, past project reports and research papers.
  • Sun-Netscape Alliance and Sun Microsystems Inc. today announced Sun’s acquisition of grapeVINE Technologies, the leading provider of collaborative knowledge management software. The integration of grapeVINE’s techology with iPlanet Portal Server software will enable customers to incorporate search, indexing and knowledge management capabilities into their portal initiatives. “ The knowledge management and information retrieval expertise of the grapeVINE team, coupled with the leading tools we gain through this acquisition, will extend our portal platform’s range of smart services to give iPlanet customers features and functionality that are unmatched by any other portal vendor,” said Mark Tolliver, president of iPlanet. The pairing of grapeVINE’s knowledge management technology and iPlanet Portal Server may allow organisations to leverage the skills and expertise of their employees by enabling them to draw on the knowledge and experiences of fellow users. grapeVINE’s technology helps users to define their topics of interest and receive information that matches their interests and priorities. “ Search and indexing capabilities are an integral part of any portal project” said Gene Phifer, Vice-Pres. and Research Director at GarnterGroup. “Portals are being used in great numbers to deliver knowledge management technology, making this functionality an increasingly essential feature of portal software”. A portal can serve as a starting point for finding information both internally and externally to the company. Its search engine combs internal and external Web sites for information and then idexes that information so that it can easily be accessed through the search function within the portal desktop or remotely from any Web browser.
  • Autonomy PLC offers Knowledge Management software under the rubric of New Media and E-Commerce applications and Enterprise Solutions : http://www.autonomy.co.uk.     Routing    Update    Security  Tagging  Classification    Hyperlinking I-WAP Active Knowledge Portal-in-a-box Update Server Navigator/ Categoriser Application
  • Deskartes provides answers to queries by matching concept patterns to an organisation’s knowledge base of documents, spreadsheets, multimedia files, and other digital data. The technology, which is built on a complex neural network foundation, recognises natural language and even allows for synonyms and spelling mistakes. KMS Inc. claims Deskartes actually ‘learns’ from each experience by asking the user to confirm the accuracy or usefulness of its answers, making it more intelligent over time. Knowledge Management’s Website contains the company’s full product range based on its Deskartes core technology including: Deskartes Universal Knowledge , a totally scalable end-to-end solution for knowledge and collaboration based EIPs and Internet portals; Deskartes Personal Knowledge , the only solution of its kind for retrieval of unstructured information simultaneously from a PC, corporate portal and Internet portal; Deskartes Executive Knowledge , providing answers and reports from enterprise-level data warehouses or databases in concert with world-class business intelligence tools; and Deskartes Domain Knowledge , a department-specific application for call centres, help desks, Customer Relationship Management (CRM) or other customer-centric needs.
  • Using SharePoint Portal Server, you can also save and check documents into the document store, capturing business-relevant metadata in Document Profile forms. You can also tailor forms to your organization. Tracking changes though multiple drafts as a document is edited, reviewed, and approved is accomplished using integrated approval routing. This occurs prior to publishing for public viewing on the intranet dashboard site. You can also roll back to a previous version of a document. Look for features like Document Collaboration, Profiling, Lifecycle Management, and Web-based document management through a browser.
  • Page 115, figure 7.1, Knowledge Emergence – Ikujiro Nonaka / Toshihiro Nishiguchi
  • Page 115, figure 7.1, Knowledge Emergence – Ikujiro Nonaka / Toshihiro Nishiguchi
  • Page 115, figure 7.1, Knowledge Emergence – Ikujiro Nonaka / Toshihiro Nishiguchi
  • Page 116, figure 7.2, Knowledge Emergence – Ikujiro Nonaka / Toshihiro Nishiguchi
  • Page 116, figure 7.2, Knowledge Emergence – Ikujiro Nonaka / Toshihiro Nishiguchi
  • Page 116, figure 7.2, Knowledge Emergence – Ikujiro Nonaka / Toshihiro Nishiguchi
  • Page 116, figure 7.2, Knowledge Emergence – Ikujiro Nonaka / Toshihiro Nishiguchi
  • Page 116, figure 7.2, Knowledge Emergence – Ikujiro Nonaka / Toshihiro Nishiguchi
  • Page 117, figure 7.3, Knowledge Emergence – Ikujiro Nonaka / Toshihiro Nishiguchi
  • Page 117, figure 7.3, Knowledge Emergence – Ikujiro Nonaka / Toshihiro Nishiguchi
  • Page 117, figure 7.3, Knowledge Emergence – Ikujiro Nonaka / Toshihiro Nishiguchi
  • Page 121, table 7.1, Knowledge Emergence – Ikujiro Nonaka / Toshihiro Nishiguchi
  • Page 121, table 7.1, Knowledge Emergence – Ikujiro Nonaka / Toshihiro Nishiguchi
  • 1 Tom Davenport and Gilbert Probst. (2000) (Eds.) Knowledge Management Case Book – Siemens Best Practises. Munich: Publicis MCD Verlag. pp 22-39
  • Gibbert, Michael. et al (2000). ‘ShareNet - the next generation knowledge management. In (Ed.) Tom Davenport and Gilbert Probst. Knowledge Management Case Book. Munich: Publicis MCD Verlag.pp 25-26 ‘ Yet the new telecoms landscape also brought opportunities. While the new reality threatened profit margins, it also opened up new business with higher profit margins for Siemens ICN. A case in point was the complex product and service packages that the new types of customers required. Additionally, they were often innovative and quite lean organisations with a relatively small technical staff and thus required more technical services. These ranged from systems integration and network planning to the provision, integration, tuning and implementation of services. The new entrants needed fresh business analysis and planning to accommodate the rapidly changing markets in which they operated but many did not have the resources or experience to handle this. Most of them were also start-ups without sufficient capital to make cash equipment purchases, which led to their demanding new terms of financing and innovative contracts.’
  • Gibbert, Michael. et al (2000). ‘ShareNet - the next generation knowledge management. In (Ed.) Tom Davenport and Gilbert Probst. Knowledge Management Case Book. Munich: Publicis MCD Verlag. Figure 2, pp 26
  • Gibbert, Michael. et al (2000). ‘ShareNet - the next generation knowledge management. In (Ed.) Tom Davenport and Gilbert Probst. Knowledge Management Case Book. Munich: Publicis MCD Verlag. Figure 2, pp 26
  • Gibbert, Michael. et al (2000). ‘ShareNet - the next generation knowledge management. In (Ed.) Tom Davenport and Gilbert Probst. Knowledge Management Case Book. Munich: Publicis MCD Verlag.pp 22-39 Footnote 1: Gibbert 2000, pp29 Footnote 2: Gibbert 2000, pp31
  • Footnote 3: Gibbert et al (2000) pp 33-38
  • 1 D’Oosterlink, Marc., Freitag, Hartmut., & Graff, Joachim. (2000). ‘Siemens Industrial Services: Turning know-how into results.’ In (Ed.) Tom Davenport and Gilbert Probst. pp 40-53.
  • It has been reported that the Network was used by E&Y’s clients, including Honeywell , Motorola and Hughes, to pool the knowledge of their own employees to bid for contracts. Hofmann La Roche used the Network to reduce the time it takes to prepare applications for new drugs; here, not only was the knowledge of experts within Hoffman La Roche harnessed, the Network was also used to build a knowledge base of the expertise of the various national drugs regulatory authorities. E&Y also use the Network to produce PowerPacks comprising the details of the qualifications and sales presentations of other consultants within E&Y.
  • It has been reported that the Network was used by E&Y’s clients, including Honeywell , Motorola and Hughes, to pool the knowledge of their own employees to bid for contracts. Hofmann La Roche used the Network to reduce the time it takes to prepare applications for new drugs; here, not only was the knowledge of experts within Hoffman La Roche harnessed, the Network was also used to build a knowledge base of the expertise of the various national drugs regulatory authorities. E&Y also use the Network to produce PowerPacks comprising the details of the qualifications and sales presentations of other consultants within E&Y.
  • It has been reported that the Network was used by E&Y’s clients, including Honeywell , Motorola and Hughes, to pool the knowledge of their own employees to bid for contracts. Hofmann La Roche used the Network to reduce the time it takes to prepare applications for new drugs; here, not only was the knowledge of experts within Hoffman La Roche harnessed, the Network was also used to build a knowledge base of the expertise of the various national drugs regulatory authorities. E&Y also use the Network to produce PowerPacks comprising the details of the qualifications and sales presentations of other consultants within E&Y.
  • It has been reported that the Network was used by E&Y’s clients, including Honeywell , Motorola and Hughes, to pool the knowledge of their own employees to bid for contracts. Hofmann La Roche used the Network to reduce the time it takes to prepare applications for new drugs; here, not only was the knowledge of experts within Hoffman La Roche harnessed, the Network was also used to build a knowledge base of the expertise of the various national drugs regulatory authorities. E&Y also use the Network to produce PowerPacks comprising the details of the qualifications and sales presentations of other consultants within E&Y.
  • Page 204, table 11.1, Knowledge Emergence – Ikujiro Nonaka / Toshihiro Nishiguchi
  • Page 280, table 14.1, Knowledge Emergence – Ikujiro Nonaka / Toshihiro Nishiguchi
  • Page 140, bullet points, Knowledge Emergence – Ikujiro Nonaka / Toshihiro Nishiguchi

Transcript

  • 1. Lectures on Knowledge Management Khurshid Ahmad Professor of Artificial Intelligence Centre for Knowledge Management January 2004
  • 2. B EST P RACTICE INSTRUMENTS FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT BP’S VIRTUAL TEAMWORK PROGRAM 1993 - BP Exploration, a division that found and produced oil/gas, organised its regional assets into 42 separate assets - a federation of assets where each asset would have the freedom to develop processes and solutions appropriate to their particular problems. BP Exploration have combined the agility of a small company with the resources of a large one.
  • 3. B EST P RACTICE INSTRUMENTS FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT BP’S VIRTUAL TEAMWORK PROGRAM A mobile drilling ship was disabled in the North Sea due to equipment failure. The equipment was brought in front of a camera linked by satellite to one of the BPVT stations; a remote expert on the mainland diagnosed the problem and guided the on-board engineers to fix the equipment.
  • 4. B EST P RACTICE INSTRUMENTS FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT BP’S VIRTUAL TEAMWORK PROGRAM A mobile drilling ship was disabled in the North Sea due to equipment failure. The equipment was brought in front of a camera linked by satellite to one of the BPVT stations; a remote expert on the mainland diagnosed the problem and guided the on-board engineers to fix the equipment. Instantaneous
  • 5. B EST P RACTICE INSTRUMENTS FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT BP’S VIRTUAL TEAMWORK PROGRAM Andrew Project : BP worked with collaborators (design and construction firms) to build a new oil platform. They used the VT’s application sharing features to write joint communications.
  • 6. B EST P RACTICE INSTRUMENTS FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT BP’S VIRTUAL TEAMWORK PROGRAM Andrew Project : BP worked with collaborators (design and construction firms) to build a new oil platform. They used the VT’s application sharing features to write joint communications. Some record kept of shared knowledge
  • 7. B EST P RACTICE INSTRUMENTS FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
    • The aim of the VT Program was to let knowledgeable people talk to each other, not to try to capture their expertise - a network of people.
      • Hardware and software for the VT Program:
      • Desktop video conferencing equipment;
      • Multimedia email;
      • Application (programs) sharing;
      • Shared chalkboards;
      • Document scanner;
      • Tools to record videoclips;
      • Groupware;
      • Web browser; and
      • Satellite links.
    BP’S VIRTUAL TEAMWORK PROGRAM
  • 8. B EST P RACTICE INSTRUMENTS FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Upper management initiated and funded the project Upper management support encouraged knowledge sharing Technology was used for communication and collaboration; training emphasised goals Relationships were built through actual and virtual face-to-face meetings Members of knowledge communities identified, then linked by technology BP’s VT Program
  • 9. B EST P RACTICE INSTRUMENTS FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Management support and resources are essential Knowledge sharing must be encouraged and rewarded Technology may initiate new methods of working Knowledge sharing needs trust Some knowledge is tacit and held in people’s heads Knowledge Management Perspective
  • 10. B EST P RACTICE INSTRUMENTS FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Upper management initiated and funded the project 5. Management support and resources are essential Upper management support encouraged knowledge sharing 4. Knowledge sharing must be encouraged and rewarded Technology was used for communication and collaboration; training emphasised goals 3. Technology may initiate new methods of working Relationships were built through actual and virtual face-to-face meetings 2. Knowledge sharing needs trust Members of knowledge communities identified, then linked by technology 1. Some knowledge is tacit and held in people’s heads BP’s VT Program Knowledge Management Perspective
  • 11. B EST P RACTICE INSTRUMENTS FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT KNOWLEDGE PROJECT SUCCESS INDICATORS
      • A knowledge-oriented culture
      • Technical and organisational infrastructure
      • Senior management support
      • A link to economics or industry value
      • A modicum of process information
      • Clarity of vision and language
      • Non-trivial motivational aids
      • Some level of knowledge structure
      • Multiple channels of knowledge transfer
  • 12. B EST P RACTICE INSTRUMENTS FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
  • 13. B EST P RACTICE INSTRUMENTS FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Collaboration and human interaction by bringing people together with messaging facilities, sharing diaries (for appointments), notes about previous projects.
  • 14. B EST P RACTICE INSTRUMENTS FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Notes-based knowledge management is often accompanied by other tools especially for managing external knowledge.
  • 15. B EST P RACTICE INSTRUMENTS FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
    • Knowledge is interpreted and evaluated information.
    • To store knowledge you must have a model of the structure and function of knowledge.
    • This structural and functional knowledge has to be converted into an information model and onto a data model.
    • The data model then helps to build a data base of documents comprising the knowledge of an organisation or a group of individuals.
  • 16. B EST P RACTICE INSTRUMENTS FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
    • A data base is built to systematically organise and store the data of an enterprise.
    • A knowledge base is built to systematically systematically store the knowledge of an enterprise.
    • A collection of files is not a collection of knowledge: It is data that has to be processed into information, and information interpreted as knowledge
  • 17. B EST P RACTICE INSTRUMENTS FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT ACCENTURE KNOWLEDGE NETWORK Management consultants Accenture (formerly Arthur Andersen) have developed a web-site, Client Knowledge Network , which provides ‘ implementation project teams , facing similar challenges in comparable business environments, with a means to easily communicate and share knowledge assets. It can also serve as the primary repository for all project team deliverables’.
  • 18. B EST P RACTICE INSTRUMENTS FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT ACCENTURE KNOWLEDGE NETWORK Project teams: Multidisciplinary; Fixed-time contract; Individuals (in the time) come together for for a short time  ready for the next contract
  • 19. B EST P RACTICE INSTRUMENTS FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT ACCENTURE KNOWLEDGE NETWORK Project teams: How to manage knowledge outside of an organisational context? Implicit  Explicit for a group of people working together for a short time period?
  • 20. B EST P RACTICE INSTRUMENTS FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT E&Y’ KM NETWORKS The management consultants Ernst & Young (E&Y) have their own Knowledge Management Networks maintained by a knowledge manager within the consultancy. This is used to track the expertise of individuals within the organisation and to facilitate co-operation across E&Y for particular assignments.
  • 21. B EST P RACTICE INSTRUMENTS FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT NETWORKS?
    • All project teams work under a contract with the client.
    • The evidence of outputs (reports/artefacts) produced by the knowledge workers is used by the organisation to charge the clients.
    • Human-resources departments keep a ‘record’ of each employee
  • 22. B EST P RACTICE INSTRUMENTS FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT NETWORKS?
    • The record :
            • Name, address, salary,
            • Qualifications
            • Previous Experience – outside the current organisation
            • Annual Appraisals
  • 23. B EST P RACTICE INSTRUMENTS FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT NETWORKS: ‘?
    • KM systems that have the capability of building ‘Yellow Pages’ automatically.
    • How? By analysing document repositories of organisations from HR records to Project output records
  • 24. B EST P RACTICE INSTRUMENTS FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT grapeVINE Technologies A Knowledge Management organisation that was taken over: iPlanet and Sun Microsystems announce Sun’s Acquisition of grapeVINE Technologies. grapeVINE’s industry leading Knowledge Management technology will integrate with iPlanet Portal Server to bring a new level of intelligence to e-commerce portal platforms.
  • 25. B EST P RACTICE INSTRUMENTS FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT WORKFLOW & KNOWLEDGE FLOW
    • Current knowledge management systems can be viewed as workflow systems that deliver work on time to the relevant persons and results despatched in time, efficiently and cost effectively from the workers to the managers.
    • There is an increase in productivity, and innovation is facilitated by easy and timely access to information about products, services, human resources and the documents produced by and related to the organisation.
  • 26. B EST P RACTICE INSTRUMENTS FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Challenge of Knowledge Management
    • To efficiently capture trace of knowledge (to process, index and retrieve text/images)
    • To encourage people to record their knowledge based on experience i.e. produce a trace, and to use other people’s trace of knowledge
    • To reward (punish?) people for sharing (or not sharing) their knowledge
    • To keep the traces updated:
      • Motivate the knowledge creation ‘crew’ to work as a team
      •  Encourage the knowledge creation ‘crew’ to share values and aspirations
  • 27. B EST P RACTICE INSTRUMENTS FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT WORKFLOW & KNOWLEDGE FLOW The knowledge management of the future should facilitate the work of the knowledge engineer in addition to facilitating the flow of documents. This suggests that a knowledge management system should have some comprehension of the notations and conventions used by humans in communicating orally or through documents.
  • 28. B EST P RACTICE COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT KNOWLEDGE IN TEXT If any essence or trace of the knowledge of the individuals is left behind then it is usually found in documents, comprising words, illustrations and drawings, mathematical and other symbols.
  • 29. B EST P RACTICE COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT KNOWLEDGE IN TEXT
    • Usually, a tangible trace of specialist knowledge may be found in the document archives.
    • Knowledge management systems should be based on how humans disseminate knowledge through text.
    • The effective management of the documents emanating from organisations, is perhaps the first step in the effective organisation of knowledge.
  • 30. B EST P RACTICE COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT grapeVINE Technologies A Knowledge Management organisation that was taken over: iPlanet and Sun Microsystems announce Sun’s Acquisition of grapeVINE Technologies. grapeVINE’s industry leading Knowledge Management technology will integrate with iPlanet Portal Server to bring a new level of intelligence to e-commerce portal platforms.
  • 31. B EST P RACTICE COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT PROACTIVE SYSTEMS: KNOWLEDGE IN TEXT
    • Knowledge management systems track the growth of knowledge within organisations by a systematic and continuous examination of the documents within an organisation and across organisations. Computer systems capable of:
    • Capturing, analysing & summarising texts
    • Hyperlinking, classifying, updating texts
    • Extracting terms and names from texts, and
    • Securing and routing texts,
    • are being used to study how concepts are transformed into artefacts and how artefacts help in creating and revising concepts.
  • 32. B EST P RACTICE COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT PROACTIVE SYSTEMS: KMS INC. Knowledge Management Software (KMS) Inc. is a software developer in the knowledge management market (www.kmsoftware.com). The new website has led to a ‘significant improvement in the company’s ability to service its customers by shifting 85% of all incoming help desk calls to the site, where questions are answered automatically using the company’s pioneering Deskartes knowledge management technology’.
  • 33. B EST P RACTICE COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT KNOWLEDGE IN TEXT
    • Knowledge management systems track the growth of knowledge within organisations by a systematic and continuous examination of the documents within an organisation and across organisations. Computer systems capable of
    • capturing, analysing & summarising texts
    • extracting terms and names from texts, and
    • routing texts,
    • are being used to study how concepts are transformed into artefacts and how artefacts help in creating and revising concepts.
  • 34. B EST P RACTICE COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Microsoft Sharepoint
    • Microsoft have developed the SharePoint system: a set of two new technologies from Microsoft that were developed to facilitate information sharing both within organizations and over the Internet,
    • SharePoint Portal Server 2003 and
    • SharePoint Team Services.
    • Microsoft Sharepoint System is an innovative way of looking at how workers in an organisation share knowledge.
  • 35. B EST P RACTICE COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Microsoft Sharepoint
    • SharePoint Portal Server 2003 and
    • SharePoint Team Services.
    Check the website: www.microsoft.com/sharepoint/evaluationoverview.asp
  • 36. B EST P RACTICE COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Microsoft Sharepoint
    • Knowledge management case studies clearly show that in any given enterprise, small and ad hoc teams share information in very different ways than do large teams.
    • Small or ad hoc workgroups need informal means to work together on group deliverables, share documents, and communicate status with one another.
      •  Microsoft suggested solution SharePoint Team Services–based Web sites.
    • Large workgroups with structured processes need greater management over their information and require features like formal publishing processes and the ability to search for and aggregate content from multiple data stores and file formats.
      •  Microsoft suggested solution SharePoint Portal Server 2003
  • 37. B EST P RACTICE COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Microsoft Sharepoint
    • Microsoft SharePoint Team Services:
    • To create Web site for sharing information such as documents, calendars, announcements, and other postings.
    • Microsoft SharePoint Portal Server 2003
    • To aggregate content
    • To manage documents
    • To create Web Portals
    • Technology used : E-mail, File Servers, Office XP, Browsers, Front Page, Text and Image Search DBMS, Document Management Systems, OLE DB, Microsoft ActiveX® Data Objects (ADO), Extensible Markup Language (XML)
  • 38. B EST P RACTICE COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Microsoft Sharepoint
    • E-mail E
    • File Servers, 1
    • Office XP, E
    • Browsers, E
    • Front Page, E
    • Text and Image Search DBMS, 2
    • Document Management Systems, 1
    • OLE DB, 7
    • Microsoft ActiveX® Data Objects (ADO), 2
    • Extensible Markup Language (XML)
  • 39. B EST P RACTICE COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Microsoft Sharepoint Browser, Office XP, FrontPage 2002 Storage · Publishing Roles-based Security Browser-based, Microsoft FrontPage® version 2002, and SDK Client Applications · Surveys Document Management · Notifications Customization · Discussions Discussion and Notifications Documents within team Web site and sub Webs Search Capabilities (5–75 users)   Team Web sites Web Site Ad hoc information sharing Core Function Team Services · Routing · Versioning · Check-in, check-out Web Parts and SDK · Notifications · Discussions Across multiple servers and data types (75+ users) Portal Web sites Enterprise Search Portal Server
  • 40. B EST P RACTICE COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Microsoft Sharepoint Integrated Document Management The process from document creation through intranet publishing can be a string of disjointed actions, unconnected with business processes. SharePoint Portal Server includes features like document locking, versioning, and publishing and makes these features accessible to the average user. It delivers easy-to-use, document-management features that are integrated with the tools and applications that are used to create and manage documents, with Microsoft Windows® Explorer and Microsoft Office 2000 applications like Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, and Microsoft PowerPoint®.
  • 41. B EST P RACTICE COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Microsoft Sharepoint Subscribe to lists and document libraries and receive notification when changes meet the criteria you set. Subscriptions and Notifications Document libraries allow you to upload documents, assign templates to libraries, and custom properties to documents within libraries. Document Libraries Share team information in a structured and uniform way using built-in lists such as events, announcements, discussions, and tasks. Pre-Formatted Team Lists Team members with appropriate permissions can author to the Web site using their 4.0 level or higher browser. Browser-based Authoring Out of the box, SharePoint Team Services creates fully-functional, fully-designed, and configured team Web sites. Team Web Site Template
  • 42. B EST P RACTICE COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Microsoft Sharepoint SharePoint team Web sites allow site owners to assign five different levels of permissions to team Web sites and to customize the permissions within those roles. Roles-based Memberships SharePoint Team Services automatically sets up the software required to search (Index Server) team Web sites and store data (MSDE). Three-Click Installation Site owners and those with administrative privileges can set up user accounts for team Web sites through the browser. Delegated Administration Get a sense of where your team stands on issues that affect them by creating a team survey. Surveys Team members can use the discussions feature to conduct inline discussions on documents and other Web pages without affecting the source document. Document Discussions
  • 43. B EST P RACTICE COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Microsoft Sharepoint SharePoint Team Services is supported by Web Presence Providers for FrontPage. ISP/ASP Support Microsoft FrontPage® 2002 provides additional opportunities for advanced customization of SharePoint team Web sites. FrontPage Version 2002 Integration Microsoft Office XP integration gives users the ability to easily share information from their desktop to their team Web site and vice versa. Office XP Integration Members can customize existing lists using the browser to add new properties to lists and document libraries, specify custom views, or create entirely new lists and document libraries with unique properties. Browser-based Customization
  • 44. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY I: Microsoft Inc. Requirements Specification Detailed Design (modules) The conventional ‘waterfall approach’ to software development
  • 45. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY I: Microsoft Inc. Requirements Specification Detailed Design (modules) Module Construction & Debug Module Construction & Debug Module Construction & Debug Integration and System Test The conventional ‘waterfall approach’ to software development
  • 46. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY I: Microsoft Inc. Requirements Specification Detailed Design (modules) Module Construction & Debug Module Construction & Debug Module Construction & Debug Integration and System Test Module Rework Module Rework Module Rework Re-integration and System Test The conventional ‘waterfall approach’ to software development
  • 47. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY I: Microsoft Inc.
    • “ SYNCH-AND-STABILIZE” DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
    • Planning Phase
    • Vision Statement;
    • Outline & Working Specification;
    • Development Schedule;
    • Feature Team Formation
    • Development Phase
    • Feature Development in 3 or 4 Milestones
    • Stabilization Phase
    • Code Completion;
    • &  Testing;
    • Final Stabilization;
    • Ship Software
  • 48. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY I: Microsoft Inc. Coordinating Team Effort? SOURCE: www. dwheeler .com/ sloc . 40M 2002 Windows XP 35M 2001 Windows 2000 20M 2000 Windows NT Source Lines of Code Year of Release Operating System
  • 49. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY I: Microsoft Inc. Planning Phase VISION STATEMENT E.g. 15 Features and Prioritisation Done by Product (& Program) Management OUTLINE & WORKING SPECIFICATION Done by Program Managers with Developers. Define Feature Functionality, Architectural Issues & Component Interdependencies DEVELOPMENT SCHEDULE & FEATURE TEAM FORMATION A big feature team will have 1 Program Manager, 5 Developers, 5 Testers
    • “ SYNCH-AND-STABILIZE” DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
  • 50. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY I: Microsoft Inc. Planning Phase VISION STATEMENT E.g. 15 Features and Prioritisation Done by Product (& Program) Management OUTLINE & WORKING SPECIFICATION Done by Program Managers with Developers. Define Feature Functionality, Architectural Issues & Component Interdependencies DEVELOPMENT SCHEDULE & FEATURE TEAM FORMATION A big feature team will have 1 Program Manager, 5 Developers, 5 Testerm FEATURE DEVELOPMENT IN 3 OR 4 MILESTONES Program Managers: Evolve the Specification Developers: Design, Code, Debug Testers: Test, Paired with Developers Development Phase
    • “ SYNCH-AND-STABILIZE” DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
  • 51. MICROSOFT’S “SYNCH-AND-STABILIZE” DEVELOPMENT PROCESS Time: Usually 12- or 24- month Cycles Planning Phase FEATURE DEVELOPMENT IN 3 OR 4 MILESTONES Program Managers: Evolve the Spec Developers: Design, Code, Debug Testers: Test, Paired with Developers Development Phase Feature Complete CODE COMPLETE  and  TEST, FINAL STABILZATION & SHIP Program Managers: Monitor OEMs, ISVs, Customer Feedback Developers: Final Debug, Code Stabilization Testers: Recreate and Isolate Errors Stabilisation Phase B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY I: Microsoft Inc.
  • 52. Development Phase Milestones Breakdown MILESTONE 1 (first 1/3 features) Development (Design, Coding. Prototyping) Usability Lab Private Release Testing Daily Builds Feature Debugging Feature Integrations Code Stabilisation (no severe bugs) Buffer Time (20-30%) B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY I: Microsoft Inc.
  • 53. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY I: Microsoft Inc. MILESTONE 1 (first 1/3 features) Development (Design, Coding. Prototyping) Usability Lab, Private Release Testing, Daily Builds Feature Debugging, Feature Integrations, Code Stabilisation (no severe bugs), Buffer Time (20-30%) MILESTONE 2 (next 1/3 features) Development Usability Lab Private Release Testing Daily Builds Feature Debugging Feature Integrations Code Stabilisation Buffer Time Development Phase Milestones Breakdown
  • 54. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY I: Microsoft Inc. MILESTONE 1 (first 1/3 features) Development (Design, Coding. Prototyping) Usability Lab, Private Release Testing, Daily Builds Feature Debugging, Feature Integrations, Code Stabilisation (no severe bugs), Buffer Time (20-30%) MILESTONE 2 (next 1/3 features) Development, Usability Lab, Private Release Testing, Daily Builds Feature Debugging, Feature Integrations, Code Stabilisation Buffer Time MILESTONE 3(last 1/3 features) Development, Usability Lab Private Release Testing, Daily Builds Feature Debugging, Feature Integrations Feature Complete Code Complete Code Stabilisation Buffer Time Zero Bug Release Release to Manufacturing Development Phase Milestones Breakdown
  • 55. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY I: Microsoft Inc. Many individuals work in functional groups Large Teams work like small teams Feedback as inputs for future projects Customer feed back during development One “Late and Large” integration and test phase at project end Frequent synchs (daily builds) and intermediate stabilisations (milestones) Build all pieces of a product simultaneously Prioritised features built in 3-4 milestones Complete spec and detailed design before coding Vision statement and evolving spec (spec = output not input) Separate phases in “waterfall” sequence Spec, development, testing in parallel Waterfall Development Model Synch-and-stabilise
  • 56. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY I: Microsoft Inc. HIERARCHICAL MODEL SPIRAL MODEL Waterfall Development Model Synch-and-stabilise
  • 57.
    • During the 1980’s Siemens AG, a multinational, faced major challenges precipitated by political, economic and technological developments of the time.
      • Siemens is conglomerate in an old fashioned sense: its business ranges from global telecommunications to advanced chip manufacture, and from building/factory systems to health & medical systems.
    • Various constituents of the conglomerate have reported the use of knowledge management to transform its business from a centralised to a diversified and lean business.
    B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY II: Siemens AG
  • 58. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY II: Siemens AG
    • Within Siemens AG, a number of its conglomerates have developed methods and systems to manage knowledge:
    1 Tom Davenport and Gilbert Probst. (2000) (Eds.) Knowledge Management Case Book – Siemens Best Practises. Munich: Publicis MCD Verlag. pp 22-39 Mergers & Acquisitions Knowledge Exchange Mobile communications devices and network products, inc. phones, radio-base stations, Internet switches and so on. Siemens Information & Communication Mobile partnerships with Fujitsu & Toshiba ‘ Communities of Practice’ Information Systems and e-business : Consultancy, implementation & integration Siemens Business Services (60 countries; 34000 employees) Know-How Exchange: Building and factory systems: Control systems for building environments, factory automation Siemens Industrial Services (70 countries; 22000 employees) Share Net: Global Telecommunications projects: end-to-end solutions for voice, data and mobile networks Siemens Information & Communications Networks : (60 countries; 60000 employees) KM System Business Area Organisation
  • 59.
    • Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management
      • ShareNet Managers --- Supports contributors in capturing project experiences and marketing know-how, drives the development of reusable knowledge
      • Until the 1980’s the principal customers of telecommunications equipment were large (near) monopoly state PT&T companies or Bell in the USA  Post 1980’s telecomms markets were DEREGULATED and the monopolies were unbundled.
      • The use of computers for switching and routing changed the equipment market altogether.
      • New entrants challenged former monopoly suppliers with new cheaper products and services
    B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY II: Siemens AG
  • 60. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIa: Siemens ICN Sales Project: Complete Customer Solution New knowledge products Material & Physical components Switches Routers Base Stations Integration into network of customers Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management- ‘Conceptual elements constituting a telecommunication solution. Technical solution (knowledge) Functional solution (knowledge) Customised components (system integration) Integration of Complementers; Architecture Configurations Leasing contracts; Business case Pricing Scheme
  • 61. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIa: Siemens ICN Sales Project: Complete Customer Solution New knowledge products Material & Physical components Switches Routers Base Stations Integration into network of customers Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management- ‘Conceptual elements constituting a telecommunication solution. Not Local  GEOGRAPHICALLY DISTRIBUTED PEOPLEa Technical solution (knowledge) Functional solution (knowledge) Customised components (system integration) Integration of Complementers; Architecture Configurations Leasing contracts; Business case Pricing Scheme
  • 62.
    • Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management
      • ‘ ShareNet is an interactive knowledge management tool through which global network of shared knowledge could be established’ 1 .
      • Share Net is a ‘business application system’ that allows to share knowledge and innovation on a global basis.
      • Share Net was designed to ‘foster the emergence of best practice sharing’ 2
    B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIa: Siemens ICN
  • 63.
    • Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management
      • Typical KM systems are often ‘intranet based [..] “document repositories”’ 2 .
      • Share Net is an interactive medium designed to act as a business application used to dissemintate experience based knowledge.
    B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIa: Siemens ICN
  • 64.
    • Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management
      • Typical KM systems are often ‘intranet based [..] “document repositories”’ 2 .
      • Share Net is an interactive medium designed to act as a business application used to dissemintate experience based knowledge.
    B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIa: Siemens ICN A document repository is RAW Knowledge: This raw information has to be interpreted and annotated
  • 65.
    • Criticial Success Factors 3
    • Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management
      • Leadership  officers
      • Organisational Structure and Roll-out  engineers+workers
      • Motivation and rewards  off/eng/wor
      • Organisational Culture and Change  off/eng/wor
      • Viable Business Case  off/eng
    B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIa: Siemens ICN
  • 66.
    • Criticial Success Factors 3
    • Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management
      • Leadership :
        • The ShareNet Committee comprising 1 Siemens ICN Board Member; two Business Transformation Partners; 8 ICN local companies representatives (offices in 160 countries)
        • The Knowledge Officers comprised Share Net Committee.
    B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIa: Siemens ICN
  • 67.
    • Criticial Success Factors 3
    • Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management
      • Organisational Culture and RollOut :
        • Input of (undocumented) knowledge and the re-use of the elicited knowledge was the key. Leading experts acted as Contents Editors of the knowledge that was supplied by the knowledge workers.
        • Share Net had local consultants, acting as trainers in and facilitators of ShareNet, had IT support and -email hotline
        • ShareNet Committee held a bootcamp, campaigns to precipitate structural change within the organisation.
    B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIa: Siemens ICN
  • 68.
    • Criticial Success Factors 3
    • Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management
      • Organisational Culture and RollOut :
        • Avoid the creation of a document repository;
        • Avoid brochureware – sales/marketing hype
        • Create a knowledge-base rather than an information-base or data base
    B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIa: Siemens ICN
  • 69.
    • Criticial Success Factors 3
    • Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management
      • Organisational Culture and RollOut :
        • Knowledge workers supply INFORMATION
        • Knowledge engineers & experts interpret & evaluate INFORMATION
        • KNOWLEDGE IS INTERPRETED & EVALUATED INFORMATION.
    B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIa: Siemens ICN
  • 70.
    • Criticial Success Factors 3
    • Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management
      • Motivation and Reward System
        • The ICN ShareNet Quality Assurance and Reward System was designed to encourage the capture and re-use of knowledge
        • A frequent-flyer/loyalty card scheme was set in place: More knowledge deposited and more knowledge re-used was rewarded by shares in Share Net. Shares were convertible into places on conferences or into ‘telecommunications equipment.
    B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIa: Siemens ICN
  • 71.
    • ShareNet was organised in four concentric layers:
      • Share Net Committee --- the innermost layer; the highest decision making body for the developemnt of Share Net
      • the Technology/Support Layer -- Global Editor; User Hotline; IT Support
      • Contributors --- Sales and Marketing people worldwide contirbuting their project experiences and methods into the ShareNet knowledge base.
    B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIa: Siemens ICN
    • Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management
  • 72. B EST P RACTICE : CASE STUDY IIa: Siemens ICN Share Net Managers Share Net Managers Share Net Managers Share Net Managers Share Net Managers C C C C C C C C C C C C Global Editor User Hotline IT Support ShareNet Committee
  • 73. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIa: Siemens ICN Ars Digita built Share Net for ICN www.arsdigita.com/customers/casestudies/siemens090700 Global Editor User Hotline IT Support ShareNet Committee Share Net Managers Share Net Managers Share Net Managers Share Net Managers Share Net Managers C C C C C C C C C C C C
  • 74. Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management ShareNet – a business application system ShareNet was designed to emphasise in-depth business understanding rather being IT-focussed. Gibbert et al argue that the focus on IT had ‘proved to be a pitfall of many similar knowledge management systems.’ (2000:31). ShareNet provides a network that has been explicitly designed as an interactive medium rather being just a conduit to ‘document repositories’. ShareNet functions as a business application, designed to dovetail ‘with employees’ ways of solving customer problems. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIa: Siemens ICN
  • 75. Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management ShareNet – a business application system A data-base requires an application program for the data to be used effectively that is the data be processed according to the user needs and requirements. A business application program helps to access and to some extent to interpret the data (in a data base) B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIa: Siemens ICN
  • 76. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIa: Siemens ICN Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management
    • ShareNet attempts to cover both the explicit and tacit knowledge of the sales value-creation process.
      • This includes project know-how, technical- and functional-solution components, and knowledge about the business environment (e.g., customer, competitor, market, technology and partner knowledge).
    • ShareNet was designed to emphasise experience-based knowledge.
    • Knowledge about the different steps of the value-creation chain was transferred to ShareNet solution objects (e.g., technical- or functional-solution knowledge) and ShareNet environment objects (e.g., customer or market knowledge).
    • ShareNet’s focus is less on ‘brochureware’, than on personal statements, comments, the ‘field experience’ of sales employees, or the real-life tested pros and cons of a solution.
  • 77. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIa: Siemens ICN Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management
    • Share Net developers chose four ‘areas of intervention’ :
      • Cognitive knowledge or know what
      • Skills or know-how
      • Systems understanding or know-why
      • Self-motivated creativity or care why 1
    • The first three are different types of knowledge and the fourth refers to the knowledge creation process.
    1. Gibbert et al (2000) pp 33.
  • 78. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIa: Siemens ICN Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management Share the feedback given by sales professionals in de-briefing projects. S KILLS or know-how – refers to the effective execution and application of abstract rules and regulations in the real-world context. Share technical knowledge, for example in the form of pricing concepts. For Share Net this represents an essential but not complete aspect to ensure commercial viability. C OGNITIVE K NOWLEDGE or know-what - includes basic technical mastery and is achieved through extensive training and certification. Share Net Solution Knowledge Typology
  • 79. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIa: Siemens ICN Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management ShareNet identifies and promotes highly motivated and creative employees. S ELF-MOTIVATED C REATIVITY or care why – refers to an active and caring involvement in a given ‘cause’ Share the knowledge of experienced account managers for anticipating subtle aspects in interaction with a customer. S YSTEMS U NDERSTANDING or know-why – refers to the casue and effect underlying an experience. Share Net Solution Knowledge Typology
  • 80. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIa: Siemens ICN
    • The ShareNet attempts to demonstrate ‘the importance of finding the right balance between IT solutions for capturing explicit codified knowledge and leaving enough room to allow direct personal exchange of more implicit forms of knowledge.’
    • The ICN ShareNet Quality Assurance and Reward Systems was important for motivating the workers to participate in the knowledge management initiatives. The Reward System is an essential complement to the structural arrangements that facilitate knowledge sharing and an organisational culture that supports such an initiative.
    Siemens ICN: Global Knowledge Management – Key Lessons
  • 81. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIa: Siemens ICN
    • For a global organisation knowledge sharing has to be facilitated within and between the constituent national organisations, and between different market stages.
    • Telecommunication solutions for a given country have to address the level of economic development of the country and the level of de-regulation of the markets in general and telecomms markets in particular.
    Siemens ICN: Global Knowledge Management – Key Lessons
  • 82. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIa: Siemens ICN Focus was on high-bandwidth solutions and for infrastructure to support it. However, the customers did not understand/appreciate/like broadband communications system  the market collapsed Siemens was restructured and the Share Net Unit was absorbed in to a new Competence and Knowledge Management Division. Siemens ICN: Global Knowledge Management – The 2001 Aftermath
  • 83. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIa: Siemens ICN Share Net System was focused on sales and marketing . This was important to deal with new deregulated markets, as the sales/marketing knowledge was largely based on regulated markets. Share Net was extended to help the R&D Division of Siemens of ICN. Why? Siemens ICN: Global Knowledge Management – The 2001 Aftermath
  • 84. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIa: Siemens ICN Share Net was extended to help the R&D Division of Siemens of ICN. Why? The time-to-market a good idea was long within Siemens ICN. Can Share Net help in doing that? Perhaps, but only after the system was resturctured to take into account the business of R&D which is not the same as the business of Sales and Marketing . Siemens ICN: Global Knowledge Management – The 2001 Aftermath
  • 85. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIb: Siemens Ind. Serv.
    • Siemens Industrial Services provide services for the electrical and electronic equipment users, like engineering, installation, maintenance and repair.
    • Sales representatives and service technicians who respectively secure and work on service contracts have accumulated a significant depth of experience – largely tacit knowledge of large engineering systems.
    • There is explicit knowledge of geography, people, and engineering artefacts.
    SiemensIndustrialServices: Know-how exchange 1
  • 86. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIb: Siemens Ind. Serv.
    • For Siemens Industrial Services this tacit and explicit knowledge is crucial in securing new contracts and for executing existing contracts.
    • There is significant duplication of effort when this knowledge is not recorded: each contract is prepared and executed ab intio (from the beginning without any previous knowledge)
    • SiemensIndustrialServices created a knowledge exchange for recording and re-using knowledge.
    SiemensIndustrialServices: Know-how exchange
  • 87. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIb: Siemens Ind. Serv.
    • The expertise and know–how within Siemens Industrial Services is multi-faceted:
      • Industrial Sector
      • Products and Systems
      • Tools
      • Technology
    • The expertise and know-how may be with a person or a group within a regional Siemens company or within collaborating organisations.
    • Free exchange of knowledge – freely given and received without any cost.
    SiemensIndustrialServices: Know-how exchange
  • 88. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIb: Siemens Ind. Serv.
    • Objectives and Aims
    • Know-How Exchange is expected to become virtual Centre of Excellence , available to every employee at Siemens Industrial Services, and possibly even further afield.
    • By connecting geographically distributed service offices , the know-how-transfer process, supported by the Know-How Exchange, may provide a competitive advantage
    • The introduction of a specific tool for know-how transfer should not impose an additional barrier for the users . A user-friendly tool and a reliable support team could avoid this.
    SiemensIndustrialServices: Know-how exchange
  • 89. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIb: Siemens Ind. Serv.
    • Know-how Exchange:
      • Available through the SIS Intranet
      • Search and retrieval facilities
      • Multi-lingual user interface
      • Maintenance Facilities
    SiemensIndustrialServices: Know-how exchange
  • 90. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIb: Siemens Ind. Serv.
    • Know-how Exchange comprises
      • An extensive database of contracts and service notes compiled by sales representatives and service engineers
      • ‘ References’ related to the description and the use of Siemens products
      • ‘ Yellow’ Pages comprising details of experts within SIS, with elaborations on their qualifications and competencies.
    • Know-how Exchange being used by
      • 1200 users per month searching through 5500 know-how entries and 1500 references 1
    SiemensIndustrialServices: Know-how exchange 1 D’Oosterlink, Marc., Freitag, Hartmut., & Graff, Joachim. (2000). Figure 9 caption, pp 49.
  • 91. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIb: Siemens Ind. Serv. ‘ Employees at SIS were ‘prodded, cajoled and motivated through newsletters, the Intranet and employee newspaper, through personal e-mails, congresses and conferences to get involved by contributing their know how to’ the Exchange ( D’Oosterlink, Freitag, Hartmut., & Graff, 2000:43-44). SiemensIndustrialServices: Know-how exchange
  • 92. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIb: Siemens Ind. Serv. SiemensIndustrialServices: Know-how exchange Competence Experience Knowledge Location A Location B Document Transfer Evaluate Discuss Publish Search Innovate Share Collaborate Benefits
  • 93. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIb: Siemens Ind. Serv. ‘ An area that certainly warrants attention now, and will do so increasingly in the future, is the standardising and structuring of the knowledge shared on the database. A certain level of knowledge quality is necessary to ensure its utility. Who will perform this gate-keeping task and what criteria should be used? These are questions that must still be answered if this tool is going to realise its full potential.’ ( D’Oosterlink, Freitag, Hartmut., & Graff, 2000:52, my emphasis). SiemensIndustrialServices: Know-how exchange
  • 94. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIc: Siemens Business Services Siemens Business Services is a core business-driven unit within Siemens focussing exclusively on services. SBS is a vendor of ‘full service’, consulting services, systems integration, operational services and outsourcing on an international level. Siemens Business Services: Standardized KM Ramhorst, Dirk. (2000) ‘A guided tour through the Siemens Business Services Knowledge Management Framework.’ In (Eds) Tom Davenport and Gilbert Probst. pp 126-140.
  • 95. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIc: Siemens Business Services
    • Aims and Objectives
    • Integrate competencies and experiences from the technical/engineering business with management consultancy within SBS
    • Cope with rapid and strong organisational growth: as many as one in three employees were new employees .
    • Deal with the results of a major merger in 1990’s between Siemens and Nixdorf and subsequently in 1995 a demerger of core units in SiemensNixdorf Informationssyteme AG.
    Siemens Business Services: Standardized KM
  • 96. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIc: Siemens Business Services
    • Standardised KM requires Knowledge Brokers: These Brokers are human search engines that can be accessed whenever anyone in the organisation has a question about a specialist area, or is looking for an expert.
    • The Knowledge Broker is responsible for:
      • The classification, categorisation, storage and management of the relevant information and knowledge (librarian)
      • Co-ordinating or doing research
      • Monitoring the results of expert forums
      • Acting as a change agent for further cultural development
      • Introducing new platforms or functions.
    Siemens Business Services: Standardized KM
  • 97. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIc: Siemens Business Services
    • Knowledge Maps are an important content-related element of SBS KM.
    • Knowledge Maps are the graphic display of knowledge flows and competency networks.
    • Different colours describe various competency implementations, while connectors show the intensity of the knowledge flows. The size of these networks is shown, the interfaces to partners and, for example, schools and special, possibly critical, node points in the organisation.
    • Knowledge maps have made the implementation of expert networks (Communities of Practice) in organisations possible.
    Siemens Business Services: Standardized KM Ramhorst, D. (2000) pp 135.
  • 98. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIc: Siemens Business Services Siemens Business Services: Standardized KM The technologies used form KM within SBS can be described in four clusters: Newsboards, workflows, and email. Knowledge-flow Linkages Collaboration applications, virtual teaming applications, etc. Communities of Practice Portals, search engines, knowledge maps, Yellow Pages, skill databases. Knowledge maps Project and knowledge repositories based on documents Knowledge libraries
  • 99. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IId: Siemens Medical Services
    • The transfer of existing knowledge is referred to as the sharing of ‘best practices’.
    • Sometimes using ‘best practice’ is an antidote to R&D that may lead to the creation of new knowledge which, in effect, may not be as new as the inventors may like it to be.
    • Siemens Medical Services created a Best Practice Sharing Marketplace.
    • ‘ In this marketplace, through the economics of supply and demand, best practices within Siemens could be identified and leveraged.’ (Gibbert & Hartmut 2000:69).
    Siemens Medical Services: Sharing Best Practice Gibbert, Michael., and Krause, Hartmut. (2000) ‘Practice Exchange in a Best Practice Marketplace’. In (Eds) Tom Davenportand Gilbert Probst. pp 68-84.
  • 100. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IId: Siemens Medical Services Barriers to the internal transfer of knowledge: Personal Barriers Collective Barriers Structural Barriers Political/Cultural Barriers These barriers may be scaled/overcome by Information Technology solutions Networks or organisational solutions Corporate Solutions Siemens Medical Services: Sharing Best Practice
  • 101. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IId: Siemens Medical Services Siemens Medical Services: Sharing Best Practice Personal barriers
    • Give recognition to good contributions. Success breeds success.
    Established criteria to measure practices against. Computerised brainstorming – allow people to see what others have shared Lack of confidence in knowledge developed
    • Build it formally into the working day
    • Offer incentives
    • Reward effort
    Incentive system, at least initially, until implicit benefits are appreciated. Make it as easy as possible to use
    • Too much time & effort involved
    • No obvious benefits or rewards
    • Best-Practice Marketplace
    • Promotions
    • Topic related events
    • Involve people who are actually doing the work (Best Practice Networks) in the early stages, not only executives.
    • Identify major levers
    • Utilise and support CoP networks
    Access for every employee Don’t know what others need to know Corporate solution Network or organisational solution IT solution Barrier
  • 102. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IId: Siemens Medical Services Siemens Medical Services: Sharing Best Practice Collective barriers Programmes like Best Practice Networks & Best Practice Marketplace help to change entrenched attitudes. Include managers & key players in the planning stages of the project. Training & help for managers in use of IT system.
    • Managers are not supportive of initiative.
    • Poor corporate culture of promotion of best practices sharing.
    • Put competitive spirit to good use & reward units/sections that participate
    Advertise section results & actively affirm participants User-friendly system allows teams to check on their team’s participation status In-house competition
    • Create a ‘Knowledge Management Corporate Office.
    • Delimit topics
    • Suggest possible applications
    Efficient tools Transfer process not well organised Corporate solution Network or organisational solution IT solution Barrier
  • 103. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IId: Siemens Medical Services Siemens Medical Services: Sharing Best Practice Structural barriers Sanction the necessary budgets. Find sponsors if necessary. Best Practice Landscape Efficient & effective support Poor IT structures
    • Better selection practices
    • Use (partnerships) experts from other branches & countries
    • Create structures for skills & expertise to be made widely known
    • Match skills & expertise to tasks
    Facilitate access to expertise on the system Time pressure – could be the wrong people doing the job
    • Network & marketplace projects
    • Build knowledge sharing into criteria for evaluating performance & for promotion.
    • Offer incentives
    Stimulate, actively promote, & expose staff to the benefits of knowledge sharing practices & projects
    • Keep best practices in division.
    • Feel that knowledge kept to oneself with help with career success.
    Corporate solution Network or organisational solution IT solution Barrier
  • 104. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IId: Siemens Medical Services Siemens Medical Services: Sharing Best Practice Political/Cultural barriers
    • Review policies that restrict the sharing of secret or other information.
    • Strong top-down promotion & endorsement.
    Promotion of benefits & active involvement of managers throughout the process. Poor corporate culture – does not foster openness or build confidence. No help in dealing with conflicts
    • Give recognition
    • Build into job requirements
    • Include in promotion criteria
    • Incentive schemes
    • Reward conspicuously
    Not financially rewarded or by promotion (“Who cares?” attitude) Promote company-wide collaboration Build into system Competition between units Bilingual user interface. Structure system so people can share a language they feel comfortable with but which others can understand or have interpreted. Tool with different natural languages No common language Corporate solution Network or organisational solution IT solution Barrier
  • 105. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IId: Siemens Medical Services
    • Critical Factors in overcoming barriers and making Best Practice Sharing possible/practical
    • Developing employee networks among BP owners: knowledge workers and engineers
    • Exchanging Best Practice through a Martketplace
    • Engaging knowledge officers : Patrons and Sponsors
    • Mobilizing knowledge workers – incentives/rewards
    • Designing a content structure – a best practice landscape
    • Energizing support through knowledge engineers – facilitators and ‘Best Practice Office’.
    Siemens Medical Services: Sharing Best Practice
  • 106. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IId: Siemens Medical Services
    • Implementing the Best Practice Marketplace
    • ‘ Recruiting Network’ – a pilot project with a view to establish a Best Practice Network.
    • Trading Best Practice – through pilot participants; proof of concept via successful implementations of the Networks; through an Intranet-based database system; by validating Best Practice
    • Intranet-based ‘Best Practice’ MarketPlace data base.
    • Collecting Best Practice Data & Communicating with the employees:
      • Kick off meetings  Introduction to the Heads of participating divisions  Divisional Workshops  Broadcasting the results (In-house journals, postcards, memos etc.
    Siemens Medical Services: Sharing Best Practice
  • 107. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIe: Siemens Mergers/Acquisitions Mergers & Acquisitions Knowledge Exchange Terminology Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) typically involve an exchange of financial instruments, especially shares and money, for the company physical and intellectual assets.
  • 108. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIe: Siemens Mergers/Acquisitions Mergers & Acquisitions Knowledge Exchange
    • Once the exchange is accomplished the two organisations, one merging or taking over another, have to deal with consolidation:
      • The possible differences in ways in which the people in each of the two organisations work with one another and work into their suppliers and clients. These differences are typically referred to as the differences between the cultures of the two organisations.
      • The different geographical locations of the two organisation particularly if the locations are across linguistic / national boundaries.
      • The various information and communication technology systems in the two organisations.
  • 109. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIe: Siemens Mergers/Acquisitions Mergers & Acquisitions Knowledge Exchange It has been reported that 4 out of 5 mergers fail to deliver adequate return to the share holder or meet the original objectives of the merger
  • 110. Mergers & Acquisitions Knowledge Exchange Terminology Once the more concrete aspects of consolidation, e.g. exchange of financial instrument, legal instruments, physical movement of people, understanding / re-orientation of ICT systems, is over, then the knowledge assets have to be merged and when necessary pruned. The consolidation of knowledge assets is of crucial importance of the so-called post closing management. The term ‘closing’ refers to the closure of the bulk of financial and legal transactions. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIe: Siemens Mergers/Acquisitions
  • 111. Mergers & Acquisitions Knowledge Exchange
    • Merger
    • Siemens Information and Communication Products (Germany) and Fujitsu Corp (Japan) combined or merged their PC, server and main frame business to form Fujitsu Siemens computers with headquarters in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    • Demerger
      • Siemens Information and Communication Products sold
      • Siemens Nixdorf Retail and Banking systems - retail banking and point of sale terminals (itself a merger of Siemens GmBH and Nixdorff Information System in the early 1990’s)
      • Communications Cable Business (filter optic and other cables)
    • Joint venture
    • Siemens Information and Communication Mobile (Germany) and NEC (Japan) created Mobisphere (U/C)
    B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIe: Siemens Mergers/Acquisitions
  • 112. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIe: Siemens Mergers/Acquisitions Mergers & Acquisitions Knowledge Exchange Mergers and acquisitions :One important aspect of consolidation is to assess which of the assets are to be preserved and nurtured and which of the assets have to be sold off or otherwise disposed. The noun divestment is used which is rotted in the verb divest which in general language means ‘to deprive, as of rights or property; dispossess’. The term divestment is probably the antonym of investment , which has as one of its meanings ‘Property or another possession acquired for future financial return or benefit’ and is rooted in the verb invest - ‘to commit (money or capital) in order to gain financial return’.
  • 113. Mergers & Acquisitions Knowledge Exchange B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIe: Siemens Mergers/Acquisitions
  • 114. Mergers & Acquisitions Knowledge Exchange MAKE is a network of distributed expertise. The expertise, or the documented expertise was made available through an Intranet platform. A common language for sharing knowledge across different areas of M&A expertise. B EST P RACTICE CASE STUDY IIe: Siemens Mergers/Acquisitions
  • 115. K NOWLEDGE M ANAGEMENT AFTERWORD There is much discussion about the intellectual capital of large and small organisations amongst management scholars, sociologists, and in the emergent discipline of knowledge management. Intellectual capital is a term coined to distinguish this kind of wealth from material capital - the real-estate and financial instruments comprising an organisation.
  • 116. K NOWLEDGE M ANAGEMENT REVISION Case Studies {Xerox; Honda, Canon} Matsushita, APQC, Siemens (4) British Petroleum, Microsoft. Theory/Empirical Framework Nonaka & Takeuchi Cybernetics & Feedback: Agyris and others
  • 117. K NOWLEDGE M ANAGEMENT REVISION 1. Innovation Case Studies Xerox; Canon; Sharp 2. Theory/Empirical Framework Nonaka & Takeuchi K. Conversion Feedback systems 3. Best Practice Microsoft Software Development Siemens IIa-IId
  • 118. K NOWLEDGE M ANAGEMENT REVISION
    • Themes:
    • Ownership, Management, Expertise
    • Learning Organisations  Feedback; Discovery; Observation; Teaching
    • Innovation and Change; Knowledge Spirals
    • Best Practice and Improvement
    • IT solutions for KM are only a part of the solution
    • KNOWLEDGE CONVERSION: People involved, tasks performed, technology used.
  • 119. K NOWLEDGE M GMT. S YSTEMS COURSEWORK
    • Case Study: Key points from a KM context – innovation, change, learning;
    • Relate to a framework (N+T, S-B, S-A)?
    • 4-5 Pages (Try more)
    • The use of technology in support of KM
    • WHAT DO YOU THINK ABOUT THE CASE STUDY?
    • Tabulate facts; analyse facts; give opinions
  • 120. The Two Systems of Inter-organisational Relations Permeable Absorptive Win-win Organic Open-end Homeochaos Dichotomous Antagonistic Win-lose Mechanistic Dead end, cul-de-sac Homeostasis Attributes Commitment Co-creation Co-advancement Bargaining Distribution Survival Requirements Objectives Clustered Single or parallel sourcing Risk sharing Profit sharing Arm’s length Bidding Multiple sourcing Short term contracts Control Structure Safeguard Boundary-less & Cross-functional Delineative Organisation Relational Process Parallel & Concurrent Functional Result Serial &Sequential Skills Information Information Processing Constituent & Synergetic Self-reflective, retrospective Central & Unilateral Decision-Making Symbiosis System Exploitation System Inter-organisational Relations
  • 121. Gap Between Advanced Countries and Samsung in the Semiconductor industry Development Time Sample Shipment Time First in the world At par with Japan & US At par with Japan & US 1 year 1 ½ years 3 ½ years Gap 2 nd half of 1994 2 nd half of 1991 2 nd half of 1989 2 nd half of 1987 1 st half of 1986 1 st half of 1984 Pioneer in Korea 2 nd half of 1991 2 nd half of 1989 2 nd half of 1986 2 nd half of 1984 1 st half of 1980 Pioneer in US & Japan mid 1995 Late 1992 Early 1990 Late 1987 1985 1985 1979 Pioneer in US & Japan Early 1995 Late 1992 mid 1990 Early 1988 1986 1984 1983 Pioneer in Korea Ahead of Japan & US At par with Japan & US 3 months 6 months 1 year 2 years 4 years Gap 256M DRAM 64M DRAM 16M DRAM 4M DRAM 1M DRAM 256K DRAM 64K DRAM
  • 122. Technology and Cooperation A system supporting cooperative processes should provide its users with the following services, independent of their mutual spatial and / or temporal distance (the list is not exhaustive; see also (Agostini, De Michelis, and Grasso, 1997): Recording all the events characterising a cooperative process together with the documents generated and exchanged in it, linking them in such a way as to reflect the history of which they are a part; Recording the knowledge created by earning from past experiences, helping users to design and change the plans they can use to perform their activities and to enact them when needed; Situating, in any moment, users in the appropriate context, making them accessible to knowledge about the cooperative process where they are performing.