Alexander III & IndustrialReform
So far… So Russia1. Russia – an introduction2. The Crimean War3. Alexander II – Reform4. Opponents of Alex II and Alex III...
Problems facing Alexander III• Unexpectedly becameTsar• Challenges of governinghuge Russian Empire• Alexander II’s reforms...
Task• Read Oxley p. 43-45• Make notes on ‘undoing the reforms’• Refer back to the reforms of Alexander II. How manydid Ale...
The 1891 famine• Famine hit 17 out of Russia’s 39 provinces.• An early winter followed by long, hot and dry summer ruined ...
To what extent did Russiaindustrialise by 1914?
Industrialisation?• Throughout the 19th century until 1914, Russia had been anagriculturally based economy.• Britain, Fran...
Sergei WittePrime Ministerof Russia
Witte’s reforms• Overseas loans and investments• High domestic taxes interest rates to raise capital• Limited import of fo...
POSITIVES• Textiles and sugar enjoyed some prosperity• Railways expanded at a colossal rate (400% 1868-78) but this was la...
HistoriographyS1The abolition of serfdom in 1861 in theory made industrial development morefeasible, since the population ...
HistoriographyS1The abolition of serfdom in 1861 in theory made industrial developmentmore feasible, since the population ...
Homework• Research ‘Russification.’• What does it mean?• Why do you think Tsars would deem itnecessary?Start to make notes...
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L4 alex iii and industry

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L4 alex iii and industry

  1. 1. Alexander III & IndustrialReform
  2. 2. So far… So Russia1. Russia – an introduction2. The Crimean War3. Alexander II – Reform4. Opponents of Alex II and Alex III5. Alexander III & Industrialisation6. Russo-Japanese war 19057. Revolution of 19058. Nicholas II, Stolypin and Russia on the eve of war9. World War 110. Revolutions of 191711. The Russian Civil War / Lenin12. Rise of Stalin13. Five Year Plans, Collectivisation and the Great Terror14. World War Two15. Last Years of StalinQuestionTo what extent did warprovide a catalyst forchange in Russia between1853-1953?
  3. 3. Problems facing Alexander III• Unexpectedly becameTsar• Challenges of governinghuge Russian Empire• Alexander II’s reformshad increased popularexpectations• Pressures from advisers– Westernisers &Slavophils• New political classes –demanding morepolitical participation
  4. 4. Task• Read Oxley p. 43-45• Make notes on ‘undoing the reforms’• Refer back to the reforms of Alexander II. How manydid Alexander III change?• List the factors that caused these changes?• Give any examples of positive reforms under Alex III
  5. 5. The 1891 famine• Famine hit 17 out of Russia’s 39 provinces.• An early winter followed by long, hot and dry summer ruined all thecrops.Hutchinson describes this as ‘the defining event of the decade.’• Government had heavily taxed consumer goods to raise revenue.Peasants forced to sell more and more grain leaving them with noreserves.• Censors prevented newspapers from reporting on famine.• Government postposed a ban on grain exports furthering the problem– causing many to blame them.• Eventually they appealed for voluntary assistance schemes and aSpecial Committee on Famine Relief was set up.• Nobility and intelligentsia (Tolstoy and Chekov) pulled together andcontributed to famine relief.• 350,000 died from starvation or disease.• Demonstrated that Russian society could pull together in time of crisis– Zemstvo leaders, Land Captains, peasants, local gentry and nationalgovernment.
  6. 6. To what extent did Russiaindustrialise by 1914?
  7. 7. Industrialisation?• Throughout the 19th century until 1914, Russia had been anagriculturally based economy.• Britain, France, USA and other Western countries had alreadyexperienced an industrial revolution and had transformed intomilitary powers.• Serfdom ending in 1861 had made modernisation more feasibleas a greater number of workers could move to the cities.• Government intervention attempted to encourage industrialgrowth –– a state bank set up in 1860 to finance via credit and attractforeign investment.– Reform of taxation to increase govt. revenue– Tariff protection of Russian industry– Railway construction (Trans-Siberian Railway)• Ministers of Finance, Ivan Vyshnegradsky and Sergei Wittepushed for a more long-term, strategic approach to theeconomy, with large-scale state intervention in industry.• How successful were attempts to modernise Russia.Complete a chart similar to the one below.• Oxley, p.46-9.• Study Source 11 on p.48. How useful is this source inunderstanding the conditions of workers at the time?Reforms introduced byWitteImpact of Witte’s reforms
  8. 8. Sergei WittePrime Ministerof Russia
  9. 9. Witte’s reforms• Overseas loans and investments• High domestic taxes interest rates to raise capital• Limited import of foreign goods (to stop Russianmoney going abroad)• Value of rouble linked to value of gold to keep ithigh – GOLD STANDARD• Expansion of railway system, e.g. Trans-SiberianRailway (opened 1903)• Improving balance of trade (e.g. 1901-10, Russiaexporting 186m. roubles more than importing)• Increasing industrial output, e.g. coal, iron, grain
  10. 10. POSITIVES• Textiles and sugar enjoyed some prosperity• Railways expanded at a colossal rate (400% 1868-78) but this was largely aresult of private enterprise.• Heavy industry and consumer goods grew 5% per year.• However, this was often punctuated by many periods of depression.• Overall growth in the economy of over 8% per year in 1890s.• 1906-1913 6% p/a.PROBLEMS• Between 1890-1905 – other economies were doing better than Russia.• By 1913 industry only was 20% of national income. Only 18% lived in townsand Russia was Europe’s largest debtor.• Economy still heavily dependent on agriculture.• The complex system of land ownership prevented agricultural innovation.System was inflexible - the mir still owned the land and direct cultivation.• Peasants were conservative and loyal to orthodox church. They wouldsometimes move back and forth between urban areas and countryside.• The effects of industrialisation can be seen in the cities. A strong, distinctworking class was developing. WHY IS THIS A POTENTIAL PROBLEM?• They gained the right to strike in 1905 and form trade unions in 1906 thoughhad to endure poor living and working conditions.
  11. 11. HistoriographyS1The abolition of serfdom in 1861 in theory made industrial development morefeasible, since the population was less tied to the land. Also there were many ex-serfs without any land who were looking for work. A potential industrialworkforce was available. The year 1861 can in many respects be taken as thebeginning of Russia’s modernisation.Falkus, The Industrialisation of Modern Russia 1700-1914S2In three decades (by 1913) Russia had industrialised on a rapid scale than anyother country during that period. No explanation of Russians industrial growthunder the Soviet regime after 1917 would be complete without taking intoaccount the industrial base inherited from Tsarist days.Falkus, The Industrialisation of Modern Russia 1700-1914Read the opinions of Falkus1. Look at S1. Why does Falkus believe Russia was beginning to modernise?2. According to S2, to what extent did Russia modernise by 1914?3. What information could we use to argue against S2?
  12. 12. HistoriographyS1The abolition of serfdom in 1861 in theory made industrial developmentmore feasible, since the population was less tied to the land. Also there weremany ex-serfs without any land who were looking for work. A potentialindustrial workforce was available. The year 1861 can in many respects be takenas the beginning of Russia’s modernisation.Falkus, The Industrialisation of Modern Russia 1700-1914S2In three decades (by 1913) Russia had industrialised on a rapid scale than anyother country during that period. No explanation of Russians industrial growthunder the Soviet regime after 1917 would be complete without taking intoaccount the industrial base inherited from Tsarist days.Falkus, The Industrialisation of Modern Russia 1700-1914Read the opinions of Falkus1. Look at S1. Why does Falkus believe Russia was beginning to modernise?2. According to S2, to what extent did Russia modernise by 1914?3. What information could we use to argue against S2?
  13. 13. Homework• Research ‘Russification.’• What does it mean?• Why do you think Tsars would deem itnecessary?Start to make notes on History Today articles.
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