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Hydrogen and Future US Energy Supplies Prof. Mahdi Abu-Omar Chemistry Department CoBank 2008 Energy and Water Executive Fo...
Global Energy Consumption
 
Climate Change Source: Carbon Dioxide Info Analysis Center
Planes, Trains, & Automobiles
US Energy Flow
Major oil trade movements BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2007
US Oil Imports in 2006 100 647.7 Total 2.8 17.9 Old Russia 20.3 131.5 Africa 8.3 54.0 Norway 13.0 84.4 Mexico 17.5 113.6 C...
Need to produce liquid  fuel Renewable & Sustainable
Biofuels <ul><li>Administration sets renewable motor vehicle (liquid) fuel goal to  7.5 billion gal  by 2012. </li></ul><u...
A Fuel Carbon dioxide
The Element Hydrogen
H 2  & Its Abundance <ul><li>Physical Properties: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Density = 0.0899 g/L (cf. water = 1000 g/L) </li><...
Forms of Hydrogen on Earth <ul><li>Not  as hydrogen (H 2 ) gas. </li></ul><ul><li>Lots and lots in compounds: </li></ul><u...
Challenges Source Utilization Safety Storage Renewable Noncarbon Solid state Chemical Fuel Cell
Safety is Important Hindenburg at Lakehurst, NY on 5/6/1937 Iron oxide & aluminum paint!
The Hydrogen Economy:  Fiction or Science? <ul><li>President Bush has made the development of a hydrogen economy a major p...
Best Source of Hydrogen 19 million tons per year in the U.S. alone
Challenges Source Utilization Safety Storage Renewable Noncarbon Solid state Chemical Fuel Cell
Conclusion <ul><li>We are all going to DIE! </li></ul>
There is hope! <ul><li>[Genesis]: “(1) In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.  (2) Now the earth was form...
Solar Conversion to Fuel Light Photosynthesis Fuels  Electricity Photovoltaics Semiconductor/Catalyst sc e M Heat  H  O O ...
Nuclear Solar Wind H 2 O Biomass Fossil fuel Natural gas Coal H 2 Production Storage H 2 Fuel Cells (Automotive) Electroni...
Water is the Ultimate Source <ul><li>Electrolysis ($?) </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical splitting </li></ul><ul><li>Solar & bioi...
Nuclear Solar Wind H 2 O Biomass Fossil fuel Natural gas Coal Sources                Novel chemistry that make pol...
Challenges Source Utilization Safety Storage Renewable Noncarbon Solid state Chemical Fuel Cell
A BIG Challenge <ul><li>Density of H 2  = 0.0899 g/L (cf. water = 1000 g/L). </li></ul><ul><li>Towing a football field is ...
DOE Road Map
Need to produce liquid fuel Solar H 2 O Biomass H 2 Storage The Big Challenge          Liquid Fuel CO 2 
Challenges Source Utilization Safety Storage Renewable Noncarbon Solid state Chemical Fuel Cell
Utilizing Hydrogen as a Fuel <ul><li>2H 2  + O 2  -> 2H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>Isooctane (C 8 H 18 ) + O 2  -> CO 2  + H 2 ...
Fuel Cell Stack GM Equinox designed to last 50,000 miles
Research in Fuel Cells <ul><li>Catalyst is expensive! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>180 g Pt in ~150 kW </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can...
Present & Future Prospects Honda’s Hydrogen Home Energy Station (2005) <ul><li>Uses natural gas (CH 4 ) </li></ul><ul><li>...
CIS Tower in Manchester In Hong Kong
Photosynthesis Electricity sc M H 2 CO 2 or biomass Liquid Fuel CO 2 H  O O H 2 2 2 Sc  & Cat. M e
 
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An Overview of Hydrogen Power

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Transcript of "An Overview of Hydrogen Power"

  1. 1. Hydrogen and Future US Energy Supplies Prof. Mahdi Abu-Omar Chemistry Department CoBank 2008 Energy and Water Executive Forum August 12, 2008
  2. 2. Global Energy Consumption
  3. 4. Climate Change Source: Carbon Dioxide Info Analysis Center
  4. 5. Planes, Trains, & Automobiles
  5. 6. US Energy Flow
  6. 7. Major oil trade movements BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2007
  7. 8. US Oil Imports in 2006 100 647.7 Total 2.8 17.9 Old Russia 20.3 131.5 Africa 8.3 54.0 Norway 13.0 84.4 Mexico 17.5 113.6 Canada 17.5 113.2 Middle East 20.5 133.1 Central & South America Percent (%) Million tons Country/Region
  8. 9. Need to produce liquid fuel Renewable & Sustainable
  9. 10. Biofuels <ul><li>Administration sets renewable motor vehicle (liquid) fuel goal to 7.5 billion gal by 2012. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2006, the U.S. produced 4.1 billion gal of bioethanol: 2% of gasoline use and 1/6 of corn crop. </li></ul><ul><li>All of Texas (262,000 square miles) needs to be planted with corn to provide ca. 40% of our transportation fuel need! </li></ul>Source: C&E News April 16, 2007, p. 34.
  10. 11. A Fuel Carbon dioxide
  11. 12. The Element Hydrogen
  12. 13. H 2 & Its Abundance <ul><li>Physical Properties: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Density = 0.0899 g/L (cf. water = 1000 g/L) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boiling point = -423 °F (-253 ° C) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Melting point = -434 ° F (-259 ° C) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coldest temp in Antarctica (7/21/1983) = -129 ° F (-89 ° C) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flash point = -423 ° F </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abundance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most abundant element in the known Universe. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 th in the Earth’s crust & 3 rd in organisms. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Forms of Hydrogen on Earth <ul><li>Not as hydrogen (H 2 ) gas. </li></ul><ul><li>Lots and lots in compounds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water H 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural gas CH 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gasoline -(CH 2 ) n - </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ammonia NH 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biomass </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Challenges Source Utilization Safety Storage Renewable Noncarbon Solid state Chemical Fuel Cell
  15. 16. Safety is Important Hindenburg at Lakehurst, NY on 5/6/1937 Iron oxide & aluminum paint!
  16. 17. The Hydrogen Economy: Fiction or Science? <ul><li>President Bush has made the development of a hydrogen economy a major priority. (June 2003, www.whitehouse.gov ) </li></ul><ul><li>Providing a cleaner and more secure energy future through hydrogen fuel technology. (President Bush’s technology agenda, June 2004). </li></ul>Our economy already uses/relies on hydrogen tremendously!!
  17. 18. Best Source of Hydrogen 19 million tons per year in the U.S. alone
  18. 19. Challenges Source Utilization Safety Storage Renewable Noncarbon Solid state Chemical Fuel Cell
  19. 20. Conclusion <ul><li>We are all going to DIE! </li></ul>
  20. 21. There is hope! <ul><li>[Genesis]: “(1) In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.  (2) Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters. </li></ul><ul><li>  (3) And God said, &quot;Let there be light ,&quot; and there was light. (4) God saw that the light was good , and He separated the light from the darkness.” </li></ul>14 TW/year Energy from sunlight in 1 hour 1.76 x 10 5 TW/year
  21. 22. Solar Conversion to Fuel Light Photosynthesis Fuels Electricity Photovoltaics Semiconductor/Catalyst sc e M Heat H O O H 2 2 2 Sc & Cat. M e CO Sugar H O O 2 2 2
  22. 23. Nuclear Solar Wind H 2 O Biomass Fossil fuel Natural gas Coal H 2 Production Storage H 2 Fuel Cells (Automotive) Electronics Stationary (electricity/heat) Use     
  23. 24. Water is the Ultimate Source <ul><li>Electrolysis ($?) </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical splitting </li></ul><ul><li>Solar & bioinspired </li></ul>
  24. 25. Nuclear Solar Wind H 2 O Biomass Fossil fuel Natural gas Coal Sources      Novel chemistry that make polluting sources green Natural gas
  25. 26. Challenges Source Utilization Safety Storage Renewable Noncarbon Solid state Chemical Fuel Cell
  26. 27. A BIG Challenge <ul><li>Density of H 2 = 0.0899 g/L (cf. water = 1000 g/L). </li></ul><ul><li>Towing a football field is not practical! </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen pipeline? </li></ul><ul><li>High pressure!! </li></ul>5000 – 10,000 psi
  27. 28. DOE Road Map
  28. 29. Need to produce liquid fuel Solar H 2 O Biomass H 2 Storage The Big Challenge    Liquid Fuel CO 2 
  29. 30. Challenges Source Utilization Safety Storage Renewable Noncarbon Solid state Chemical Fuel Cell
  30. 31. Utilizing Hydrogen as a Fuel <ul><li>2H 2 + O 2 -> 2H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>Isooctane (C 8 H 18 ) + O 2 -> CO 2 + H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>Combustion of hydrogen is not efficient. </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel Cell technology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nafion 100W-500kW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>70-120 °C 30-50% (system) </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Fuel Cell Stack GM Equinox designed to last 50,000 miles
  32. 33. Research in Fuel Cells <ul><li>Catalyst is expensive! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>180 g Pt in ~150 kW </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can we learn from nature and devise cheap catalysts? </li></ul><ul><li>Membrane research to manage water. </li></ul>
  33. 34. Present & Future Prospects Honda’s Hydrogen Home Energy Station (2005) <ul><li>Uses natural gas (CH 4 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Mini reformer station </li></ul><ul><li>Some storage capacity </li></ul>
  34. 35. CIS Tower in Manchester In Hong Kong
  35. 36. Photosynthesis Electricity sc M H 2 CO 2 or biomass Liquid Fuel CO 2 H O O H 2 2 2 Sc & Cat. M e
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