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  • 1. PHARE Business Support Programme of the European Union UEAPME - SME FIT II Energy Tool Alberto Boraso Association of Small and Medium Industry of Varese area This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 2. Introduction: global situation This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 3. Introduction: global situation A rise in temperature will be accompanied by changes in climate The resulting increase in global temperatures is alterating the complex web of systems that allow life on earth, such as  - cloud cover, - wind patterns,  - ocean currents, - ocean raise  - rainfall, - season change  - distribution of plant and animal species. This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 4. Introduction: United Nations Framework United Nations Framework believes this could happen and asks for the international response to climate change Kyoto protocol The EU and its Member States ratified the Kyoto Protocol in late May 2002 This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 5. Introduction: Europe Policy The goal of 2020 is the first step the second will be to reduce up to 50% compared to 1990 of 2050 global GHG emissions This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 6. Introduction: Europe Policy If you plan for a year Plant a seed If you plan for a decate Plant a tree If you plan for a century Educate people (Tzu Chuang 300 B.C.) This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 7. Introduction: Europe Policy This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 8. Introduction: Europe Policy  European Council Action plan (2007 -2009)  Energy policy for Europe (EPE): - Internal Market for Gas and Electricity - Security of Supply - International Energy Policy - Energy efficiency and renewable energies - Energy Technologies This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 9. Introduction: EPE  Internal Market for Gas and Electricity : - Effective separation of supply and production activities from network operations - Further harmonisation of the powers and independence of national energy regulators - Establishment of an independent mechanism for national regulators to cooperate and take decisions on important cross-border issues - A more efficient and integrated system for cross-border electricity trade and grid operation This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 10. Introduction: EPE  Security of Supply - Effective diversification of energy sources and transport routes - Developing more effective crisis response mechanisms This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 11. Introduction: EPE  International Energy Policy - The development of a common approach to external energy policy has to be speeded up This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 12. Introduction: EPE  Energy efficiency and renewable energies - stresses the need to increase energy efficiency in the EU so as to achieve the objective of saving 20 % of the EU's energy consumption compared to projections for 2020 - a binding target of a 20 % share of renewable energies in overall EU energy consumption by 2020; - a 10 % binding minimum target to be achieved by all Member States for the share of biofuels in overall EU transport petrol and diesel consumption by 2020 This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 13. Introduction: EPE  Energy Technologies - Recognizing the need to strengthen energy research - Accelerate the competitiveness of sustainable energies, notably renewables, and low carbon technologies - Development of energy efficiency technologies This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 14. Impact on Smes: Where we are? This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 15. Impact on Smes: Consequences Companies needs to join in the European-wide effort to cut down on energy waste and contribute to generate green energy.  Several new measures are to be taken:  efficiency requirements for energy-using equipment,  technological upgrade of production processes,  stronger action on energy use in buildings,  green energy. This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 16. Impact on Smes: Why Trasmission Efficency of lost 7% primary Primary energy energy Trasmission Final Use conversion 38% Electric power from termoelectric plant Save 1 kWh => Save 2,8 primary energy source ENEA This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 17. Impact on Smes: Topics  To achieve a rational use of energy the following topics and sources of consumption should be taken into account: - Tariff - Energy balance - Lighting - Office equipment - Electric motor - Peak and power factor - Heating, Air-conditioning and Ventilation - Compressed air and distribution systems This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 18. Impact on Smes: Topics - Tariff This is a key process to identify how energy cost savings are achieved by reducing one of two main components: - Energy rate/ amount pay - Energy consumption This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 19. Energy Negotiation: Consumption Profile This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 20. Impact on Smes: Topics – Energy Balance Analysis of the site’s energy use: - identifying the sources of energy, - determining the amount of energy supplied, - detailing what the energy is used for. Could be useful in order to identify inefficiency This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 21. Impact on Smes: Topics – Lighting Lighting is a major energy consumer in commercial buildings. it is important to be able to check the lighting system, lighting levels and the respective loads. - Lighting savings can be achieved in two ways:  by optimising power density  by reducing operating hours. This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 22. Impact on Smes: Topics – Office equipment 1/2 Office equipment consists of productivity tools such as computers, photocopiers, fax machine and domestic-type equipment such as water boilers, hand dryer, and so on. For energy save companies have to monitor both work time per day and the standby time This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 23. Impact on Smes: Topics – Office equipment 2/2 The technologies that you should have to take in account are:  workstations and monitors, personal computer,  Printers, photocopiers,  fax machines, uninterrupt. power source  Fridges vending machines,  Dishwashers, microwaves,  Hand dryers, personal heaters,  water boilers and coffee machines. This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 24. Impact on Smes: Topics – Electric Motor Electric motor drive systems use up to 90% of all electricity in some large processing plants. The motor drive system can be broken into three main parts: - a mechanical subsystem comprising a drive train to link the motor to the driven load; - a facility power supply system; - a motor/controller subsystem. This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 25. Impact on Smes: Topics – Compressed Air and Distribution Systems 1/2 Compressed air usually serves one of three functions:  source of energy for tools and machines,  powering pneumatic control equipment  cleaning.  Energy waste in compressed air systems is mostly a result of poor compressor efficiency and leaks in the distribution system. This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 26. Impact on Smes: Topics – Compressed Air and Distribution Systems Compressor Compressor This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 27. Impact on Smes: Topics – Compressed Air and Distribution Systems 2/2  There are many ways to reduce compressed air costs by making the compressed air system more energy efficient.  Common opportunities:  - detect and repair leaks - minimise system pressure drop  - use cooler inlet air - control of compressors  - optimise system pressure to a minimum  - reduce inappropriate use and keep efficiency This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 28. Impact on Smes: Topics – Peak and Power factor  Electrical demand is measured in kVA or kW and is the instantaneous power level requirement of a site.  Management of  - Peak distribution  - Lack of generation of reactive energy    savings on electric invoices and efficient electric system This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 29. Impact on Smes: Topics – Heating, Air-conditioning and Ventilation 1/2  A heating, air-conditioning and ventilation plant typically consumes more than 25% of energy used in service or commercial buildings. The basic energy saving principles:  create awareness in order to avoid oversupply  only cool or warm as much as necessary  cool or warm for as long a time as required This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 30. Impact on Smes: Topics – Heating, Air-conditioning and Ventilation 2/2  During the analysis of the heating or air-conditioning plant it should be taken in consideration the building envelope and in particular: - windows: frames and type of glazing - degree of thermal capacity of external walls - roof and floor typology This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 31. Impact on Smes: Topics – CHP COGENERATION AND TRIGENERATION  Cogeneration: Cogeneration is the simultaneous production and utilization of two energy sources electrical and thermal from the same fuel.  Trigeneration: If the need for heating is limited and there is a significant need for cooling, then heat by a cogeneration plant is used to produce cooling, via absorption cycles. This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 32. Impact on Smes: Topics – CHP COGENERATION AND TRIGENERATION This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 33. Impact on Smes: Topics – COGENERATION AND TRIGENERATION  Possible cases for cogeneration use: - Energy-intensive industries, including the chemical, refining, forest products, food, and pharmaceutical sectors. - High power reliability/quality applications, such as telecommunications data centres requiring high-quality, reliable power and substantial cooling capacity. - Institutional markets, hotels, and convention centres where large year-round demands exist for electricity, heating, and cooling. This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 34. PHARE Business Support Programme of the European Union UEAPME - SME FIT II Energy Tool Alberto Boraso Association of Small and Medium Industry of Varese area This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 35. Energy E.: a multiple-choice test Would you rather die of: Amory B. Lovins Chairman and Chief Scientist 1. climate change? Rocky Mountain Institute 2. oil wars? “Winning the Oil Endgame” 3. nuclear holocaust? The right answer, often left out, is: 4. none of the above Let’s just use energy in a way that saves money, because that will solve the climate, oil, and proliferation problems This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 36. Energy E.: Saving energy costs less than buying it IBM and STMicroelectronics CO2 emissions –6%/y, fast paybacks Dow: cut E/lb 22% 1994–2005, $3.3b profit DuPont’s 2000–2010 worldwide goals Energy use/$ –6%/y, GHG = 1990 level –65% By 2006: actually cut GHG 80% below 1990, $3b profit BP’s 2010 CO2 goal met 8 y early, $2b profit GE pledged 2005 to boost its eff. 30% by 2012 Why we say cost for energy saving and not profit ? This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 37. 2007 Vattenfall/McKinsey supply curve for abating global greenhouse gases This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 38. Energy E.: Lighting Same light: 1200 lumen Halogen Compact Incandescent lamps fluorescent light bulb lamp CAT. A kwh = 0,18 Euro Average hour life 1.000 2.000 10.000 Watt 100 watt 60 watt 20 watt Comparison Compact Incandescent light fluorescent lamp bulb 10.000 hours CAT. A (4 hours/day for Buy € 10 X 10 BULBS € 12 / LAMPS 6 years) Consumption € 26,28 € 5,26 6 Year Cost € 167,68 € 43,54 Saving -€ 124,00 This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 39. Energy E.: Lighting Request: Renew lighting plant: Answer by electrician: Change of neon lamps This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 40. Energy E.: Lighting Real operation: • Insert of light tube • Replace neon lamps with fluorescent lamps & electronic ballasts and more efficients diffusers • Reduction of diffusers • Automatic light dimmer only in particular places • Introduction of switch-off campaign Incremental cost 24.000€ Advantage: Pay back 5Year • Reducing operating hours • Right lumes in right place This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 41. Energy policy: example Request: Change of windows because old First suggest: Replace windows with similar glasses in order to use the same metal joint This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 42. Energy policy: example Incremental Cost: Windows: + 54.500 € Metal joint: + 15.000 € Lighting: + 12.500 € _______________ + 82.000 € HVAC - 105.000 € Single expenditures and multiple _______________ benefits - Capital costs Total - 33.000 € - Save energy - Renew technology This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 43. Energy E.: Heat Exchanger Request: Cleaning Heat Exchanger It was calculeted micro depots generate by flow result in 10% lost of efficency Solution: Small sponge spheres insert in the plant are trail by the cooling flow avoid depots before their consolidation Saving 475.000 $/Year & payback 8 months Source: ST Microelectronic This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 44. Energy E.: Cooling Cooling In temperate climate zone it is possible to use the refrigerating power of the air. Water neccessary for controlling the plants temperature is made flow in open air before returning to refrigeratingg plants The refrigerating plants could be switched-off till 6 months Source: ST Microelectronic This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 45. Passive comfort in cold, cloudy climates like Germany (Passivhaus Institut) http://www.passiv.de, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passive_house; Affordable Comfort - Total primary energy use ≤120 kWh/m2-y No central heating system; - ≤15 kWh/m2-y & <10 W/m2 heating can add small exhaust-air heat energy—5–25% of U.S. allowables pump or solar panel if desired, - k-0.10–0.15 (k-0.066 roof in Sweden), but not necessary airtight, high comfort, loses <0.5 C°/d - Zero marginal capital cost w/ 0 el. (at least at <60°N lat) - >10k built in 5 EU nations; Vorarlberg (ÖS) standard This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 46. Energy E.: Pumping design mentality Industrial pumping loop cuts power from 70.8 to 5.7 kW (–92%) -Remake costs less and works better - Just two changes in design conception source RMI This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 47. Energy E.: Losses Trasmission lost 7% Efficency of primary energy conversion Pimary energy 38% Trasmission Final Use Electric power from termoelectric plant Save 1 kWh => Save 2,8 primary energy Losses: source ENEA Pump 25% Motor 10% throtle 33% Pipe 20% Drivetrain 2% Energy Output source RMI 9,5 % This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 48. Energy E.: Pumping design conception 1. Big Pipes, Small Pumps (not the opposite) 2. Lay out the pipes first, then the equipment (not the reverse) source RMI This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 49. Energy E.: No new technologies, just two design changes - Fat, short, straight pipes — not thin, long, crooked pipes! - Benefits counted * 12x less pumping energy * Lower capital cost Pumping is the world’s - ―Bonus‖ benefit also captured biggest use of motors, * 70 kW lower heat loss from pipes fans (same physics); - Additional benefits not counted both total ~50% * Less space, weight, and noise * Clean layout for easy maintenance access * Needs little maintenance, yet better uptime * Longer equipment life - Count these and save… >90% source RMI This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 50. The nine dots problem This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 51. The nine dots problem This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 52. The nine dots problem This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 53. The nine dots problem This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 54. The nine dots problem This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 55. The nine dots problem This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 56. Cost / Return ... advance mentality Short mentality This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 57. Energy E.: Technologies Development of energy efficiency technologies This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 58. Energy E.: Means Shortly saving energy means:  Open mind  Technology  Make calculation consider all life of equipment (“In God I trust, Other bring data”) This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 59. TOOL: Energy Audit  Energy audit model o The energy audit model will be an analysing model o It is a targeted energy audit at the “widest” end of the scale. o It covers all energy usage of the site, including mechanical and electrical systems, process supply systems, all energy using processes, etc.. This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 60. TOOL: Energy Audit  The audit has to determine how: o identify energy, o efficiently energy is being used, o cost saving opportunities, o highlight potential improvements in comfort and productivity. This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 61. TOOL: Energy Audit Guideline  Guidelines for Energy Audit: o Define Energy manager. o Define Goal. o Data collection. o State of the art and savings opportunities This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.
  • 62. PHARE Business Support Programme of the European Union UEAPME - SME FIT II Thank you! Energy Tool Alberto Boraso – API Varese This project is funded by the European Union under the PHARE Business Support Programme and implemented by UEAPME and its partners. The content of this document does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Commission.