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This presentation was made to the BC Federation of Naturalists Fall General Meeting in Parksville, BC September 29th, 2012. ...

This presentation was made to the BC Federation of Naturalists Fall General Meeting in Parksville, BC September 29th, 2012.
The talk title was provided at the invitation to speak and does not fit the talk well.
Please note that this presentation does not include notes (except for 1 slide) and most slides are simply to provide a visual while I talk (ramble) and as such do not provide the full story.
Thanks to the BC Naturalists for inviting me to speak. http://www.bcnature.ca/ and the warm welcome to a serious discussion.
It is a work in progress and comments welcome.

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  • So we are located about 30 minutes north in Deep Bay at the Southern end of Baynes Sound defined by the waters between Vancouver Island and Denman Island.Important ecological areaWhere half of all the cultured shellfish in BC occursAn area where many are choosing to move to and Increasingly under environmental stress from human pressures but actually recovering from more than a century of resource exploitation.AS I began to learn more about this system and its history I was struck by a paradox.
  • A paradox – archaeologists have informed us that communities of as much as 5000 people continually habitated this area for 1000’s of years.Living locally and tied to the land and sea.Put that in context today were less than 800 people live around Deep Bay unsustainably
  • So while large seasonal resources like salmon, herring and migratory wildfowl contributed to First Nations diet – shellfish provided the year round staple that maintained populations. While working in many coastal First Nations communities I have heard the expression “when the tide is out the table is set”Look at any kitchen midden or waste heap on the West Coast coast of North America you will find primarily clam and sometimes native oyster shells for that was the staple diet that could hold everyone over between seasonal bounties.
  • A 3 inch oyster filters up to 50 gallons of water a day,
  • And historically for us…
  • CO2 highest in 15 million yearsThis year more americans reported that they were beginning to believ in Climate Change – record sea ice minimums, barges stuck in the mighty mississippi river, record droughts that put 50% of US counties in “crisis: designation and of course major wildfires.Climate change is already costing $1.2-trillion (U.S.) a year and is reducing global GDP by 1.6 per cent. It is contributing to the deaths of almost 400,000 people a year. TA new report published this week titled “Climate Vulnerability Monitor: A Guide to the Cold Calculus of a Hot Planet,” is one of the first studies that delves into climate change’s effect on global gross domestic product. It was commissioned by DARA, a non-profit group that monitors aid programs, and the Climate Vulnerable Forum, and was written by more than 50 scientists, economists and policy strategists commissioned by 20 governments.
  • CO2 highest in 15 million yearsThis year more americans reported that they were beginning to believ in Climate Change – record sea ice minimums, barges stuck in the mighty mississippi river, record droughts that put 50% of US counties in “crisis: designation and of course major wildfires.Climate change is already costing $1.2-trillion (U.S.) a year and is reducing global GDP by 1.6 per cent. It is contributing to the deaths of almost 400,000 people a year. TA new report published this week titled “Climate Vulnerability Monitor: A Guide to the Cold Calculus of a Hot Planet,” is one of the first studies that delves into climate change’s effect on global gross domestic product. It was commissioned by DARA, a non-profit group that monitors aid programs, and the Climate Vulnerable Forum, and was written by more than 50 scientists, economists and policy strategists commissioned by 20 governments.
  • CO2 highest in 15 million yearsThis year more americans reported that they were beginning to believ in Climate Change – record sea ice minimums, barges stuck in the mighty mississippi river, record droughts that put 50% of US counties in “crisis: designation and of course major wildfires.Climate change is already costing $1.2-trillion (U.S.) a year and is reducing global GDP by 1.6 per cent. It is contributing to the deaths of almost 400,000 people a year. TA new report published this week titled “Climate Vulnerability Monitor: A Guide to the Cold Calculus of a Hot Planet,” is one of the first studies that delves into climate change’s effect on global gross domestic product. It was commissioned by DARA, a non-profit group that monitors aid programs, and the Climate Vulnerable Forum, and was written by more than 50 scientists, economists and policy strategists commissioned by 20 governments.
  • CO2 highest in 15 million yearsThis year more americans reported that they were beginning to believ in Climate Change – record sea ice minimums, barges stuck in the mighty mississippi river, record droughts that put 50% of US counties in “crisis: designation and of course major wildfires.Climate change is already costing $1.2-trillion (U.S.) a year and is reducing global GDP by 1.6 per cent. It is contributing to the deaths of almost 400,000 people a year. TA new report published this week titled “Climate Vulnerability Monitor: A Guide to the Cold Calculus of a Hot Planet,” is one of the first studies that delves into climate change’s effect on global gross domestic product. It was commissioned by DARA, a non-profit group that monitors aid programs, and the Climate Vulnerable Forum, and was written by more than 50 scientists, economists and policy strategists commissioned by 20 governments.
  • CO2 highest in 15 million yearsThis year more americans reported that they were beginning to believ in Climate Change – record sea ice minimums, barges stuck in the mighty mississippi river, record droughts that put 50% of US counties in “crisis: designation and of course major wildfires.Climate change is already costing $1.2-trillion (U.S.) a year and is reducing global GDP by 1.6 per cent. It is contributing to the deaths of almost 400,000 people a year. TA new report published this week titled “Climate Vulnerability Monitor: A Guide to the Cold Calculus of a Hot Planet,” is one of the first studies that delves into climate change’s effect on global gross domestic product. It was commissioned by DARA, a non-profit group that monitors aid programs, and the Climate Vulnerable Forum, and was written by more than 50 scientists, economists and policy strategists commissioned by 20 governments.
  • But if you are in the shellfish game, these are not the things that have us worried.
  • A Larger Problem25% of the CO2 we emit is absorbed by the world’s oceansOcean acidification is the gradual decrease in pH due to rising CO2.Increased acidity leads to increased mortality in calcium dependent creatures – shellfish, plankton, corals, algaeA Larger ProblemCoastalupwellingWater upwelled off coast is loaded with more CO2 than anywhere else in the world (10% higher than Atlantic).The North Pacific is at the end of a deep circulation line.It’s full of old water (cold, salty, CO2-rich, low pH).8. A Larger Problem AragoniteIncreasing acidity from CO2 lowers saturation level of aragonite. Shelled organisms need high aragonite to grow.Bivalve juveniles experience significant mortality when aragonite values decrease and their aragonite shell dissolves.

Bc naturalist presentation 120929bk Bc naturalist presentation 120929bk Presentation Transcript

  • Sustainable Harvesting in the Salish Sea Brian Kingzett , Centre for Shellfish Research Vancouver Island University
  • Presentation NotesThis presentation was made to the BC Federation of Naturalists Fall General Meeting in Parksville, BC September 29th, 2012.The talk title was provided at the invitation to speak and does not fit the talk well.Please note that this presentation does not include notes (except for 1 slide) and most slides are simply to provide a visual while I talk (ramble) and as such do not provide the full story.Thanks to the BC Naturalists for inviting me to speak. http://www.bcnature.ca/ and the warm welcome to a serious discussion.It is a work in progress and comments welcome.
  • This will not be slides of my bird photos View slide
  • Presentation Objectives • How the coast sustained us • Role of Shellfish in the ecosystem • Global Context – the future is not going to be anything like we have seen before • Where do we go from here? Anthropology, ecology, math, chemistry, economics, but no quiz… View slide
  • Going to talk about Clams….
  • And mussels……Photo by Jon Rowley
  • And scallops……
  • And mostly oysters….
  • Long history of Naturalists and Oysters! • In 95 BC the Roman naturalist Pliny wrote about the great profit from the oysters he grew in his ostrearum vivarium
  • Walking the talk – Green Research Facility• One of Canada’s greenest buildings• Platinum LEED certification anticipated 2012• 2011 National Sustainable Architecture and Buildings Award and more…
  • Thinking locally – drawing linkages Healthy Responsible Marine Coastal Development Ecosystems High Quality Sustainable Food Industry
  • Why do we care about shellfish? The links between industry, academia and conservation are obvious for shellfish; they indicate sustainable coastal communities. When we lose shellfish and shellfish industries, it is a sure sign that environmental degradation threatens the very essence of coastal communities with their strong sense of place and the sustainable use of its resources. Michael W. Beck, Ph.D. Senior Scientist, The Nature Conservancy, Global Marine Initiative, Letter of Support to CSR Deep Bay Oct .2008
  • Our location – Baynes Sound (and a paradox)
  • ~ 5000 lived here before European contact • Coast Salish peoples lived off the land and sea for 1000’s of years here • But less that 800 live here now
  • When the tide is out the table is set…
  • History of First Nations Shellfish Culture in BC • Clam culture practiced by First Nations for 1000’s of years • Traditional songs about building clam gardens: lo xwi we • Clam gardens (terraces) still evident in Broughton ArchipelagoPhoto Credit: Royal BC Museum / Rowan Jacobsen, THE LIVING SHORE
  • History of First Nations Shellfish Culture in BC Clam GardenPhoto Credit: John Harper
  • History of First Nations Shellfish Culture in BC Clam Garden, Gulf Islands, BCPhoto Credit: John Harper
  • The productive value of Estuaries.…. • Where the land and fresh water meets the sea • Where the tides cover and expose • Area of immense ecological value and productivity at all trophic levels and human activities • Where shellfish play a critical role • Where humans impact.Native Oyster Reef, Nootka Sound
  • Role of Shellfish as Ecosystem Engineers Filtration • Clear water allows light to penetrate to bay bottom, powering sea grass growth. Stabilization • Oysters and sea grass create a firm bottom.
  • Role of Shellfish as Ecosystem Engineers Infrastructure • Oyster reefs and sea grass provide a network of shelter for small and juvenile organisms. Food • Oysters convert algae into food that can be passed up the food chain. Nitrogen, Phosphorous & Carbon Sequestration • Oyster shells are 12% carbon
  • Shellfish Reefs are important for juvenile fish
  • Present Food Security on Vancouver Island Many estimations are that in North America on average food travels 4000km to consumer More than 90% of Food consumed on Vancouver Island comes from off-Island At any given time 3 days supply in grocery stores How is it we have lost the ability to feed ourselves? We value our environment but we transfer our environmental impact over the horizon
  • Our increasing global footprint – last 100 yrs • Lost 50% of world wetlands • Lost 50% of worlds forests • 60% of Coral Reefs at risk • Lost > 85% of shellfish reefs • 6M tonnes/yr of debris to Oceans
  • Have we entered the Anthropocene? 2012creditsNASA via http://e360.yale.eduhttp://www.latimes.comFlickr User ShotakuFlickr User Fremont-Winema National Forest
  • Have we entered the Anthropocene? 2012creditsNASA via http://e360.yale.eduhttp://www.latimes.comFlickr User ShotakuFlickr User Fremont-Winema National Forest
  • Have we entered the Anthropocene? 2012creditsNASA via http://e360.yale.eduhttp://www.latimes.comFlickr User ShotakuFlickr User Fremont-Winema National Forest
  • Have we entered the Anthropocene? 2012creditsNASA via http://e360.yale.eduhttp://www.latimes.comFlickr User ShotakuFlickr User Fremont-Winema National Forest
  • Have we entered the Anthropocene? 2012creditsNASA via http://e360.yale.eduhttp://www.latimes.comFlickr User ShotakuFlickr User Fremont-Winema National Forest
  • “Dear future generations: Please accept our apologies. We were roaring drunk on petroleum” Kurt Vonnegut, 2006
  • Some of the biggest threats we cant see…
  • Ocean Acidification the “other” CO2 problemhttp://www.interactiveoceans.washington.edu/file/Carbon+Cycle
  • Ocean Acidification Feely, Bulletin of American Meteorological Society 2008http://pmel.noaa.gov/co2/files/hitimeseries2.jpg
  • As the pH drops affects ability to make shells Insert photo of diagram of impacts on shellfish larvaeVeliger LarvaeNative Oyster, Ostrea lurida
  • How could we possibly affect an ocean so vast? Because in proportion really there is not that much water on the earth….. Oceans = 1.34 Billion km3 Have absorbed estimated 525 billion tonnes CO2 in last 200 years Current rate of 22 million tonnes daily. Image Source: USGS 2012 http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/earthhowmuch .html
  • Ocean Acidificationhttps://www.whoi.edu
  • Where from here? – 10 Billion people!
  • 2030 Asia = 59% Global Middle Class Spending
  • Is this the last century of wild seafood? • More than 85% of global fish stocks fully or over exploited 53% 32% 12% 3% Underexploited Underexploited or moderately exploited Fully ExploitedSource: www.twooceanssportfishing.com Overexploited, depleted or recovering Source: FAO – State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2010
  • Global Seafood ProductionSource: FAO – State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2012
  • How will we feed a world destined for 10B? • World requires another 23 Million MT of Seafood by 2020 - (8 Years) • Total fisheries requirement expected to exceed beef pork or chicken • Aquaculture demand = 80-100 MMT or another entire global ocean by 2030 for future population estimates. 53% 32% • FAO getting vague about what 12% happens in 2050…… 3%
  • Is farming the seas the solution? “With earths burgeoning human populations to feed we must turn to the sea with new understanding and new technology. We must farm it as we farm the land.” Jacques Cousteau, 1973
  • The Blue Revolution? • Fastest growing meat production sector with an annual growth rate of 6.6% expected to slow to 2.4% • At present > 50% of all fish consumed by humans from aquaculture • Cultured Seafood and aquatic plants $119 Billion/yr in 2010 • > 100 Million people globally derive income from aquaculture
  • Shellfish – important “Non-Fed Species” Feed for “Fed Species may become critical
  • Shellfish Farming: Clean and Green (and blue) • Shellfish farming requires clean water and healthy marine ecosystems • Being green is not an option but a necessity. • Shellfish farming endorsed by all seafood sustainability programs
  • Going beyond Sustainability Oysters are not just Sustainable Seafood, they are RESTORATIVE SEAFOOD Barton Seaver; Chef, National Geographic Fellow, Author .
  • How do we do this sustainably?
  • How do we do this sustainably? (NOTES)This is a picture I took in China a few years of a scallop farm near the Korean border. It is a scallop farm that stretched to the horizon in three directions.Below each float is nets of scallops and between the floats cultured kelp. This is to the ocean what monoculture of corn is the prairie. And Ironically in thebackground that is not marine fog, It is a steady haze of air pollution from an emerging Chinese middle class and massive fossil fuel use.And what I saw there was an ecosystem at the point of collapse and when we talked with our Chinese hosts about sustainability I realized we were talkingtwo different languages and I don’t mean Chinese and English,While I was talking about the Environment I realized our hosts were talking about feeding a population. And this fundamental difference really affected me.I have made two overwhelming trips to China and after this last one I really reconsidered the way I considered myself an environmentalist. At the time wewere in Design of the Field Station and I returned extremely and profoundly discouraged, it seemed that all the good we were trying to do here was reallyjust pissing in the wind with what was happening over the horizon.But what really got me was how much of this activity was about satisfying our North American market demands and the emerging demands of a populationthat just wants to be like us and who can blame them?And so while I blithely imagine I am trying to up my sustainability game at home most of my true environmental footprint lies over the horizon in the handsof others who do not recognize the value of the ecosystem as we do. I remain troubled by this and as a result have the desire to move more of myenvironmental footprint home where I can at least have a bigger role in overseeing it, and this includes the resources that I use. In some ways this hasmade me more pro development at home and put me at odds with some traditional exclusionary environmentalism.But this picture is not all bad, when we actually got talking to the watermen who were out there working on the ocean, all they could do is complain aboutall the pollution that was coming out the rivers from upland terrestrial agriculture and I realized that the shellfish guys who were maintaining tens of millionsof individual scallop shaped swimming pool filters and growing kelp that was flourishing in a high CO2 environment , that slowly they were getting it.
  • Aquaculture, the blue revolution? • Sustainable Aquaculture – the Green, Blue Revolution Sustainable aquaculture can: 1. Green the planet 2. Feed the planet and meet the seafood necessity 3. Healthier citizens – omega 3’s, etc. (improve quality of life, save billions in health care) 4. Help restore healthy marine ecosystems
  • A Call to Action Eat More Oysters!
  • A Call to Action Eat less protein & more green stuff (Michael Pollan) Eat more sustainable seafood Eat more farmed seafood Eat lower on the seafood chain Try to localize your global footprint
  • Thank-you! - Please come visit/support us! Email: deepbay@viu.ca Tel: 250-740-6611 Web: www.viu.ca/deepbay
  • Questions regarding this presentation Brian Kingzett, M.Sc. Deep Bay Marine Field Station Manager, Center for Shellfish Research, Vancouver Island University Mail: 900 5th St, Nanaimo. BC V9R 5S5 Field Station: 370 Crome Pt. Rd. , Bowser. BC VOR 1G0 Tel: 250 740-6399 Email: brian.kingzett@viu.ca Twitter: @VIUDeepBay Website: www.viu.ca/deepbay Blog: www.viudeepbay.com