NS2 3.1 Our Atmosphere

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Bishop Kenny NJROTC Naval Science Two Lesson Atmosphere

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NS2 3.1 Our Atmosphere

  1. 1. CHAPTER 1 OUR ATMOSPHERE
  2. 2. Our atmosphere has many layers up to about 1,000 miles above the Earth’s surface. TROPOSPHERE (UP to 11 MILES) STRATOSPHERE (11 to 30 MILES) MESOSPHERE (30 to 50 MILES) THERMOSPHERE (50 to 3721 MILES) EXOSPHERE (372 to 18,000 MILES)
  3. 3. Atmosphere The gaseous envelope surrounding the Earth; the air
  4. 4. Our atmosphere is a mixture of different gases. argon 1% oxygen 21% nitrogen 78%
  5. 5. Scattered within the atmosphere is about 1 percent water vapor, called humidity.
  6. 6. Humidity Amount of moisture in the air
  7. 7. Polar Equatorial Polar The amount of water vapor is greater in equatorial regions than in polar regions.
  8. 8. Water is nearly incompressible. A cubic foot of surface water weighs about the same as a cubic foot taken from the Marianas Trench.
  9. 9. Incompressible Not compressible
  10. 10. However, with air, a cubic foot taken from a lower altitude weighs more than a cubic foot taken at a higher altitude, therefore it is compressible.
  11. 11. Compressible To press together; force into less space; to condense
  12. 12. Mesosphere 50 miles Stratosphere 30 miles 11 miles Troposphere 3.5 miles
  13. 13. Virtually all of the Earth’s weather (tempestuous air ocean) occurs within the first 3.5 miles of our atmosphere.
  14. 14. Tempestuous Tumultuous; turbulent
  15. 15. About 99% of the atmospheric gases lie below 20 miles. 20 MILES Troposphere
  16. 16. 11 MILES 20 MILES 20 MILES 322 MILES Beyond 45 miles, only helium and hydrogen exist in minute amounts.
  17. 17. THE THE TROPOSPHERE EARTH 20 MILES THE STRATOSPHERE 20 MILES THE MESOSPHERE 20 MILES THE THERMOSPHERE 322 MILES THE EXOSPHERE 39,600 MILES The atmosphere consists of five principal layers.
  18. 18. 18,000 372 50 30 Chemosphere 11 miles (Ozone) Tropopause
  19. 19. 18,000 372 50 30 Chemosphere 11 miles (Ozone) The tropopause lies between the troposphere and the stratosphere.
  20. 20. 18,000 372 50 30 11 miles Tropopause The chemosphere (ozone layer) lies mainly between the stratosphere and mesosphere.
  21. 21. 18,000 500 372 Ionosphere 50 30 Chemosphere 11 miles (Ozone) Tropopause The ionosphere is the whole area encompassing the mesosphere and the thermosphere.
  22. 22. What element or gas makes up the majority of the Earth’s atmosphere? a. Nitrogen b. Oxygen c. Argon d. Carbon dioxide
  23. 23. What element or gas makes up the majority of the Earth’s atmosphere? a. Nitrogen b. Oxygen c. Argon d. Carbon dioxide
  24. 24. THE EARTH 11 MILES THE TROPOSPHERE The troposphere extends to a height of about 11 miles above the equator, some 7.5 miles in the temperate zones, and only about 5 miles above the poles.
  25. 25. Troposphere The lowest layer of the atmosphere, within which there is a steady drop in temperature with increasing altitude and within which nearly all cloud formations occur and weather conditions manifest themselves
  26. 26. Nearly all clouds are in the troposphere, so it is here that weather occurs. Air heated by the Earth rises, in a process called convection.
  27. 27. Convection The transport of atmospheric properties upward
  28. 28. 85 °F Troposphere In the troposphere, the air automatically changes about 5½° for each 1,000 feet traveled vertically. This is called adiabatic warming or cooling. 56 °F (Sea level)
  29. 29. Adiabatic The constant rate change in temperature with altitude
  30. 30. Swift movement of cold air masses about the vast Antarctic continent is a major factor in determining the world’s weather.
  31. 31. New Zealand South America Antarctica
  32. 32. 50 30 11 miles The tropopause is a transitional zone between the troposphere and the near void of the stratosphere. It starts just above the troposphere (5 - 11 miles) and is divided into three overlapping areas: • Tropical • Extra-tropical • Arctic
  33. 33. Tropopause The boundary, or transitional layer, between the troposphere and the stratosphere
  34. 34. Jet Stream Located in the area between 20,000 and 40,000 feet is the jet stream. It is most prominent above the extra tropical and Arctic tropopause overlap.
  35. 35. Jet Stream Strong, generally westerly winds concentrated in a relatively narrow and shallow stream in the upper troposphere of the Earth
  36. 36. The jet stream was discovered in WW II, when B-29 bombers flying about 4 miles high, found great assistance from westerly winds of up to 300 mph.
  37. 37. Summer Jet Stream It has been found that jet streams are the strongest over Japan and the New England states.
  38. 38. Three major jet streams move over the North American continent in winter, one of which nearly blankets the United States.
  39. 39. The jet streams move with cooler air masses near the Earth’s surface. In winter the jet streams are over the temperate zones, while in summer, the jet streams move much farther north, out of most of the main commercial lanes.
  40. 40. In which layer of the atmosphere is the “jet stream” located? a. Stratosphere b. Ionosphere c. Tropopause d. Exosphere
  41. 41. In which layer of the atmosphere is the “jet stream” located? a. Stratosphere b. Ionosphere c. Tropopause d. Exosphere
  42. 42. THE EARTH THE STRATOSPHERE 30 MILES The stratosphere lies just above the tropopause and extends to an altitude of about 30 miles. There is almost no weather here due to the thin air and few clouds.
  43. 43. Stratosphere The region of the upper atmosphere extending upward from the tropopause to about 30 miles (50 km) above the Earth, characterized by little vertical change in temperature (a fairly constant -40 to -50 °F)
  44. 44. Modern commercial airlines seek to fly in the stratosphere when not using the jet stream because there is so much less air resistance. This makes for better fuel mileage, little turbulence, and flight at top speeds.
  45. 45. Commercial airline pilots favor flying in the ________ because there is less air resistance and no turbulence. a. tropopause b. stratosphere c. ionosphere d. exosphere
  46. 46. Commercial airline pilots favor flying in the ________ because there is less air resistance and no turbulence. a. tropopause b. stratosphere c. ionosphere d. exosphere
  47. 47. 18,000 500 372 50 30 11 miles The ionosphere is an area of electrically charged ions lying above the stratosphere. It begins 30 - 40 miles up and extends to about 500 miles.
  48. 48. Ionosphere The region of the Earth’s atmosphere between the stratosphere and the exosphere, consisting of several ionized layers and extending from about 50 - 250 mi. (80 - 400 km) above the surface of the Earth
  49. 49. Ion An electrically charged atom or group of atoms formed by the loss or gain of one or more electrons
  50. 50. Disturbances from the Sun can cause changes in the ionosphere’s form. These magnetic and electrical storms cause the Northern Lights.
  51. 51. The ionosphere will reflect radio waves of certain frequencies. By determining the best frequencies and times of day to transmit messages, communications are greatly enhanced.
  52. 52. THE 11 MILES EARTH THE MESOSPHERE 30 MILES The lowest level of the ionosphere, the mesosphere, extends from 30 - 50 miles above the Earth. Temperatures range from a high of 32 °F to a low of minus 100 °F.
  53. 53. Mesosphere The region between the ionosphere and the exosphere, extending from about 30 - 50 mi. above the surface of the Earth
  54. 54. THE EARTH THE THERMOSPHERE 322 MILES The thermosphere is the highest layer of the ionosphere. The principal radio reflecting layers are here. Temperatures in the thermosphere may reach 1,700 °F at 300 miles up.
  55. 55. Thermosphere The region of the upper atmosphere in which temperature increases continuously with altitude, encompassing essentially all of the atmosphere above the mesosphere
  56. 56. 18,000 372 50 30 11 miles Starting below and extending into the ionosphere is the chemosphere (ozone layer). It begins at about 15 miles up and shields the Earth from the harmful ultraviolet rays of the Sun.
  57. 57. Chemosphere The region of the atmosphere most characterized by chemical, especially photochemical activity, starting in the stratosphere and including the mesosphere and perhaps part of the thermosphere
  58. 58. Ozone Layer The layer of the upper atmosphere where most atmospheric ozone is concentrated, from about 8 - 30 mi. (12 - 48 km) above the Earth, with the maximum ozone concentration occurring at an altitude of about 12 mi. (19 km.)
  59. 59. The ozone layer is being depleted by fluorocarbons used as propellants for aerosol cans and refrigerants used for air conditioning systems.
  60. 60. Fluorocarbons Any of a class of compounds produced by substituting fluorine for hydrogen in a hydrocarbon, and characterized by great chemical stability: used chiefly as a lubricant, refrigerant, fire extinguishing agent, and in industrial and other applications in which chemical, electrical, flame, and heat resistance is essential; banned as an aerosol propellant in the U.S. because of concern about ozone layer depletion
  61. 61. Propellant A compressed inert gas that serves to dispense the contents of an aerosol container when the pressure is released
  62. 62. The ozone layer shields the Earth from the harmful ultraviolet rays of the Sun. Another name for this layer is the _________. a. chemosphere b. thermosphere c. mesosphere d. exosphere
  63. 63. The ozone layer shields the Earth from the harmful ultraviolet rays of the Sun. Another name for this layer is the _________. a. chemosphere b. thermosphere c. mesosphere d. exosphere
  64. 64. The exosphere begins about 500 miles above the Earth’s surface and continues out about 18,000 18,000 miles. Only light hydrogen and helium atoms exist because of intense cosmic radiation. Temperatures may range from 4,500 °F to near absolute zero.
  65. 65. Exosphere The highest region of the atmosphere, where the air density is so low that a fast-moving air molecule is more than 50 percent likely to escape from the atmosphere instead of hitting other molecules
  66. 66. Located within the exosphere are intense radiation areas called the Van Allen Radiation Belts. Van Allen Radiation Belts
  67. 67. Van Allen Radiation Belt Either of two regions of high-energy- charged particles surrounding the Earth The Inner region is centered at an altitude of 2,000 mi. (3,200 km) and the outer region at an altitude between 9,000 and 12,000 mi. (14,500 and 19,000 km).
  68. 68. The inner belt is located about 400 - 3,400 miles above the Earth. It contains high-energy protons. Inner Belt Van Allen Radiation Belts
  69. 69. The outer belt is located 8,000 - 40,000 miles above the Earth. It contains high- energy electrons. Outer Belt Van Allen Radiation Belts
  70. 70. Manned space missions are intentionally flown well below the lower limits of the Van Allen Belts, and satellites operating in these regions must be shielded against the radiation encountered there.
  71. 71. What layer of our atmosphere has intense cosmic radiation? a. Tropopause b. Stratosphere c. Ionosphere d. Exosphere
  72. 72. What layer of our atmosphere has intense cosmic radiation? a. Tropopause b. Stratosphere c. Ionosphere d. Exosphere
  73. 73. The weight of the atmosphere varies with the amount of water vapor present, the temperature, and the height above the Earth’s surface. A barometer measures variations in atmospheric pressure.
  74. 74. Generally employed for use at sea, the mercurial type barometer consists of an accurately calibrated glass tube filled with mercury. It is used at shore activities to check aneroid barometers for accuracy. Mercurial Barometer
  75. 75. Mercurial Containing the metal mercury
  76. 76. Calibrated Divided or marked with gradations, graduations, or other indexes of degree, quantity, etc., as on a thermometer, measuring cup, or the like
  77. 77. Aneroid Using no fluid
  78. 78. The aneroid, or Aneroid Barometer Pointer dry barometer, contains a small metallic cell that Spindle atmospheric pressure Lever increases and expands when pressure Vacuum Chamber decreases moving a needle that points to a graduated scale.
  79. 79. Graduated Marked with divisions or units of measurement
  80. 80. Barometers can be graduated in either inches of mercury or millibars. Millibars are normally used on weather charts.
  81. 81. Millibar The metric unit of measurement for air pressure A centimeter-gram-second unit of pressure equal to one thousandth of a bar or 1000 dynes per square centimeter, used to measure air pressure
  82. 82. The average atmospheric pressure at the Earth’s surface is 29.92 inches, or 1,013.2 millibars.
  83. 83. An air mass is a large body of air with the same temperature and humidity. It generally takes on the characteristics of the surface over which it forms but has different characteristics.
  84. 84. Air Mass A body of air covering a relatively wide area, exhibiting approximately uniform properties through any horizontal section
  85. 85. It takes more heat to warm water temperatures than soil temperatures.
  86. 86. In seawater, heat is absorbed to depths in excess of 80 feet.
  87. 87. Only a few inches of topsoil will absorb radiation. This means oceans are slower to warm up and cool down than landmasses.
  88. 88. Winter Air Masses In winter, the United States is swept by continental air masses from the cold Arctic.
  89. 89. Summer Air Masses In summer, we are swept by warm, moist maritime air masses.
  90. 90. When warm and cold air masses touch, the boundary between them is called a front.
  91. 91. Front An interface or zone of transition between two dissimilar air masses
  92. 92. Cold Front Warm Front A warm front is formed when a warm air mass moves over a cold air mass; when the reverse occurs, it is called a cold front.
  93. 93. Warm Front A transition zone between a mass of warm air and the colder air it is replacing
  94. 94. Cold Front A transition zone between a mass of cold air and the warmer air it is replacing
  95. 95. Cold Warm Front Front Stationary Front When neither mass advances on the other, a stationary front is said to exist.
  96. 96. Stationary Front A front between warm and cold air masses that is moving very slowly, or not at all When a warm or cold front stops moving, it becomes a stationary front.
  97. 97. Violent frontal weather systems can be predicted from a chart showing atmospheric pressures.
  98. 98. Weather charts usually illustrate barometric pressures as millibar reading points. The lines on the above map, drawn through points of equal pressure, are called isobars, which never join or cross.
  99. 99. Isobars A line drawn on a weather map that connects points at which the barometric pressure is the same
  100. 100. Isobars give a rough indication of the amount of wind in an area. The closer the bars, the stronger the wind in that area.
  101. 101. The weight of the atmosphere varies from place to place depending on which of the following? a. Wind, temperature, pressure b. Temperature, height, wind c. Water vapor, temperature, height d. Water vapor, pressure, wind
  102. 102. The weight of the atmosphere varies from place to place depending on which of the following? a. Wind, temperature, pressure b. Temperature, height, wind c. Water vapor, temperature, height d. Water vapor, pressure, wind
  103. 103. Weather is the condition of the atmosphere, expressed in terms of its heat, pressure, wind, and moisture.
  104. 104. It is heat, and the transfer of heat, that causes the weather. Without it there would be no winds, varying air pressures, storms, rain, or snow. All weather changes are caused by temperature changes in different parts of the atmosphere.
  105. 105. Fundamental natural laws determine weather changes: • Warm air is lighter in weight and can hold more water vapor than cold air. • Cold air is heavier and has a tendency to flow toward the rising warm air.
  106. 106. Fundamental natural laws determine weather changes: • As air moves, wind is created. This is beginning of the complex forces that cause the changing weather.
  107. 107. The Sun is our principal source of energy: • It bombards the Earth with 126 trillion horsepower each second. • Its energy waves, or radiation, travel at 186,300 miles per second (speed of light). • About 43% of the radiation reaching our planet is changed into heat.
  108. 108. Solar energy is referred to as insolation.
  109. 109. Insolation (INcoming SOLar radiATION) Solar radiation received at the Earth’s surface
  110. 110. Clouds and other atmospheric influences absorb some of the incoming radiation, but they reflect much of it.
  111. 111. • Clouds reflect back 75% of sunlight. • Earth’s average cloudiness is 52%. • About 36% of the total insolation never reaches Earth.
  112. 112. Dense forests absorb 95% of insolation.
  113. 113. Water reflects 60 - 96% of insolation, depending on the angle the light hits the surface.
  114. 114. In effect, the Earth’s cloud cover acts like the glass of a greenhouse. It lets short solar rays pass through; the Earth absorbs the ones that get through, then re-radiates long heat rays.
  115. 115. Long heat waves cannot all get through the atmosphere because they are Atmosphere absorbed by water vapor, so they stay within the Heat “greenhouse” in a continual cycle. Earth
  116. 116. Without atmosphere, the Earth would be like the Moon with boiling temperatures during the day and sub-freezing temperatures during the night.
  117. 117. Even though clouds and other atmospheric influences absorb some of the incoming radiation from the Sun, ____ percent of the sunlight is reflected back into space. a. 70 b. 75 c. 80 d. 85
  118. 118. Even though clouds and other atmospheric influences absorb some of the incoming radiation from the Sun, ____ percent of the sunlight is reflected back into space. a. 70 b. 75 c. 80 d. 85
  119. 119. Steam Point 212°F The Navy and most civilians in America use thermometers Ice Point 32°F with a Fahrenheit (F) scale. Fahrenheit
  120. 120. Fahrenheit Noting, pertaining to, or measured according to a temperature scale in which 32° represents the freezing point and 212° the boiling point
  121. 121. Boiling 100°C Point Temperatures in meteorology and most other sciences, Freezing however, are usually 0°C Point expressed according to the Celsius (C) scale. Celsius
  122. 122. Celsius Pertaining to or noting a temperature scale in which 0° represents the freezing point and 100° the boiling point of water
  123. 123. The Celsius scale is a metric system, which one day is supposed to be the principal measurement system used in the United States as it already is in most of the rest of the world.
  124. 124. There are 5 °C temperature for every 9 °F. Formula: C = 5/9 (F - 32) Since 32 °F is equivalent to 0 °C, to change a Fahrenheit reading to Celsius, you subtract 32° and then multiply the remainder by 5/9.
  125. 125. What is the temperature in Celsius if it is 59 °F?
  126. 126. What is the temperature in Celsius if it is 59 °F? 59 ° - 32 ° 27 ° 5 X = 15 °C 27 ° 1 9
  127. 127. Conversion Formula This process is reversed to convert Fahrenheit to Celsius. Formula: F = 9/5 C + 32°
  128. 128. What is the temperature in Fahrenheit if it is 15 °C?
  129. 129. What is the temperature in Fahrenheit if it is 15 °C? 27 ° 15 ° 9 + 32 ° X = 27 ° 1 5 59 °F
  130. 130. Alcohol in Glass If you compare these thermometers, you will note that the top of the column of alcohol is in the shape of a curve called a meniscus. The Mercury in Glass accurate reading for an alcohol thermometer is at the bottom of this curve; for mercury it is at the top.
  131. 131. Meniscus A crescent or a crescent-shaped body The convex or concave upper surface of a column of liquid, the curvature of which is caused by surface tension
  132. 132. Heat causes evaporation of millions of tons of water daily.
  133. 133. A process called transpiration causes additional huge amounts of water to enter the air from the green leaves of plants.
  134. 134. Transpiration The passage of water through a plant from the roots through the vascular system to the atmosphere
  135. 135. As warm, moist air rises, it expands and cools, eventually reaching its saturation level (100% relative humidity) and causes the vapor to condense into a liquid. Water droplets form in the clouds, and precipitation occurs.
  136. 136. Precipitation Falling products of condensation in the atmosphere, as rain, snow, or hail
  137. 137. This hydrologic cycle of evaporation, condensation, and precipitation is continually in process. Moisture over Land Precipitation on Ocean Precipitation on Land Evaporation from Land Evaporation from Ocean
  138. 138. Hydrologic Cycle The natural sequence through which water passes into the atmosphere as water vapor, precipitates to Earth in liquid or solid form, and ultimately returns to the atmosphere through evaporation
  139. 139. Since warm air can hold more moisture than cold air, relative humidity goes up when air with a given amount of water vapor cools, and drops when that air is heated.
  140. 140. Relative Humidity The amount of water vapor in the air, expressed as a percentage of the maximum amount that the air can hold at the given temperature
  141. 141. When air is cooled to its dew point temperature, small water droplets condense on objects and dew is formed.
  142. 142. Dew Point The temperature to which air must be cooled, at a given pressure and water vapor content for it to reach saturation The temperature at which dew begins to form
  143. 143. Relative humidity is measured using a psychrometer. Psychrometer
  144. 144. Psychrometer An instrument for determining the atmospheric humidity by the reading of two thermometers, the bulb of one being kept moist and ventilated
  145. 145. Sling Psychrometer Sling psychrometers are often used aboard ship to speed up the process of getting accurate wet and dry-bulb readings.
  146. 146. Sling Psychrometer A psychrometer so designed that the wet-bulb thermometer can be ventilated, to expedite evaporation, by whirling in the air
  147. 147. The process by which millions of tons of water from the green leaves of plants enter into the atmosphere is called __________. a. evaporation b. transportation c. perspiration d. transpiration
  148. 148. The process by which millions of tons of water from the green leaves of plants enter into the atmosphere is called __________. a. evaporation b. transportation c. perspiration d. transpiration
  149. 149. Q.1. TRUE or FALSE. The harsh Russian winter weather was a factor that helped defeat Hitler in World War II.
  150. 150. Q.1. TRUE or FALSE. The harsh Russian winter weather was a factor that helped defeat Hitler in World War II. A.1. TRUE
  151. 151. Q.2. Who invented the thermometer?
  152. 152. Q.2. Who invented the thermometer? A.2. Galileo
  153. 153. Q.3. Who developed a system for organizing weather observations?
  154. 154. Q.3. Who developed a system for organizing weather observations? A.3. Leverrier
  155. 155. Q.4. Who developed air-mass and polar-front theories of weather?
  156. 156. Q.4. Who developed air-mass and polar-front theories of weather? A.4. Bjerknes
  157. 157. Q.5. What does synoptic meteorology mean?
  158. 158. Q.5. What does synoptic meteorology mean? A.5. A general view of the weather
  159. 159. Q.6. How do meteorologists use satellites?
  160. 160. Q.6. How do meteorologists use satellites? A.6. As observational tools
  161. 161. Q.7. What name is given to the science of weather?
  162. 162. Q.7. What name is given to the science of weather? A.7. Meteorology
  163. 163. Q.8. What was the first meteorological instrument to be developed?
  164. 164. Q.8. What was the first meteorological instrument to be developed? A.8. A crude hygrometer
  165. 165. Q.9. What is the troposphere?
  166. 166. Q.9. What is the troposphere? A.9. An ocean of air immediately above the Earth’s surface
  167. 167. Q.10. What is the tropopause?
  168. 168. Q.10. What is the tropopause? A.10. The transitional zone between the troposphere and the near void of the stratosphere
  169. 169. Q.11. What is adiabatic warming and cooling?
  170. 170. Q.11. What is adiabatic warming and cooling? A.11. The consistent temperature change due to change in altitude
  171. 171. Q.12. What is a jet stream?
  172. 172. Q.12. What is a jet stream? A.12. A current of air that moves swiftly from west to east around the Earth
  173. 173. Q.13. In the Navy, what two types of barometers are used?
  174. 174. Q.13. In the Navy, what two types of barometers are used? A.13. Mercurial and aneroid
  175. 175. Q.14. What is the topmost layer of the atmosphere?
  176. 176. Q.14. What is the topmost layer of the atmosphere? A.14. Exosphere
  177. 177. Q.15. What is the lowest level of the ionosphere?
  178. 178. Q.15. What is the lowest level of the ionosphere? A.15. Mesosphere
  179. 179. Q.16. What is the highest level of the ionosphere?
  180. 180. Q.16. What is the highest level of the ionosphere? A.16. Thermosphere
  181. 181. Q.17. What is a front?
  182. 182. Q.17. What is a front? A.17. When warm and cold air masses touch, the boundary between them is a front.
  183. 183. Q.18. What is an air mass?
  184. 184. Q.18. What is an air mass? A.18. A large body of air with the same temperature, humidity, and pressure
  185. 185. Q.19. Which layer shields the Earth from the Sun's harmful ultraviolet rays?
  186. 186. Q.19. Which layer shields the Earth from the Sun's harmful ultraviolet rays? A.19. The chemosphere or ozone layer
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