NS1 3.2 Foundations Of Us Government
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NS1 3.2 Foundations Of Us Government

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Bishop Kenny NJROTC NS1 Lesson 3.2

Bishop Kenny NJROTC NS1 Lesson 3.2

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NS1 3.2 Foundations Of Us Government NS1 3.2 Foundations Of Us Government Presentation Transcript

  • CHAPTER 2 Foundations of US Government 1
  • The Declaration of Independence July 4th Our Country’s Birthday We celebrate every year with parades and fireworks. 2
  • 3
  • Documents from the First Continental Congress and the 4 Declaration of Independence July 4, 1776
  • Two of history’s most remarkable documents 5
  • 6
  • The thirteen colonies declare independence from Great Britain and begin self government as: “The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America.” Note: “united” was not capitalized 7
  • Following a bloody war and despite a failed first try, the Declaration of Independence changed the way people all over the world thought about self-government. 8
  • The Declaration of Independence was a document announcing America’s separation from what country? A. France B. Spain C. England D. Germany 9
  • The Declaration of Independence was a document announcing America’s separation from what country? A. France B. Spain C. England D. Germany 10
  • The Parts of the Declaration of Independence The Declaration has five parts: Thomas • preamble Jefferson • concept • grievances Wrote most of • attempts to resolve the • declares independence Declaration 11
  • First Part Preamble It announces the purpose of the document and explains why the signers were willing to risk charges of treason and summary execution. 12
  • Preamble An introduction to a document such as a constitution, explaining its purpose 13
  • “[A] decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they [the American people] should declare the causes which impel them to the separation” 14
  • Second Part Concept God does not select some people to be rulers by divine right: “…all men are created equal…" “…endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights…” “…among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness...” 15
  • Divine Rights Rights and responsibilities given by a divine being or deity that are therefore beyond question by human kind 16
  • Unalienable Incapable of being taken away or transferred to another 17
  • Instead of accepting the “divine right” concept, Founders concluded: • governments derive “just powers” from “consent of the governed” King George III ruled by • governments exist divine right for people, not the 18 other way around
  • Who drafted, or selected the wording for, the Declaration of Independence? A. James Madison B. Thomas Jefferson C. Alexander Hamilton D. John Adams 19
  • Who drafted, or selected the wording for, the Declaration of Independence? A. James Madison B. Thomas Jefferson C. Alexander Hamilton D. John Adams 20
  • The first democracies of ancient Greece did not include the Founders new concept: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal…” Plato’s Republic manuscript 21
  • Amendments Amendment • XIII 1865 Abolish slavery • XlX 1920 Grant vote • XlV 1868 Grant citizenship to women • XV 1870 Grant vote to citizens It would take some time to achieve 22 the promises of the Declaration.
  • Third Part Grievances Lists grievances and complaints against King George lll. In 1776, important enough for Founders to challenge one of the world’s most powerful monarchs. 23
  • Fourth Part Attempts to Resolve • Outlines colonies' efforts to resolve differences • Not just “rebels” • Law abiding citizens • Tried to make system work 24
  • Fifth Part Declares Independence “…appealing to the world for the rectitude of our intentions…” “…united colonies are absolved from all allegiance to the British crown.” 25
  • Rectitude Righteousness as a consequence of being honorable and honest 26
  • • No assurances the separation would succeed • Leaders could be hung as traitors • Pledged to each other “…our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor.” 27
  • The Founders established the government on the brand new concept that “all men are created equal,” at a time when they were surrounded by _______. A. rebellions B. contentment C. republics D. monarchies 28
  • The Founders established the government on the brand new concept that “all men are created equal,” at a time when they were surrounded by _______. A. rebellions B. contentment C. republics D. monarchies 29
  • The United States Constitution Revolutionary War-1777 The Articles of Confederation were the first attempt to establish a government 30 of the United States.
  • 31
  • The First Continental Congress developed the Articles of Confederation in 1777. Achievements: • Won the Revolutionary War • U. S. acknowledged as a country • Organized Northwest Territories 32
  • Articles appealed to diverse groups of separate little countries. The colonies’ individual interests varied: New England-seafarers-eastward toward Atlantic Middle and Southern-farmers-westward 33 towards more land
  • Colonies’ western borders: Some smaller colonies were well defined, others claimed vast tracts westward. No one really knew. Daniel Shays’ rebellion triggered new thinking about the national 34 government.
  • What was the significance of the organization of the Northwest Territories? A. It discouraged exploration by the French B. It blocked the British from threatening from Canada C. It later became five new states D. It alleviated the overcrowded cities of the northeastern states. 35
  • What was the significance of the organization of the Northwest Territories? A. It discouraged exploration by the French B. It blocked the British from threatening from Canada C. It later became five new states D. It alleviated the overcrowded cities of the northeastern states. 36
  • Shay’s Rebellion and the Need for a Stronger Government 1786-Daniel Shays—leader of Massachusetts farmers heavily in debt, losing homes and farms to taxes. Sympathetic mobs intervened to keep farmers’ (many Revolutionary War Veterans) properties. 37
  • On January 25, 1787, to arm themselves, the group attacked the Continental Army Arsenal in Springfield, Massachusetts. Rebellion failed when fired upon but it was a warning to authorities. Articles of Confederation required unanimous consent of all states before Federal action so this was a state matter. This demonstrated the weakness of the Articles of Confederation. 38
  • George Washington (private citizen 1783-1787) wrote to James Madison (future drafter of the Constitution): “We are either a united people or we are not. If the former, let us act as a nation. If we are not, let us no longer act a farce 39 by pretending to it.”
  • Under the Articles of Confederation, the government had no: • real taxing authority • executive or judicial branch • power to regulate trade • power to regulate relations between states, or a state and 40 a foreign country
  • It required a two- thirds vote by the delegates to pass a law. States could not agree on a national currency, each state printed its own. 41
  • A constitutional convention convened in May 1787 to amend the Articles of Confederation. Meeting until September, it drew up a new constitution instead. Two plans considered: • James Madison’s Virginia Plan 42 • New Jersey Plan
  • Constitutional Convention A special meeting held to draw up a new constitution 43
  • 44
  • Which of these factors did most of the Founders NOT believe was a weakness of the Articles of Confederation? A. Powerless to direct relations between states, or between states and a foreign country B. Powerless to impose a national banking system C. Powerless to regulate trade D. Powerless to tax 45
  • Which of these factors did most of the Founders NOT believe was a weakness of the Articles of Confederation? A. Powerless to direct relations between states, or between states and a foreign country B. Powerless to impose a national banking system C. Powerless to regulate trade D. Powerless to tax 46
  • James Madison Youthful “Father of the Constitution” • At 36, one of the youngest founders • Talents admired • Most influential • arrived early • brought detailed plan 47
  • • Kept most detailed notes of session proceedings • Attended almost every session Much of what we know today comes from his notes. 48
  • Virginia Plan • Strong central government • Three branches • legislative • executive • judicial 49
  • Empowered national legislature to: • pass laws states could not pass • strike down state laws conflicting with national laws • call armed forces to enforce national laws 50
  • William Paterson offered the New Jersey Plan The New Jersey Plan mainly just tinkered with the Articles of Confederation 51
  • New Jersey Plan—national government: • would have some taxing authority • could levy import duties/stamp tax • had power to collect from states • had power to regulate trade • Congress-passed laws would be supreme laws of land • included a form of executive and judicial branches 52
  • Levy To impose or collect (a tax) 53
  • Virginia Plan New Jersey Plan • How much power should the national government have? • How would states’ representation be determined? Should each state’s representation depend on population 54 or geographical size?
  • Under Articles of Confederation All states represented equally • small population states liked • large population states disliked Intense debate threatened convention 55
  • Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding James Madison’s role as the Father of the Constitution? A. He arrived early to the convention with a prepared plan. B. His copious, detailed notes have allowed us to know about what happened at the convention. C. He was one of the oldest Framers of the Constitution. D. He was present at almost every 56 session of the convention.
  • Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding James Madison’s role as the Father of the Constitution? A. He arrived early to the convention with a prepared plan. B. His copious, detailed notes have allowed us to know about what happened at the convention. C. He was one of the oldest Framers of the Constitution. D. He was present at almost every 57 session of the convention.
  • The Great Compromise Roger Sherman of Connecticut reintroduced an earlier plan • All states treated equal in an upper house • Lower house apportioned by population 58
  • Balance between small and large states • Each state is allowed two Senators. • 435 Representatives are divided based on state population with a minimum of 1 59
  • Other Constitutional Balancing Acts The Great Compromise was important but not the only compromise. 60
  • 61
  • Balance between the Federal Government and States • Federal government given specific (enumerated) power 62 • States retain law-making powers
  • Balance between House of Representatives and the Senate • House of Representatives originates all taxing laws • Senate approves Presidential appointments to the cabinet and 63 Supreme Court
  • x Balance between the Senate and the President • Agreement needed on all treaties between the United States and foreign 64 governments.
  • Legislative Executive Each branch of the government is assigned specific Judicial responsibilities. 65
  • • Legislative branch makes the laws 66 and levies the taxes.
  • • Executive branch enforces the laws. 67
  • U.S. Supreme Court • Judicial branch interprets the laws and assures the rights of the individual. 68
  • • The legislative branch passes laws. • The president may veto laws. • The legislature may over-ride the president's veto with a 2/3 majority vote. • The judicial branch may declare a law unconstitutional. 69
  • Veto The right (of a President) to reject a piece of legislation 70
  • U.S. GOVERNMENT’S CHECKS AND BALANCES Executive Branch The President Constitution Must approve appointments. Judicial Branch Can impeach judges. Legislative Branch Can declare a law unconstitutional Supreme Court and set it aside. The Congress Federal Courts 71
  • States preserve a say in the union by their collective power to approve or reject constitutional amendments. 72
  • “…whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution,… or two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, …shall be valid …when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, …” 73
  • What was the central proposal of the Great Compromise? A. The most heavily populated states would have two national representatives, and the less populated states one. B. National representation would be determined by the amount of taxes the states paid to the national government. C. The states would be divided into large districts, with each district being assigned one representative at the national level. D. National representation would take place in two houses, one with equal representation, 74 one with representation based on population.
  • What was the central proposal of the Great Compromise? A. The most heavily populated states would have two national representatives, and the less populated states one. B. National representation would be determined by the amount of taxes the states paid to the national government. C. The states would be divided into large districts, with each district being assigned one representative at the national level. D. National representation would take place in two houses, one with equal representation, 75 one with representation based on population.
  • Which of these relationships is accurate? A. The legislative branch: interpreting laws. B. The judicial branch: making laws. C. The executive branch: enforcing laws. D. The legislative branch: assuring individuals’ rights 76
  • Which of these relationships is accurate? A. The legislative branch: interpreting laws. B. The judicial branch: making laws. C. The executive branch: enforcing laws. D. The legislative branch: assuring individuals’ rights 77
  • An Overview of the United States Constitution Preamble • Form a more perfect union • Establish justice • Ensure domestic tranquility • Provide for the common defense • Promote general welfare • Secure the blessings of liberty 78 • To ourselves and posterity
  • Posterity Future generations 79
  • 80
  • Article I - Legislative Branch Section 1: Legislative power vested Section 2: House of Representatives Section 3: Senate Section 4: Elections of Senators and Representatives Section 5: Rules of House and Senate Section 6: Compensation and 81 Privileges of Members
  • Article I - Legislative Branch Section 7: Passage of Bills Section 8: Scope of Legislative Power • Declarewar • Raise & support armies • Provide and maintain a navy •Make rules for the forces Section 9: Limits on Legislative Power Section 10: Limits on States 82
  • Article II - Executive Branch Section 1: Election, Installation, Removal Section 2: Presidential Power Commander-in-Chief of all armed forces Section 3: State of the Union, Receive Ambassadors, Laws Faithfully Executed, Commission Officers Section 4: Impeachment 83
  • Article III - Judiciary Section 1: Judicial Power Vested Section 2: Scope of Judicial Power Section 3: Treason 84
  • Article IV - States Section 1: Full Faith and Credit Section 2: Privileges and Immunities, Extradition, Fugitive Slaves Section 3: Admission of New States Section 4: Guarantees to States for autonomy and adherence 85
  • Autonomy The quality or state of being self-governing 86
  • Article V - The Amendment Process 2/3 3/4 87
  • Article VI - Legal Status of the Constitution Supreme law of the land 88
  • Article VII - Ratify July 1788 9 of 13 89
  • Ratify To formally confirm or approve, as of a treaty or a constitutional amendment 90
  • The Preamble to the Constitution states that the document is intended to protect the liberty of _______, meaning future generations. A. posterity B. primogeniture C. predecessors D. potentiality 91
  • The Preamble to the Constitution states that the document is intended to protect the liberty of _______, meaning future generations. A. posterity B. primogeniture C. predecessors D. potentiality 92
  • Article I deals with the duties of _______. A. the President B. the Supreme Court justices C. the states D. Congress 93
  • Article I deals with the duties of _______. A. the President B. the Supreme Court justices C. the states D. Congress 94
  • Bill of Rights Some states would not ratify without a bill of rights. With ratification in jeopardy, Framers promised a bill of rights after ratification. 95 Independence Hall
  • Congress added the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution in 1791. • defines citizens’ rights • states limitations on governments 96
  • Amendment A formal alteration to a document such as a constitution or law 97
  • 98
  • Constitution—large institutional matters Bill of Rights—ordinary individual lives • Worship (or not) • Peaceable assembly • Speech and Press 99
  • Judges, lawyers and officers of the court know the amendments governing: • search and seizure • self-incrimination 100 • right to counsel
  • Overview of the first 10 amendments 101
  • 102
  • First Amendment: Freedom of Religion The right to exercise one's own religion, or no religion, free from any government influence or compulsions. 103
  • First Amendment: Freedom of Speech Even unpopular expression is protected from government suppression or censorship. 104
  • First Amendment: Freedom of the Press Freedom of the press gives citizens the right to print or publish truthful 105 thoughts, ideas, or opinions.
  • Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes: Freedom of religion, speech, and the press comes with the responsibility to not “…present a clear and present danger…” to the public. Each citizen must exercise his or her freedoms responsibly. 106
  • 107
  • Second Amendment: The Right to Bear Arms The right to bear arms allows citizens 108 to own weapons.
  • 109
  • Third Amendment: Quartering of Soldiers Citizens cannot be forced to house (or quarter) soldiers in their homes during peacetime. However, during wartime soldiers can be quartered in private homes, as prescribed by law. 110
  • Quartering Lodging, or providing living quarters for soldiers 111
  • The Bill of Rights was intended to define the rights of the citizens and also to state the _______ of the new state and federal governments. A. superiority B. limitations C. ambiguities D. particulars 112
  • The Bill of Rights was intended to define the rights of the citizens and also to state the _______ of the new state and federal governments. A. superiority B. limitations C. ambiguities D. particulars 113
  • 114
  • Fourth Amendment: Search and Seizure Civil Liberties The right to be free of unwarranted and unwanted government intrusion into one's personal and private affairs, 115 papers, and possessions
  • Police may search only after obtaining a warrant from a judge. Part of everyday work for police, 116 courts, and lawyers.
  • 117
  • Fifth Amendment: Criminal Proceedings and Due Process The right to be treated fairly by the government whenever the loss of 118 liberty or property is at stake.
  • Rights affecting criminal proceedings include: • An indictment and grand jury hearing • Protection against double jeopardy 119 • Protection against self-incrimination
  • Indictment A written statement charging someone with a crime or other offense, drawn up by a prosecuting attorney, and presented by a grand jury 120
  • Double Jeopardy means a person cannot be tried for the same crime twice. 121
  • Self-incrimination means a person is protected from being forced to testify 122 against himself or herself.
  • The last section of the amendment deals with preventing arbitrary 123 confiscation of private property.
  • What Supreme Court justice stated in 1917 that if someone’s words “present a clear and present danger” to the safety of the citizens, the words are not protected by the first amendment? A. Oliver Wendell Holmes B. John Marshall C. Earl Warren D. William Taft 124
  • What Supreme Court justice stated in 1917 that if someone’s words “present a clear and present danger” to the safety of the citizens, the words are not protected by the first amendment? A. Oliver Wendell Holmes B. John Marshall C. Earl Warren D. William Taft 125
  • 126
  • Sixth Amendment: The Right to a Jury Trial Guarantees the rights to: • a trial by peers • a prompt and public trial • call and question witnesses 127 • an attorney
  • 128
  • Seventh Amendment: The Right to a Civil Trial Guarantees the right to: • a trial in any dispute over 129 money or property
  • 130
  • Eighth Amendment: Punishment for Crimes Bail cannot be for an unreasonable amount of money. Bail is money or property given to a court to guarantee that an accused 131 person will appear in court.
  • Courts cannot impose excessive fines or punishments that are: • Cruel 132 • Unusual
  • 133
  • Ninth Amendment: Unenumerated Rights Just because other rights and freedoms are not mentioned in the amendments doesn’t mean the citizens do not have them. Not every right needs to be 134 enumerated.
  • Enumerated To list, or to specify individually 135
  • 136
  • Tenth Amendment: Powers Reserved to the States Any power not assigned to the federal government or forbidden to the states remains with the states or the people. Freedom, not restriction, is the 137 basis of our government.
  • The Fifth Amendment states that citizens cannot be tried without a prosecuting attorney-prepared document charging them with a crime, called a/an _______. A. warrant B. writ C. indictment D. amendment 138
  • The Fifth Amendment states that citizens cannot be tried without a prosecuting attorney-prepared document charging them with a crime, called a/an _______. A. warrant B. writ C. indictment D. amendment 139
  • Other Constitutional Amendments After the first 10, only 17 more amendments • 6 define a person and voting rights • 200 years—still growing, changing, expanding our definition of freedom 140
  • AMENDMENT XI Passed by Congress March 4, 1794. Ratified February 7, 1795. Clarifies judicial power over foreign nationals and limits the ability of 141 citizens to sue states.
  • AMENDMENT XIl Passed by Congress December 9, 1803. Ratified June 15, 1804. Changes procedure for electing Vice President. 142
  • AMENDMENT XIll Passed by Congress January 31, 1865. Ratified December 6, 1865. Ended slavery throughout the United States 143
  • AMENDMENT XIV Passed by Congress June 13, 1866. Ratified July 9, 1868. Declared newly freed slaves to be citizens. 144
  • AMENDMENT XV Passed by Congress February 26, 1869. Ratified February 3, 1870. Outlawed racial tests for voting. 145
  • AMENDMENT XVI Passed by Congress July 2, 1909. Ratified February 3, 1913. Allowed federal government to introduce a personal income tax. 146
  • AMENDMENT XVlI Passed by Congress May 13, 1912. Ratified April 8, 1913. Provided for popular (direct) election of Senators. 147
  • Amendment XII changes the procedure of electing _______. A. the president B. the vice president C. senators D. Representatives to the House 148
  • Amendment XII changes the procedure of electing _______. A. the president B. the vice president C. senators D. Representatives to the House 149
  • AMENDMENT XVllI Passed by Congress December 18, 1917. Ratified January 16, 1919. Banned alcoholic beverages in the Unites States. 150
  • AMENDMENT XIX Passed by Congress June 4, 1919. Ratified August 18, 1920. Granted women the right to vote. 151
  • AMENDMENT XX Passed by Congress March 2, 1932. Ratified January 23, 1933. • Changed presidential inauguration date to January 20 • Changed Congress convening date to January 3 • Clarified procedures to fill vacancies 152
  • AMENDMENT XXI Passed by Congress February 20, 1933. Ratified December 5, 1933. Repealed Amendment XVlll. 153
  • AMENDMENT XXlI Passed by Congress March 21, 1947. Ratified February 27, 1951. Limits Presidents to two terms of office. 154
  • AMENDMENT XXllI Passed by Congress June 16, 1960. Ratified March 29, 1961. Granted residents of the District of Columbia the right to vote in presidential 155 elections.
  • AMENDMENT XXIV Passed by Congress August 27, 1962. Ratified January 23, 1964. Forbade states from requiring taxes (head taxes) as a condition of voting. 156
  • AMENDMENT XXV Passed by Congress July 6, 1965. Ratified February 10, 1967. • Clarified Presidential succession • Provided for appointment of a new Vice President • Provided for temporary transfer 157 of Presidential powers
  • AMENDMENT XXVI Passed by Congress March 23, 1971. Ratified July 1, 1971. Granted 18-year-olds the right to vote in federal elections. 158
  • AMENDMENT XXVlI Originally proposed September 25, 1789. Ratified May 7, 1992. Congressional pay raises do not begin until after the next election. 159
  • Which amendment gave women the right to vote? A. XVII B. XVIII C. XIX D. XX 160
  • Which amendment gave women the right to vote? A. XVII B. XVIII C. XIX D. XX 161
  • Conclusion The Declaration of Independence launched the United States with a new vision—a Government deriving its “…just powers from the consent of the governed.” 162
  • During the first years, including the Revolutionary War, the country was governed by the Articles of 163 Confederation.
  • • A stronger national government was needed. • Constitutional convention convened in Spring 1787 to revise Articles of Confederation but drew up a new Constitution instead. • Stronger federal government • executive • legislative • judicial 164
  • • By July 1788, a majority of states ratified it and the Constitution took effect. • Congress and the states modified it almost immediately with Bill of Rights {Amendments 1-10} • Over the following 200 years we have added 17 more Amendments 165
  • The introduction to the Declaration of Independence, which announces the plan to separate from the British Empire, is known as the _______. A. prologue B. preface C. prelude D. preamble 166
  • The introduction to the Declaration of Independence, which announces the plan to separate from the British Empire, is known as the _______. A. prologue B. preface C. prelude D. preamble 167
  • A central idea of the Declaration of Independence is that “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness” are among the _______ rights of human beings, those that cannot be taken away or given to another. A. unalterable B. indivisible C. unalienable 168 D. inevitable
  • A central idea of the Declaration of Independence is that “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness” are among the _______ rights of human beings, those that cannot be taken away or given to another. A. unalterable B. indivisible C. unalienable 169 D. inevitable
  • The Founders felt strongly that the government’s power should come from the people, not from someone ruling by _______ rights believed to have come from a deity. A. divine B. regal C. unalienable D. consecrated 170
  • The Founders felt strongly that the government’s power should come from the people, not from someone ruling by _______ rights believed to have come from a deity. A. divine B. regal C. unalienable D. consecrated 171
  • Which of these statements is NOT accurate about the Declaration of Independence? A. One part describes the actions the colonists took to resolve the problems with England. B. The document was intended to explain to the world why the colonists were taking such a drastic step. C. It was signed by members of the First Continental Congress on July 4, 1776. D. The philosophy of government it stated was so unique that the new country was known as the “American experiment.” 172
  • Which of these statements is NOT accurate about the Declaration of Independence? A. One part describes the actions the colonists took to resolve the problems with England. B. The document was intended to explain to the world why the colonists were taking such a drastic step. C. It was signed by members of the First Continental Congress on July 4, 1776. D. The philosophy of government it stated was so unique that the new country was known as the “American experiment.” 173
  • During the time when the country was governed by the Articles of Confederation, all of the following events occurred except which one? A. Both the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812 were fought and won. B. The United States was recognized as a real country by other countries. C. The Northwest Territories were organized, setting the stage for the addition of five new states. D. Daniel Shays led a rebellion that brought to light the weakness of the national 174 government.
  • During the time when the country was governed by the Articles of Confederation, all of the following events occurred except which one? A. Both the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812 were fought and won. B. The United States was recognized as a real country by other countries. C. The Northwest Territories were organized, setting the stage for the addition of five new states. D. Daniel Shays led a rebellion that brought to light the weakness of the national 175 government.
  • For what original purpose did the Constitutional Convention assemble in the spring of 1787? A. To write a completely new constitution B. To amend the Articles of Confederation C. To debate whether or not the Articles of Confederation should be changed. D. To discuss legal means of organizing a national army to counter the threat of a second war with England 176
  • For what original purpose did the Constitutional Convention assemble in the spring of 1787? A. To write a completely new constitution B. To amend the Articles of Confederation C. To debate whether or not the Articles of Confederation should be changed. D. To discuss legal means of organizing a national army to counter the threat of a second war with England 177
  • The leaders of early America felt the Articles of Confederation lacked some important powers, including all of the following except which one? A. Method of taxation B. Trade regulations C. Federal bank D. Executive and judicial branches 178
  • The leaders of early America felt the Articles of Confederation lacked some important powers, including all of the following except which one? A. Method of taxation B. Trade regulations C. Federal bank D. Executive and judicial branches 179
  • Which of these statements is NOT true about James Madison, the Father of the Constitution? A. He supported the New Jersey Plan. B. He took detailed notes and attended nearly every meeting. C. He was one of the youngest delegates, only 36 years old. D. He arrived in Philadelphia early, bringing a plan with him. 180
  • Which of these statements is NOT true about James Madison, the Father of the Constitution? A. He supported the New Jersey Plan. B. He took detailed notes and attended nearly every meeting. C. He was one of the youngest delegates, only 36 years old. D. He arrived in Philadelphia early, bringing a plan with him. 181
  • What controversial problem did the Great Compromise solve? A. How the state and federal governments’ powers would be balanced B. How national laws would be initiated and passed C. How states’ representation would be handled D. How much power the president 182 should have
  • What controversial problem did the Great Compromise solve? A. How the state and federal governments’ powers would be balanced B. How national laws would be initiated and passed C. How states’ representation would be handled D. How much power the president 183 should have
  • Which of these groups accurately reflects the responsibilities of the three branches of the federal government? A. Judicial: makes laws Legislative: interprets laws Executive: enforces laws B. Legislative: makes laws Judicial: interprets laws Executive: enforces laws C. Legislative: enforces laws Judicial: makes laws Executive: interprets laws D. Judicial: interprets laws Executive: makes laws 184 Legislative: enforces laws
  • Which of these groups accurate reflects the responsibilities of the three branches of the federal government? A. Judicial: makes laws Legislative: interprets laws Executive: enforces laws B. Legislative: makes laws Judicial: interprets laws Executive: enforces laws C. Legislative: enforces laws Judicial: makes laws Executive: interprets laws D. Judicial: interprets laws Executive: makes laws 185 Legislative: enforces laws
  • Which of these powers belongs to the Supreme Court? A. To pass amendments to the Constitution B. To confirm presidential appointees to its own body, the Supreme Court C. To approve the constitutions of new states D. To rule that a law passed by Congress is unconstitutional 186
  • Which of these powers belongs to the Supreme Court? A. To pass amendments to the Constitution B. To confirm presidential appointees to its own body, the Supreme Court C. To approve the constitutions of new states D. To rule that a law passed by Congress is unconstitutional 187
  • The legislative branch of the federal government possesses all the following powers except which one? A. To determine the constitutionality of a law B. To confirm presidential appointees to the Supreme Court C. To override a presidential veto with a two-thirds majority vote D. To ratify all treaties the president makes with foreign powers 188
  • The legislative branch of the federal government possesses all the following powers except which one? A. To determine the constitutionality of a law B. To confirm presidential appointees to the Supreme Court C. To override a presidential veto with a two-thirds majority vote D. To ratify all treaties the president makes with foreign powers 189
  • What term is used to refer to the assigning or collecting of taxes? A. Draft B. Remit C. Levy D. Confer 190
  • What term is used to refer to the assigning or collecting of taxes? A. Draft B. Remit C. Levy D. Confer 191
  • What type of action is a veto, such as done by a president? A. Confirmation B. Rejection C. Interpretation D. Initiation 192
  • What type of action is a veto, such as done by a president? A. Confirmation B. Rejection C. Interpretation D. Initiation 193
  • The Constitution begins by asserting, among other things, that “We the people of the United States” intend to ensure freedom for “ourselves and our _______,” or future generations. A. predecessors B. posterity C. forefathers D. constituents 194
  • The Constitution begins by asserting, among other things, that “We the people of the United States” intend to ensure freedom for “ourselves and our _______,” or future generations. A. predecessors B. posterity C. forefathers D. constituents 195
  • What term is used to refer to the formal approval, as of a treaty or an amendment to the Constitution? A. Ratification B. Confirmation C. Proclamation D. Declamation 196
  • What term is used to refer to the formal approval, as of a treaty or an amendment to the Constitution? A. Ratification B. Confirmation C. Proclamation D. Declamation 197
  • What term is used to refer to the formal changing or altering of a document such as a constitution or a law? A. Ratification B. Restitution C. Amendement D. Amelioration 198
  • What term is used to refer to the formal changing or altering of a document such as a constitution or a law? A. Ratification B. Restitution C. Amendement D. Amelioration 199
  • Both to define the rights of the citizens and to state the _______ of the new state and federal governments were the reasons behind the first ten amendments to the Constitution, called the Bill of Rights. A. qualities B. limitations C. superiority 200 D. restructuring
  • Both to define the rights of the citizens and to state the _______ of the new state and federal governments were the reasons behind the first ten amendments to the Constitution, called the Bill of Rights. A. qualities B. limitations C. superiority 201 D. restructuring
  • Which of these rights is NOT guaranteed by the First Amendment? A. Of peaceable assembly B. Of free speech C. Of religion D. Of bearing arms 202
  • Which of these rights is NOT guaranteed by the First Amendment? A. Of peaceable assembly B. Of free speech C. Of religion D. Of bearing arms 203
  • Who made it clear that the words of any citizen who abused the right of free speech to present “a clear and present danger” would not be protected by the Constitution? A. Chief Justice of the Supreme Court Oliver Wendell Holmes B. US President Woodrow Wilson C. Speaker of the House of Representatives Henry Clay D. Presidential Candidate Abraham 204 Lincoln
  • Who made it clear that the words of any citizen who abused the right of free speech to present “a clear and present danger” would not be protected by the Constitution? A. Chief Justice of the Supreme Court Oliver Wendell Holmes B. US President Woodrow Wilson C. Speaker of the House of Representatives Henry Clay D. Presidential Candidate Abraham 205 Lincoln
  • The Second Amendment addresses which of these topics? A. Right to bear arms B. Quartering of soldiers in peace time C. Search and seizure D. Due process in criminal proceedings 206
  • The Second Amendment addresses which of these topics? A. Right to bear arms B. Quartering of soldiers in peace time C. Search and seizure D. Due process in criminal proceedings 207
  • The Third Amendment prevents citizens from being forced in peacetime to quarter soldiers, which means that citizens are not required to _______. A. contribute to their salaries B. provide them a place to live C. follow their orders except in national emergencies D. serve in the armed forces except in war time 208
  • The Third Amendment prevents citizens from being forced in peacetime to quarter soldiers, which means that citizens are not required to _______. A. contribute to their salaries B. provide them a place to live C. follow their orders except in national emergencies D. serve in the armed forces except in war time 209
  • The Fifth Amendment protects citizens from being tried without a/an _______, which is legal document prepared by a prosecuting attorney charging them with a crime. A. writ of habeas corpus B. warrant C. indictment D. summons 210
  • The Fifth Amendment protects citizens from being tried without a/an _______, which is legal document prepared by a prosecuting attorney charging them with a crime. A. writ of habeas corpus B. warrant C. indictment D. summons 211
  • The Ninth Amendment states that just because certain rights are not _______ (listed or specified) in the Constitution, it does not mean that citizens do not have that right. A. validated B. certified C. prioritized D. enumerated 212
  • The Ninth Amendment states that just because certain rights are not _______ (listed or specified) in the Constitution, it does not mean that citizens do not have that right. A. validated B. certified C. prioritized D. enumerated 213
  • Which amendment permits people to refuse to testify against themselves? A. Third B. Fourth C. Fifth D. Sixth 214
  • Which amendment permits people to refuse to testify against themselves? A. Third B. Fourth C. Fifth D. Sixth 215
  • How many amendments to the Constitution have been passed since the Bill of Rights? A. 12 B. 13 C. 16 D. 17 216
  • How many amendments to the Constitution have been passed since the Bill of Rights? A. 12 B. 13 C. 16 D. 17 217
  • In what year were 18-year-olds given the right to vote? A. 1962 B. 1969 C. 1971 D. 1973 218
  • In what year were 18-year-olds given the right to vote? A. 1962 B. 1969 C. 1971 D. 1973 219
  • What subject do Amendments XV, XIX, XXIII, XXIV, and XXVI have in common? A. Slavery B. Governmental structure C. Citizenship D. Voting 220
  • What subject do Amendments XV, XIX, XXIII, XXIV, and XXVI have in common? A. Slavery B. Governmental structure C. Citizenship D. Voting 221
  • What was banned by one amendment and then reinstated when the amendment was repealed? A. Consumption of alcoholic beverages B. Levying of a personal income tax C. Establishment of slavery D. Limitation of the presidential 222 term of office
  • What was banned by one amendment and then reinstated when the amendment was repealed? A. Consumption of alcoholic beverages B. Levying of a personal income tax C. Establishment of slavery D. Limitation of the presidential 223 term of office
  • What document is unique because it directly affects how American citizens live their daily lives? A. Declaration of Independence B. Bill of Rights C. US Constitution D. Articles of Confederation 224
  • What document is unique because it directly affects how American citizens live their daily lives? A. Declaration of Independence B. Bill of Rights C. US Constitution D. Articles of Confederation 225