Study the information carefully. You have 1 minute to memorise asmuch information as you can.The Russianempirespanned twocontinents. Itstretched4,000 milesWest to East& 2,000miles Northto SouthOver 130 million peoplelived across the RussianEmpireThe ruling family was theRomanov – ruling from1613 to 1917Tsar Nicholas II was the cousinof George V and a descendantof Queen VictoriaThe Trans-Siberianrailway opened in 1904.It took over a week tocross the country bytrain
???1. How many people lived in Russia at this time?2. Nicholas II was cousin to which British king?3. How wide was the Russian Empire?4. When did the Romanov dynasty end?5. Which railway crosses Russia West to East?6. How many Russian dolls could you see?7. Who was taller in the photo – Tsar Nicholas orGeorge V?
1. How many people lived in Russia at this time?130 m2. Nicholas II was cousin to which British king?George V3. How wide was the Russian Empire?4000 miles4. When did the Romanov dynasty end?19175. Which railway crosses Russia West to East?Trans-Siberian Railway6. How many Russian dolls could you see?Four7. Who was taller in the photo – Tsar Nicholas or George V?Tsar Nicholas II
A Communist cartoondepicting the governmentof Russia under the Tsars.1. Which group doeseach tier represent?(Label)2. What is themessage of thecartoon?3. How useful is thiscartoon inunderstanding the wayin which Russia wasgoverned?
An picture of Tsar Nicholas II and his wife, Emperor and Autocrat of All theRussias; Tsar ofMoscow, Kiev, Vladimir, Novgorod, Kazan, Astrakhan, Poland, Siberia, theTauric Chersonese and Georgia; Lord of Pskov (and over 40 other titles!)Whatimpressiondo you gainof the Tsarfrom thispicture?Whywould youwish to beseen inthis way?
• Use your smartphones/laptops to find adefinition of the term AUTOCRACY.• Find further definitions for FEUDAL andSERFDOM.• Add these definitions to your glossary.
Introduction to RussiaTHE LANDS OF RUSSIA• In 1855 Russia was even largerthan it is today.• 6000 miles from the Baltic Sea tothe Pacific Ocean.• Enormous diversity inclimate, vegetation and physicalfeatures• Extreme heat and extreme cold• Only 1/10 of modern Russia isfarmed – most not farmed at all• Most of population live West of theUral Mountains• Only 1.6% lived in towns and citiesin 1855.
THE PEOPLES OF RUSSIA• Population rose rapidly in second half of thenineteenth century• 1897 census – 126 million people– 55.6m were ‘Great Russians’– 22.4m Ukrainians– 7.9m Poles– 5.0m Jews• All had their own language, culture andtraditions – a challenge to govern.• Largest Jewish community in the world – treatedharshly (only allowed to live in Poland/Ukraine)• Many of the nationalities wished to governthemselves.• Govt. tried to stamp out nationalism – enforcedthe Russia language, the Orthodox church andnobles were given land to settle on.Tsar Nicholas I said in 1843 – “There is diversity ofrace, manners, religion and mind. Unity is only on thesurface.”
HOW WAS RUSSIA RULED?• By 1855 in western Europe, constitutionalgovernment had become the norm.• Tsars demanded total authority and totalloyalty• The Romanov dynasty had ruled Russia foralmost 300 years.• The nobility supported autocracy.• The Imperial Council of State met toadvise the Tsar but was often ignored.• All ministers were appointed by the Tsar• The Senate dealt with serious politicaloffences.• Provincial Governors ran the 50 provinces.• Each province had local assemblies thatappointed judges and chiefs of police.ConstitutionalGovernment – powersof the monarchconstrained by the law(Parliament)“The Emperor of all theRussias is an autocraticand unlimited monarch:God himself ordainsthat all must bow to hissupreme power, notonly out of fear but alsoout of conscience.”Tsar Nicholas I 1832Fundamental LawsP. Oxley p. 13
HOW WAS RUSSIA RULED?• The nobility/aristocracy/gentry (allmean the name thing) made up the localofficials and governors.• Difficult to control and keep on top ofthe entire government in Russia• 31 million official papers filed in 1849!!!• Poor communications meant decisionmaking was slow.• Lack of political freedom led toviolence – 1400 peasant revolts (1800-1860)• Secret Police force set up.• Army key to maintaining autocracy.WHY?• Officers – Nobility Privates – Forcedconscripts/serfs (25 years of service).
RELIGION IN RUSSIA• The Russian Orthodox Church wasthe state religion.• Huge part of national life.• Controlled by the Holy Synod (led bygovt. minister)• Tsar had absolute power overchurch and church appointments.• The Church was a strong pillarsupporting the govt.• Emphasised the importance ofobedience to authority – political orreligious.• No other religious groups treatedfairly by state.• Jews restricted on employment andeducation.• Pogroms – random murderousattacks by Christians against Jews
RUSSIAN SOCIETY• 1855 – 50 million were peasant serfs.• Privately owned people by the gentry or the state – slaves in all but name.• Worked for landlord and got house and share of crops in return.• Could be sold or flogged by masters.• Houses little better than huts (shared with animals)• Needed permission to get married or leave the village.• The mir collected poll tax and organised the farms.• Little incentive to innovate and try new methods in agriculture.• No incentive for serfs to produce more and prosper.• Life expectancy – 35 years. Most were illiterate.• Serfdom supported by upper classes. WHY?• Russia had a small middle class – doctors, teachers, lawyers (bourgeoisie)• Some had begun to travel and take an interest in Western Europeanart, culture and politics – started to criticise Russia’s backwardness.• Tsar Nicholas I – restricted passports and education (only 1% in schools)• 3500 people in Russia’s 6 universities.• Increased censorship and use of the secret police.• Standing army of 1 million even in peace time. What does that tell us?
ROYAL FAMILY• Social life for the upperclasses revolved around theroyal court.• Great banquets and ballswere held in the royalpalaces.• The Tsar lived mainly in theWinter Palace, StPetersburg• Royal family educated tobelieve they had a divineright to rule Russia.• Romanovs were verywealthy – Tsar Nicholas IIhad $1 billion of gold and150million acres of land.
RUSSIAN ECONOMY• Huge growth in population put a strain on Russia’sresources• PROBLEMS - Harsh winters, short-growingperiods, backward farming methods, poor soil.• Grain made up 40% of all exports• Russia did not have an all-year-round ice-free port.• 1855 – Britain produced 10 times more pig ironthan Russia.• Had underdeveloped banking system and lackedsurplus labour – most working as serfs.• Russians were very poor – little demand forindustrial products.• Communication/transport problems preventedindustrial development.• 1860 - 1600km of railway compared to 15,000kmin Britain.• Transport of raw materials and goods almostimpossible at certain times of year – even riverswere frozen for many months.• Some industrialisation occurred due to high tariffsplaced on foreign imports – encouraged overseasinvestment in Russia.Averageincome perhead p/a (inroubles) 1861Russia 71Britain 323USA 450Germany 175
Create a key thatorganises all theproblems/difficultiesSome points may fallinto more than onecategoryMilitaryDifficulties preventingRussian military successPoliticalDifficulties in the wayRussia was governedEconomicProblems facing Russianindustry and agricultureSocialDifficulties in the way theRussian people livedtogether in society
Read the final paragraph on P. 21 (hand-out)and compile two short lists.Also use your notes/key to help.“Tsarist Russia was a success”AGREE or DISAGREEDiscuss ideas as a class.
Plenary1. Why was Russia so difficult to govern?Think from the Tsar’s point of view;2. Why would autocracy be a good way to rule Russia?3. Summarise in 140 characters the mainproblems/issues facing Russia in 1850s.4. Without using notes, define FEUDAL, SERFDOM andAUTOCRACY.
Homework• Read Hosking p. 56-59 on the Crimean War• Think – why did Russia lose the CrimeanWar?