The Forty Minute Boot Camp




        Bob Stewart
Warrior: armed with Chain Gun and 30mm
         Cannon which can carry 10 soldiers



March 1991: Command of an infantry b...
Main Building, Ministry of Defence


Warned for Operations in the Balkans but:
                 No Mission
               ...
The MOD reckoned
                          casualties could be
                            one in four …

                ...
Major, NI, 1982
           Ballykelly Bomb Site




On 6th December 1982 I had lost 6 soldiers killed and
            35 w...
Rupert Smith

  At MOD Briefing
General Rupert Smith
gave me this note …
Germany August 1992       Bosnia February 1993



  The experience was to age me rapidly!
A refugee child carried across the front
        lines at Turbe in January 1993



Principal Guide was my own Mission
    ...
Talking to the Advance Party at Vitez in September 1992



  Three Decision Making Tools
Tool 1

      Mission Analysis
1. What requires to be achieved?
2. What tasks are crucial to that?
3. What resources/const...
Tool 2

                       The Estimate
1.   Mission
     • What must I do?
2.   Factors (for each factor ask ‘So What...
Painting showing recovery of LCpl Wayne
Edwards’ Warrior armoured vehicle after his
             death in action

        ...
Warriors operating in the mountains, Central Bosnia




      Operational Examples
Operational Example
   Mortar Attack




            Warrior armoured vehicles
               HQ British Forces
          ...
Battalion Headquarters and
   Logistics Base at Vitez



                                                                 ...
Mortars arrive
                                  from high
                                  elevation and
               ...
Before                       After




So far we were lucky but what if it happened again?
Rules of Engagement



 Where was the mortar
       fired from?
      But anyway
 Rules of Engagement
  disallowed me from...
What could I do?
Rules of Engagement were very difficult on this matter
Mission Analysis

1. What requires to be achieved?
2. What tasks are crucial to that?
3. What resources/constraints apply?...
Medium mortars have a maximum range
       of about 5,600 metres.
The mortar location must be within that
        radius f...
My Intelligence Section
  confirmed the presence of
three mortar locations close to
           the base

                 ...
I visited each mortar position and warned that
  if they fired again at my camp I would take
       effective action again...
…. and then placed covert observation patrols close
  to each mortar so that I knew when they fired!




       STARI VITE...
Mortar base plate photographed covertly
Two days later we were attacked again
 … but this time I knew which mortar
          position had fired!




 STARI VITEZ ...
My Warrior – ‘Juliet’



Immediately I left with two Warrior vehicles
….driving directly to the offending
mortar base plate position …




       STARI VITEZ   Battalion HQ



                ...
… and squashed the mortar tubes by driving           Splat!!
       over them with my Warrior!




      STARI VITEZ   Bat...
Replenishment in the Field


              Result
  No Rule of Engagement broken
No more mortars landed at the base
An elderly couple in the back of an
armoured vehicle – an ‘illegal’ UN
activity!




Operational Example
 Ethics under Fire
Moving into the fighting in the Lasva Valley




          February 1993
Tactical HQ and
Logistics Base
A truck bomb 400 metres from our Logistics
          Base killed many people
It was rotten work
Our mass grave contained over 100 bodies
A platoon commander trying to stop the fighting




I had no mandate to stop the fighting!
Honours being paid where Wayne Edwards died




       I had already lost
Lance Corporal Wayne Edwards
The Logistics Base at Vitez



Bosnian Muslims pleaded for protection at the
         gates of my logistics base
Garage and
                                            Vehicle Park
                           d
                      R o...
Meeting with the Prime Minister in Bosnia



Pressure from directly conflicting orders
Civilians begging for help
   outside the Logistics Base



Even more pressure - people were dying
Challenging the Status Quo

How it’s done now
     Strategy       Can the strategy be revised?
                    Not imm...
We used armour to form a wall like this


We protected civilians with a wall of armour
Patrolling in the Battle – Vitez, February 1993



We patrolled aggressively –
  shooting two snipers
We brought in shelter, food and blankets
Area calmed and civilians back to their
         homes within hours
Operational Example
Helping Refugees to escape from Srebrenica
March 1993
The Bosnian Serb Army surrounds Srebrenica in
     Eastern Bosnia and shells the people
Croatia                                          Serbia

Zagreb                                                           ...
Rugged countryside around Tuzla
We had opened a line crossing East of the City
B Squadron Scimitar moving in Bosnian Serb territory



Major Alan Abraham, OC B Squadron 9/12th Lancers,
       given Mis...
Overnight stop in mountains Bosnian Serb territory




Major Alan Abraham took three days to traverse
   Bosnian Serb terr...
Writing Mission Analysis in PUMA helicopter
         flying to Tuzla Base on 13 Mar 93



Mission Analysis in PUMA helicop...
Our land route
British UN Puma Helicopter in Bosnia


 Request for British helicopters to go into Srebrenica -
rejected by MOD – too dang...
B Squadron 9/12th Lancers near Srebrenica
                     March 1993



B Squadron were in very dangerous position
  ...
The need was great
Spoke on radio to General Philippe Morillon
        French UN Commander
The French sent helicopters
The BBC helped - saying what was happening…
then we had British helicopter support too
The UNHCR evacuated people through
         the land route
Between 2,000 – 3,000 people were evacuated to
                safety in Tuzla
At Ahmici Massacre Site
   with RSM Stevens on
      22nd April 1993


Operational Example
      Ahmici
Thursday 22nd Apri...
Ethnic Cleansing in operation
                    Vitez, April 1993




Battle between Croats and Muslims broke out in
   ...
The Intelligence Situation in the
                   Lasva Valley on 22nd April 1993
                                     ...
Jean-Pierre Thebault



                 Jean-Pierre Thebault,
   Ambassador European Community Monitoring Mission,
formal...
Muslim Front Lines
                               Dubravica



How could I approach front line positions quickly?
     Wha...
Bosnian Muslim Forces            Dubravica

                          Checkpoint




    STANDARD WAY TO APPROACH FRONT LI...
Dubravica
       Bosnian Muslim Forces
                                        Checkpoint




                  RISKY NEW ...
Risk Analysis for 21 April 1993
     (from Operational Notebook)
Mission Analysis
 What requires to be achieved?
 What tasks are crucial to that?
What resources/constraints apply?


     ...
Mission Analysis
for 22nd April 1993
Planned Route: out and
                back through Bosnian
                  Croat Checkpoint
                           ...
Leaving Battalion Headquarters at 0900hrs
Actions until 1130hrs

                                              Dubravica

                       Approximate
       ...
Approaching the Muslim Front Line Positions
The Muslim Front Lines were on the high ground
          and dominating the valley
Stopped amongst the Muslim Front Line Positions
Being told by the Muslims that many women and
    children had been massacred at Ahmici
Actions from 1130 – 1430hrs


                                              Dubravica

                        Approximate...
Arriving in Ahmici 22nd April 1993


                  Houses




         Mosque                Attacked
                ...
The tumbled minaret of the Ahmici Mosque
 became a symbol of genocide in Bosnia
         right across the World
Ahmici 22 April 1993



Arriving at the far end of Ahmici Village I ordered a
              sweep through all houses
Ahmici Operation                       Start Line
                   1500 – 1900hrs
                   22nd April 1993

  ...
What we found at Ahmici devasted us
Ahmici; 22nd April 1993


But what could I do?
Mission Analysis
Speaking to BBC, ITV, SKY, CBS and CNN journalists



 Briefing the international media on what had
happened and who I tho...
… thus publicising what
 was happening to the
  World - against my
  explicit instructions.
       ………..
    But the Genev...
Under fire again at Ahmici a few days later




Establishing a ceasefire took 3 more days of
           work on the battle...
Summary
   In Bosnia nobody starved, froze or failed to
receive medical supplies in our area. But we lost
     3 people an...
The Army taught that nobody but a
    qualified engineer should clear mines
    – but we had to do it or fail!




Leaders...
Business Management And Strategy Drawing Upon Lessons From Real Life Military Scenarios 1 Bob Stewart
Business Management And Strategy Drawing Upon Lessons From Real Life Military Scenarios 1 Bob Stewart
Business Management And Strategy Drawing Upon Lessons From Real Life Military Scenarios 1 Bob Stewart
Business Management And Strategy Drawing Upon Lessons From Real Life Military Scenarios 1 Bob Stewart
Business Management And Strategy Drawing Upon Lessons From Real Life Military Scenarios 1 Bob Stewart
Business Management And Strategy Drawing Upon Lessons From Real Life Military Scenarios 1 Bob Stewart
Business Management And Strategy Drawing Upon Lessons From Real Life Military Scenarios 1 Bob Stewart
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Business Management And Strategy Drawing Upon Lessons From Real Life Military Scenarios 1 Bob Stewart

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Boot Camp. Business Management & Strategy Drawing Upon Lessons From Real Life Military Scenarios. Colonel Bob Stewart DSO. Presentation given at the BPUG congress, London, 2009

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Business Management And Strategy Drawing Upon Lessons From Real Life Military Scenarios 1 Bob Stewart

  1. 1. The Forty Minute Boot Camp Bob Stewart
  2. 2. Warrior: armed with Chain Gun and 30mm Cannon which can carry 10 soldiers March 1991: Command of an infantry battalion equipped with 50 Warrior armoured vehicles
  3. 3. Main Building, Ministry of Defence Warned for Operations in the Balkans but: No Mission No Plan No Location
  4. 4. The MOD reckoned casualties could be one in four … … and the Press warned thousands Two wounded soldiers in Bosnia January 1993 would die regardless
  5. 5. Major, NI, 1982 Ballykelly Bomb Site On 6th December 1982 I had lost 6 soldiers killed and 35 wounded out of 120 soldiers in the Ballykelly Bomb, Northern Ireland
  6. 6. Rupert Smith At MOD Briefing General Rupert Smith gave me this note …
  7. 7. Germany August 1992 Bosnia February 1993 The experience was to age me rapidly!
  8. 8. A refugee child carried across the front lines at Turbe in January 1993 Principal Guide was my own Mission To Save Lives
  9. 9. Talking to the Advance Party at Vitez in September 1992 Three Decision Making Tools
  10. 10. Tool 1 Mission Analysis 1. What requires to be achieved? 2. What tasks are crucial to that? 3. What resources/constraints apply? Ideas for Plan
  11. 11. Tool 2 The Estimate 1. Mission • What must I do? 2. Factors (for each factor ask ‘So What?’) • Strategy/Politics • Opposition • Own Resources • Risks • Region • Timings • Costs 3. Courses Open • Assess ‘Advantages’ and ‘Disadvantages’ and select best one 4. Plan • Mission • Execution of Plan • Coordination
  12. 12. Painting showing recovery of LCpl Wayne Edwards’ Warrior armoured vehicle after his death in action Tool 3 Risk Assessment Capabilities x Intentions = Risk
  13. 13. Warriors operating in the mountains, Central Bosnia Operational Examples
  14. 14. Operational Example Mortar Attack Warrior armoured vehicles HQ British Forces Vitez, Central Bosnia
  15. 15. Battalion Headquarters and Logistics Base at Vitez hours Sarajevo 2 STARI VITEZ Battalion HQ Logistics Base River Lasva VITEZ North 1,000 metres
  16. 16. Mortars arrive from high elevation and are indirect fire weapons STARI VITEZ Battalion HQ Logistics Base Early December 1992 VITEZ Twice we came under mortar attack – luckily only causing slight damage
  17. 17. Before After So far we were lucky but what if it happened again?
  18. 18. Rules of Engagement Where was the mortar fired from? But anyway Rules of Engagement disallowed me from opening fire at mortars!
  19. 19. What could I do? Rules of Engagement were very difficult on this matter
  20. 20. Mission Analysis 1. What requires to be achieved? 2. What tasks are crucial to that? 3. What resources/constraints apply? Ideas for Plan
  21. 21. Medium mortars have a maximum range of about 5,600 metres. The mortar location must be within that radius from the base. s m etre 0 5 ,6 0 STARI VITEZ Battalion HQ Logistics Base VITEZ
  22. 22. My Intelligence Section confirmed the presence of three mortar locations close to the base re s 0 m et 5 ,6 0 STARI VITEZ Battalion HQ Logistics Base VITEZ
  23. 23. I visited each mortar position and warned that if they fired again at my camp I would take effective action against them……… STARI VITEZ Battalion HQ Logistics Base VITEZ
  24. 24. …. and then placed covert observation patrols close to each mortar so that I knew when they fired! STARI VITEZ Battalion HQ Logistics Base VITEZ
  25. 25. Mortar base plate photographed covertly
  26. 26. Two days later we were attacked again … but this time I knew which mortar position had fired! STARI VITEZ Battalion HQ Logistics Base VITEZ
  27. 27. My Warrior – ‘Juliet’ Immediately I left with two Warrior vehicles
  28. 28. ….driving directly to the offending mortar base plate position … STARI VITEZ Battalion HQ Logistics Base VITEZ
  29. 29. … and squashed the mortar tubes by driving Splat!! over them with my Warrior! STARI VITEZ Battalion HQ Logistics Base VITEZ
  30. 30. Replenishment in the Field Result No Rule of Engagement broken No more mortars landed at the base
  31. 31. An elderly couple in the back of an armoured vehicle – an ‘illegal’ UN activity! Operational Example Ethics under Fire
  32. 32. Moving into the fighting in the Lasva Valley February 1993
  33. 33. Tactical HQ and Logistics Base
  34. 34. A truck bomb 400 metres from our Logistics Base killed many people
  35. 35. It was rotten work Our mass grave contained over 100 bodies
  36. 36. A platoon commander trying to stop the fighting I had no mandate to stop the fighting!
  37. 37. Honours being paid where Wayne Edwards died I had already lost Lance Corporal Wayne Edwards
  38. 38. The Logistics Base at Vitez Bosnian Muslims pleaded for protection at the gates of my logistics base
  39. 39. Garage and Vehicle Park d R oa Ma in va as Front Lines rL ve Ri Several hundred Bosnian Muslim civilians Tac HQ Stari Vitez The Situation at our Garage Logistics Base North on 12 Feb 93 400 metres
  40. 40. Meeting with the Prime Minister in Bosnia Pressure from directly conflicting orders
  41. 41. Civilians begging for help outside the Logistics Base Even more pressure - people were dying
  42. 42. Challenging the Status Quo How it’s done now Strategy Can the strategy be revised? Not immediately. No entry to Camps Tactics Can it be done another way? Yes – if I interpret ‘Camp’ loosely Constraints What is immutable? What is not? Immutable – no civilians allowed in Camps But ‘Protected Area’ is not a ‘Camp’ is it?
  43. 43. We used armour to form a wall like this We protected civilians with a wall of armour
  44. 44. Patrolling in the Battle – Vitez, February 1993 We patrolled aggressively – shooting two snipers
  45. 45. We brought in shelter, food and blankets
  46. 46. Area calmed and civilians back to their homes within hours
  47. 47. Operational Example Helping Refugees to escape from Srebrenica
  48. 48. March 1993 The Bosnian Serb Army surrounds Srebrenica in Eastern Bosnia and shells the people
  49. 49. Croatia Serbia Zagreb Brcko Banja Luka Bihac Tuzla Tuzla Croatia Front Line Maglaj Srebrenica Vitez Zenica Gornji Vakuf Front Line Vitez Gorazde Bosnia Vakuf Gornji Sarajevo Main Supply Route Tomaslavgrad Split Mostar North British UN Area Bosnia 1992 - 93 Dubrovnik 50 kilometres
  50. 50. Rugged countryside around Tuzla We had opened a line crossing East of the City
  51. 51. B Squadron Scimitar moving in Bosnian Serb territory Major Alan Abraham, OC B Squadron 9/12th Lancers, given Mission of getting to Srebrenica
  52. 52. Overnight stop in mountains Bosnian Serb territory Major Alan Abraham took three days to traverse Bosnian Serb territory to Srebrenica area
  53. 53. Writing Mission Analysis in PUMA helicopter flying to Tuzla Base on 13 Mar 93 Mission Analysis in PUMA helicopter going to Tuzla 13 March 1993
  54. 54. Our land route
  55. 55. British UN Puma Helicopter in Bosnia Request for British helicopters to go into Srebrenica - rejected by MOD – too dangerous and well out of area MOD not happy about Risk
  56. 56. B Squadron 9/12th Lancers near Srebrenica March 1993 B Squadron were in very dangerous position close to Srebrenica
  57. 57. The need was great Spoke on radio to General Philippe Morillon French UN Commander
  58. 58. The French sent helicopters
  59. 59. The BBC helped - saying what was happening…
  60. 60. then we had British helicopter support too
  61. 61. The UNHCR evacuated people through the land route
  62. 62. Between 2,000 – 3,000 people were evacuated to safety in Tuzla
  63. 63. At Ahmici Massacre Site with RSM Stevens on 22nd April 1993 Operational Example Ahmici Thursday 22nd April 1993
  64. 64. Ethnic Cleansing in operation Vitez, April 1993 Battle between Croats and Muslims broke out in Central Bosnia during April 1993
  65. 65. The Intelligence Situation in the Lasva Valley on 22nd April 1993 Mountain Road to Zenica Dubravica Approximate Position of Bosnian Muslim Battalion HQ Front Lines Forces Logistics Base Bosnian Croat Forces Kaonik To Gornji Vakuf 2 hours River Lasva North Vitez Bosnian Croat Checkpoint To Sarajevo 2 hours 1 Kilometre
  66. 66. Jean-Pierre Thebault Jean-Pierre Thebault, Ambassador European Community Monitoring Mission, formally requested that I personally get the battles stopped
  67. 67. Muslim Front Lines Dubravica How could I approach front line positions quickly? What degree of risk was acceptable?
  68. 68. Bosnian Muslim Forces Dubravica Checkpoint STANDARD WAY TO APPROACH FRONT LINES Slowly and by Negotiation from the Rear Normal – Long Process – Safe – Weapons not Pointing at us Ahmici Bosnian Croat Forces Checkpoint
  69. 69. Dubravica Bosnian Muslim Forces Checkpoint RISKY NEW APPROACH Use No-Man’s-Land Arrive from front and parallel to defensive positions in enfilade Quick – Highly Visible –Vulnerable to Attack - Risky Ahmici Bosnian Croat Forces Checkpoint
  70. 70. Risk Analysis for 21 April 1993 (from Operational Notebook)
  71. 71. Mission Analysis What requires to be achieved? What tasks are crucial to that? What resources/constraints apply? Plan
  72. 72. Mission Analysis for 22nd April 1993
  73. 73. Planned Route: out and back through Bosnian Croat Checkpoint Dubravica Approximate Position of Bosnian Muslim Battalion HQ Front Lines Forces Bosnian Croat Forces Kaonik North River Lasva Vitez Bosnian Croat Checkpoint 1 Kilometre
  74. 74. Leaving Battalion Headquarters at 0900hrs
  75. 75. Actions until 1130hrs Dubravica Approximate Position of Battalion HQ Front Lines Bosnian Muslim Forces Attacked Bosnian Croat Forces Ahmici Kaonik North River Lasva Vitez Bosnian Croat Checkpoint 1 Kilometre
  76. 76. Approaching the Muslim Front Line Positions
  77. 77. The Muslim Front Lines were on the high ground and dominating the valley
  78. 78. Stopped amongst the Muslim Front Line Positions
  79. 79. Being told by the Muslims that many women and children had been massacred at Ahmici
  80. 80. Actions from 1130 – 1430hrs Dubravica Approximate Position of Battalion HQ Front Lines Bosnian Muslim Forces Bosnian Croat Attacked Forces Ahmici Kaonik North River Lasva Vitez Bosnian Croat Checkpoint 1 Kilometre
  81. 81. Arriving in Ahmici 22nd April 1993 Houses Mosque Attacked Fire and Manoeuvre Vitez 200 metres Main Road
  82. 82. The tumbled minaret of the Ahmici Mosque became a symbol of genocide in Bosnia right across the World
  83. 83. Ahmici 22 April 1993 Arriving at the far end of Ahmici Village I ordered a sweep through all houses
  84. 84. Ahmici Operation Start Line 1500 – 1900hrs 22nd April 1993 Attacked Command Post Established Mosque First bodies discovered 200 metres Main Road
  85. 85. What we found at Ahmici devasted us
  86. 86. Ahmici; 22nd April 1993 But what could I do?
  87. 87. Mission Analysis
  88. 88. Speaking to BBC, ITV, SKY, CBS and CNN journalists Briefing the international media on what had happened and who I thought to be responsible
  89. 89. … thus publicising what was happening to the World - against my explicit instructions. ……….. But the Geneva Conventions are the highest legal/moral imperative and above all other requirements for an officer.
  90. 90. Under fire again at Ahmici a few days later Establishing a ceasefire took 3 more days of work on the battlefields.
  91. 91. Summary In Bosnia nobody starved, froze or failed to receive medical supplies in our area. But we lost 3 people and about 20 others wounded
  92. 92. The Army taught that nobody but a qualified engineer should clear mines – but we had to do it or fail! Leadership involves risks, well understood objectives and careful planning. For use of the three tools was vital
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