The advantage of Jatropha is that it can be grown on marginal land, and is non edidable. It will not compete with food crops. The yield of jatropha is around 3000 kg/acre of seed, and around 2 tonnes per hectare of oil (compared with 5 tonnes per hectare of palm oil, 750 kg per hectare for rapeseed). Rapeseed is around 1000 kg/acre of seed. Looking to improve yields with breeding programmes. It requires about 10% of the water of palm trees, needs well drained soil and does not thrive in rainforest areas, grows in areas with an average minimum temperature of 20 deg C and rainfall down to 300mm. BP treats the seeds and the oils as toxic and has put into place strict HSSE rules for the handling and growing of the crop.
BP‘s Perspective on Future Fuels Wolfgang Dörmer, GFT, Bochum
In the past much effort on fossil fuels quality was made
to reduce emissions from both gasoline and diesel vehicles.
to allow introduction of improved vehicles technology with lower emissions and exhaust after treatment systems.
to offer advantages for customers in many cases performance, fuel economy etc.).
Improved fuels quality result in lower emissions End point Volatility; vapour pressure Adjustment of distillation characteristics Down to max. 10mg/kg Down to max. 10mg/kg Reduction of sulphur PAH’s Aromatics Reduction of Aromatics Higher cetane number Higher octane numbers Increase of ignition quality 1987 in GY In the seventies Introduction of performance additives Lubrifiers FM Introduction of FM and Lubrifiers - Lead free in most countries Replacement of lead Diesel Gasoline Measures
Key drivers in moving towards sustainable mobility solutions:
Climate change issues
Security of supply & Energy diversification
Biofuels address both of these issues
Drivers for change towards biofuels
CO 2 Water (vapour ) FCKW Nitrous oxide Ozone Methan etc. Bio Fuels Biomass Photosynthesis CO 2 -Absorption GHG‘s from other sources Absorption of CO 2 by Plants results into better GHG-Balance of fossil Fuels Both fossil and biofuels produce Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. But plants, from which biofuels are often produced, have absorbed CO 2 from environment for growing. So use of biofuels can result in significant CO2 reductions. Principle of a closed CO 2 loop
How can biomass be used to manufacture renewable Fuels? Energy from seed engines chemicals/fertiliser A g r i c u l t u r e Oil mills / Raffination Production process (distillation/dehydration ) rape sugar beets/wheat process energy Esterification Etherification Hydro carbons Otto engine Use in crude refinery (Co-processing) or in separate process Ethanol or ETBE rape-oil (refined) FAME (RME) diesel Diesel engine rape-oil (pure) HVO Methanol
Politics push Biofuels Implementation (Example Germany) 4.4% 4.4% 4.4% 4.4% 4.4% 4.4% 4.4% 4.4% 4.4% 3.6% 2.8% 2.0% 1.2% 3.6% 3.6% 3.6% 3.6% 3.6% [Year] 6.25% 6.75% 7.00% 7.25% 7.50% 7.75% 8.00% Energy content [EC %] Combined quota *) Diesel-quota Gasoline-quota In 2007 und 2008 single quotas for biofuels are mandatory for blending into Gasoline and Diesel fuels. Until 2009 a combined quota regulates the total content of biofuels. Discussion on increase up to 17% EC from 2020 on !! Topping of a specific single quota can not be used to complete other failed quota 5.6% EtOH by volume 4.8% FAME by volume
Today’s EN fuel standards do not allow to fulfill bio quota from 2009 on (example Germany) Enhancement of biofuels can result in higher CO2 savings. To use this advantage adjustment of today’s fuel standards to allow higher bio blend rates is mandatory. BP is supporting both higher blend rates to achieve higher CO2 savings and excellent fuel quality to satisfy customers. * Values by volume are higher Required quota by Biofuel law Non compliance causes tax penalties 6.5 Maximum achievable with updated standards allowing higher Bio-contents up to 10% 4.8 Maximum achievable with current standards EN 228 and EN 590 allowing up to 5% Biofuels only 6.25 Combined quota for all fuels [% Energy content * 2009
Biofuels: future potential world wide The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates the global potential of biofuels up to 30% of the total demand of transport fuels in 2050: source: IEA, BP According IEA estimates 30% biofuels possible in 2050
On the way to 2 nd generation biofuels better molecules for gasoline
Biobutanol for gasoline:
Development of a new fermentation technology for the production of biobutanol from sugar together with our partner DuPont
Biobutanol is a good alternative to Ethanol
allows higher concentrations compared to ethanol without the necessity for vehicle adjustments.
has much lower fuel consuption increase than gasoline mixtures with ethanol.
Biobutanol used as cosolvent with ethanol provides positive effects on vapor pressure and better decomposition behavior in presence of water
On the way to 2 nd generation biofuels better molecules for diesel
Co-Processing of vegetable oils in refineries to diesel fuel:
Utilization of existing hydro treating units, feasibility demonstrated
Conversion to straight chain hydrocarbons in refinery unit
Separate Hydro treating and Isomerization of vegetable oils:
BP has entered into a partnership with the University of California Berkeley and the University of Illinois to establish the Energy Biosciences Institute (EBI). The EBI will focus itself on three key aspects of energy bio sciences:
Development of new, more efficient bio-components for fuels.
Improvement and acceleration of bio-conversion processes and increase of the portion of the biomass employment .
Utilization of modern biotechnologies for biofuel production for the development of those plants with a higher energy output - they are to grow also on land on which no useful plants for the food production can be cultivated.
BP invested 500 million US-$ into the EBI (program start: July 2007)
BP has recently founded the new business division BP BioFuels.
BP recognized and invested the growth potential of Biofuels