CHAPTER 1
    Citizenship and Responsibility




1
Authority and Laws

One of NJROTC‟s
goals is to develop
informed, responsible
citizens.




2
CITIZEN


    • has, by birth or
      choice, an
      allegiance to a
      particular
      country.



3
Citizen

    A member of a political
    community




4
CITIZENSHIP


    • a two-way
      street. The
      citizen owes
      loyalty to his/her
      country and the
      co...
Citizenship

    The status of a citizen with
    its attendant duties, rights
    and privileges




6
“Only an
                               average
                               citizen?”

                               “...
Developing responsible, informed
    _______ is one of NJROTC‟s primary
    goals.

    A. citizens
    B. voters
    C. o...
Developing responsible, informed
    _______ is one of NJROTC‟s primary
    goals.

    A. citizens
    B. voters
    C. o...
Authority is the answer to the
     question, “Who says so?”

 One person makes the laws for everyone.




Tribal Chieftai...
Law

     A rule of conduct or procedure
     established by custom,
     agreement, or authority




11
In modern
     democracies, the
     power of the
     government is
     derived from the
     people through their
     ...
Laws are
     agreements by
     which we live.
13
No need for laws or
     rules.

14
In the larger world there are laws
     regulating all kinds of behavior for
     safety and quality of life for all
     ...
Governments and lives
                         have changed greatly
                         over the millennium.

 King H...
National
     Congress makes
     laws that apply to     State
     the whole nation      County
     allowing local
     ...
All major members
     of local and national
     governments are
     elected by citizens.

     • National
     • State
...
All the laws these governments pass
     have the force and consent of the
19   people behind them.
Senate and House
                         Congress is a
 of Representatives
                          Constituted
        ...
Constituted Authority

     Power to influence or command
     thought, opinion, or behavior,
     exercised by one lawful...
Accepting the authority of the constituted
authoritative body is your responsibility.

 As an American citizen, you have a...
esponsibilities
       R   ights

 Authoritative bodies make assurances to
 the people (rights) for granting them the
 aut...
The answer to the question, “Who says
 so?” is _______.

 A. citizens
 B. custom
 C. lawmakers
 D. authority




24
The answer to the question, “Who says
 so?” is _______.

 A. citizens
 B. custom
 C. lawmakers
 D. authority




25
Laws may be thought of as the _______
 by which people live.

 A. rules
 B. restrictions
 C. bonds
 D. agreements




26
Laws may be thought of as the _______
 by which people live.

 A. rules
 B. restrictions
 C. bonds
 D. agreements




27
The Citizen‟s Role
         Rights and Responsibilities




     A person becomes an American citizen
28   in one of three...
1. Birth       2. Naturalization




29       3. Act of Congress
A person becomes a citizen by
         being born in the United States.
         Jus Soli means law of the soil.




     ...
Jus Sanguinis means law of the blood.




     Children born in a foreign country whose
     parents are United States cit...
A person who
     enters the U.S.
     legally can
     complete the
     process of
     naturalization and
     become a...
The naturalization process includes:

     • Waiting period
     • Attending citizenship classes
     • Passing a basic te...
Guam




     Alaska                     Puerto Rico

                               Act of Congress . .

                ...
US citizenship based on birth on US soil
 is known as _______.

 A. ius civis
 B. ius populi
 C. ius sanguinis
 D. ius sol...
US citizenship based on birth on US soil
 is known as _______.

 A. ius civis
 B. ius populi
 C. ius sanguinis
 D. ius sol...
Responsibility as a Citizen




          Native-born or naturalized,
          all citizens have the same
          respo...
Prohibition

                                 Sometimes
                                 laws are
                        ...
Founding Fathers:

     • Fought through the existing laws until
       intolerable

     • Showed measure of loyalty with...
Responsibility as a Citizen




     Participate by voting
     at every opportunity.
40
The 26th amendment to the Constitution,
     passed in 1971, lowered the voting age
41   to 18.
You can begin early in the voting process
 by voting in school elections and in the
 activities of clubs and organizations...
Responsibility as a
          Citizen


     Good citizens must
     be willing to defend
     their nation against
     f...
Good citizens support the efforts
     of those willing to make sacrifices
44
     for the defense of their country.
“…we mutually pledge to each other our
     lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor.”
     The founders of our country w...
Alexis de Tocqueville
                • One of the best
                  known foreign
                  observers

     ...
He believed the answer was in
     the tradition of local
     self-government and free
     association, the
     “spirit...
Spirit of Association

     The fondness American citizens
     have for banding together in
     organizations to address...
Jean-Jacques
     David Hume      John Locke     Rousseau


                   The “American experiment”
                 ...
True or False: Native-born citizens have
 more civil responsibilities than
 naturalized citizens.




50
True or False: Native-born citizens have
 more civil responsibilities than
 naturalized citizens.

 False




51
At the end of the Declaration of
 Independence, the signers signed
 below these words: “. . . we mutually
 pledge to each ...
At the end of the Declaration of
 Independence, the signers signed
 below these words: “. . . we mutually
 pledge to each ...
Characteristics of a
               Good Citizen

     Countries expect certain things
     from their citizens besides me...
• Value, respect, and defend rights
   guaranteed by the U. S. Constitution.




55
• Accept the basic idea of majority rule
56
     under the U. S. Constitution.
• Believe in equal
       opportunity for
       everyone.

57
• Respect and
      uphold the law
      and its agencies.




58
• Vote.




59
• Accept taxes as the price of necessary
   April
   public services and pay them promptly.




60
• Accept civic responsibilities, such as
       jury duty, and carry them out to the
61     best of their ability.
• Support efforts to prevent war but
       stand ready to defend the country if
62     necessary.
• Know how to work with others on social
  action—to win support for desirable
  legislation, for instance.




63
• Know that a democracy needs citizens
   who are well informed, so they pay
   attention to the news, especially by
64
  ...
• Understand
       that democracy
       requires
       citizens to be
       educated.
65
Strip-mining          Clear-cutting




      • Respect property rights and
        regulations, and meet their
        ob...
• Support fair
       business
       practices and fair
       relations between
       employers and
       employees.

...
New York Stock
                           Exchange


 • Take responsibility for making our
   free-market economy work, wi...
• Have some understanding of other
       economic systems, including their
69
       political and social aspects.
• Accept family
       responsibilities and
       uphold standards in
       their neighborhood
       and larger communi...
• Understand other
       cultures and ways of
       life.
71
• Put the general welfare above their own
     when they must choose.




72
• Understand how people depend on
       one another around the world to work
       together to make a good life.

73
• Understand that
                       in the long run,
                       people will
                       govern...
• Take responsibility for the
                 wise use of natural
                 resources.




     Logging

         ...
• Rely on democratic principles as
     guides in evaluating their own and
76   other people‟s behavior.
• Feel they have
                                   inherited an
                                   unfinished
           ...
George           John F.     Martin Luther
     Washington       Kennedy        King Jr.

       • Cultivate qualities of ...
Good citizens understand that our
 government is a/an _______ self-
 government and that they must carry it
 on.

 A. ever...
Good citizens understand that our
 government is a/an _______ self-
 government and that they must carry it
 on.

 A. ever...
Good citizens support all these practices
 for the good of the nation except which
 one?

 A. Equal opportunity for everyo...
Good citizens support all these practices
 for the good of the nation except which
 one?

 A. Equal opportunity for everyo...
Bill of Responsibilities


                 Developed by the
                 Freedoms Foundation
                 of Vall...
Preamble



     Freedom and responsibility are mutual and
     inseparable; we can ensure enjoyment of
     the one only ...
To secure and expand our liberties,
     therefore, we accept these
     responsibilities as individual members
     of a ...
1. Be fully responsible for our own
        actions and the consequences
86      of those actions.
2. Respect the rights
        and beliefs of
        others.

87
3. Give sympathy, understanding,
        and help to others.
88
4. Do our best to meet our own and our
        families' needs. There is no personal
        freedom without economic free...
5. Respect and obey laws. Liberty itself
    is built on a foundation of law.
90
Private              Public



     6. Respect the property of others,
        both private and public.

91
7. Share with others your appreciation
    of the benefits and obligations of
    freedom. Freedom shared is freedom
    s...
8. Participate
        constructively
        in the nation‟s
        political life.




93
9. Help freedom
        survive by
        assuming personal
        responsibility for
        its defense.
94
10. Respect the
         rights and meet
         the
         responsibilities
         on which our
         liberty res...
The Bill of Responsibilities developed by
 the Freedoms Foundation links freedom
 and _______ as mutual and inseparable
 i...
The Bill of Responsibilities developed by
 the Freedoms Foundation links freedom
 and _______ as mutual and inseparable
 i...
The Bill of Responsibilities developed by
 the Freedoms Foundation states that
 citizens should be courteous and
 consider...
The Bill of Responsibilities developed
 by the Freedoms Foundation states
 that citizens should be courteous and
 consider...
The Role of Government




         Plato       Aristotle    Socrates


      The Founders knew history. Our idea
      of...
The Greeks described three
          types of government.




 Monarchy,      Aristocracy,     Democracy,
rule by one.   r...
The Founders were also familiar with
      their contemporary political thinkers.




       During the European “Age of
 ...
The Founders were influenced by their
      Judeo-Christian religious tradition.

      They were from many different stra...
Providence

      The care, guardianship, and
      control exercised by a deity




104
What name is given to a form of
      government where one person rules?

      A. Aristocracy
      B. Democracy
      C....
What name is given to a form of
      government where one person rules?

      A. Aristocracy
      B. Democracy
      C....
The Founders
                            turned to the
                            Roman Republic
                        ...
Classical Republicanism

      A theory that holds that the best
      kind of government is one that
      promotes the c...
One of the ideals was civic virtue, a
      willingness to put public service ahead
      of making money or tending to fa...
Civic Virtue
      The dedication of citizens to
      the common good, even at the
      cost of their individual interes...
Cincinnatus        George Washington

  Cincinnatus embodied this ideal, returning
  to his farm after service as Roman co...
American view to making classical
      republicanism work.
        • Civic Virtue
        • Moral education
112
        •...
Ancients believed children needed to
      learn civic virtue:
           • courage
           • fairness
           • gen...
Classical republicanism favored
      small uniform communities:
      • Everyone knew everyone
      • No one was much ri...
Limitations:

      • Americans didn‟t worship as Romans

      • Didn‟t want state or established religion

      First A...
Established religion
      A religion supported by the
      state through tax money




116
America was diverse and colonial
      Americans didn‟t want to be
      “all the same.”
      They sought economic opport...
In what century did the Roman Republic
  end?

  A. 2nd century B.C.
  B. 1st century B.C.
  C. 1st century A.D.
  D. 2nd ...
In what century did the Roman Republic
  end?

  A. 2nd century B.C.
  B. 1st century B.C.
  C. 1st century A.D.
  D. 2nd ...
What term is used to refer to a
  willingness to put public service above
  individual or familial welfare?

  A. Altruism...
What term is used to refer to a
  willingness to put public service above
  individual or familial welfare?

  A. Altruism...
The Judeo-Christian Heritage



      Judeo-Christian religious heritage
      greatly influenced the Founders.

      Alt...
Judeo-Christian

      Relating to beliefs and practices
      that have their historical roots
      in Judaism and Chris...
Religious orthodoxy

      Strict adherence to codified
      beliefs




124
Judeo-Christian religious heritage
      emphasized private morality over
      the Romans‟ concept of public virtue.
    ...
Private Morality

      The principles of virtue as
      expressed in Judeo-Christian
      teachings




126
Contemporary Influences




          John Locke               Thomas
                                   Jefferson
      J...
Baron de Montesquieu was another major
influence. The Frenchman admired the British
system of “mixed government” that prov...
True or False: The Judeo-Christian
  tradition emphasizes public virtue while
  the ancient Greek and Roman religions
  em...
True or False: The Judeo-Christian
  tradition emphasizes public virtue while
  the ancient Greek and Roman religions
  em...
James Madison
       and Constitutional Republicanism




      Great achievement—drew from all
      influences to create...
As Madison
        saw it:    Democracy—people
                   administer government
                   themselves so i...
Federal
             Constitutional
               Republic
 A government that derives its power from
 the people through ...
Founding era Americans and their
      ancestors came to the New World
      for spiritual and economic opportunities

   ...
George Washington was exceptional.



                         Founders built a
                         system that took
...
Constitutional Convention 1787.

      Madison argues for:

      • government that encourages good
        republican cit...
Separation of Powers

      The division of the government
      into executive, legislative
      and judicial branches

...
Various influences
                          and schools of
                          thought resulted in
                ...
What is considered James Madison‟s greatest
 achievement in his concept for the government of
 America?

  A. Analyzing th...
What is considered James Madison‟s greatest
 achievement in his concept for the government of
 America?

  A. Analyzing th...
„Ordinary‟ Citizens
        Defend the Capital on 9/11




      Armed services have a special
      responsibility for de...
Sometimes „ordinary‟ citizens step up to
      extraordinary challenges to protect the
      country.




142
United Flt 93
      September 11, 2001



      Heroic passengers didn‟t say “not my
      job”; they didn‟t wait; they ma...
? ?
                September 11, 2001

      Terrorists hijacked four commercial
      aircraft to turn them into guided ...
Two planes destroyed
      the World Trade
      Center, a third hit the
      Pentagon—nearly
145
      3,000 deaths.
No one knows the intended target for
      the fourth plane.

                  United Flt 93
              Newark, New Je...
9:28 a.m.—Hijackers took over Flt 93
      9:32 a.m.—Hijackers announced
                there is a bomb on board

      T...
Passengers made cell phone calls,
  learned of the World Trade Center attack,
  and decided to rush the terrorists.
148
9:57 a.m.—Passengers try to break
                through to the cockpit

      Hijacker rolls, climbs, and dives, to
    ...
Passengers continued and were
      seconds from breaking into the
      cockpit when the hijacker nosed
      into the fi...
In less than seven minutes, it was
      over. United Flt 93 plowed into a
      field in Shanksville, Pennsylvania.




1...
9/11 Commission:
 • pilot‟s objective “…crash his airliner
   into symbols of the American Public.”

 • “He was defeated b...
9/11 Commission:
 • “…the nation owes a debt to the
   passengers of United 93.”

  • “Their action saved the lives of cou...
Approximately how many people died
  on the morning of September 11, 2001,
  in the terrorist attack on New York
  City?

...
Approximately how many people died
  on the morning of September 11, 2001,
  in the terrorist attack on New York
  City?

...
Conclusion
 Citizenship is a membership in a political
 community.

 A citizen has rights and responsibilities:
   • Votin...
American system of government—
      Federal Constitutional Republic

      James Madison—“Father of the
      United Stat...
The new American government
     system he developed —Federal
    Constitutional Republic—was intended
    to encourage pe...
Citizenship is a reciprocal
      relationship: citizens owe the
      country loyalty and the country
      owes its citi...
Citizenship is a reciprocal
      relationship: citizens owe the
      country loyalty and the country
      owes its citi...
Through custom or agreement,
      groups of people establish rules
      known as _______ to guide or
      restrict them...
Through custom or agreement,
      groups of people establish rules
      known as _______ to guide or
      restrict them...
What is meant by a constituted
      authority, such as the US Congress?

      A. An authority limited in scope or
      ...
What is meant by a constituted
      authority, such as the US Congress?

      A. An authority limited in scope or
      ...
What term is used to refer to the
      rights protecting private
      individuals from arbitrary or
      unfair governm...
What term is used to refer to the
      rights protecting private
      individuals from arbitrary or
      unfair governm...
What legal term is used to refer
      to the right to US citizenship
      based on being born on
      American soil?

 ...
What legal term is used to refer
      to the right to US citizenship
      based on being born on
      American soil?

 ...
What legal term is used to refer
      to the right to US citizenship
      based on being born to an
      American citiz...
What legal term is used to refer
      to the right to US citizenship
      based on being born to an
      American citiz...
What term is used to refer to the
      process by which legal residents
      of the US who are not citizens
      can be...
What term is used to refer to the
      process by which legal residents
      of the US who are not citizens
      can be...
A good citizen views _______ as
      the price for public services.

      A. social action
      B. taxes
      C. equal...
A good citizen views _______ as
      the price for public services.

      A. social action
      B. taxes
      C. equal...
Who visited and studied
      America, noting how its devotion
      to materialism was able to exist
      alongside its ...
Who visited and studied
      America, noting how its devotion
      to materialism was able to exist
      alongside its ...
What term is used to refer to the
      inclination of Americans to
      band together to confront
      problems of comm...
What term is used to refer to the
      inclination of Americans to
      band together to confront
      problems of comm...
Why did the Founding Fathers publish
      the document known as the Declaration
      of Independence?

      A. To expla...
Why did the Founding Fathers publish
      the document known as the Declaration
      of Independence?

      A. To expla...
The Bill of Responsibilities
      developed by the Freedoms
      Foundation states that freedom
      and _______ are mu...
The Bill of Responsibilities
      developed by the Freedoms
      Foundation states that freedom
      and _______ are mu...
In the second half of the 18th
      century, an interest in reason
      and science flourished in
      Europe, and this...
In the second half of the 18th
      century, an interest in reason
      and science flourished in
      Europe, and this...
In the form of government
      called a/an _______, one person
      rules, while in a/an _______, a
      few people rul...
In the form of government
      called a/an _______, one person
      rules, while in a/an _______, a
      few people rul...
Frequently mentioned by the
      Founding Fathers, the concept
      of _______ refers to the care
      and control give...
Frequently mentioned by the
      Founding Fathers, the concept
      of _______ refers to the care
      and control give...
According to the theory of
      classical republicanism, the
      best government directs its
      efforts toward the _...
According to the theory of
      classical republicanism, the
      best government directs its
      efforts toward the _...
What term is used to refer to
      public-spiritedness or a
      readiness to put public service
      above individual ...
What term is used to refer to
      public-spiritedness or a
      readiness to put public service
      above individual ...
What American is associated
      with Cincinnatus, the ideal
      Roman citizen who returned to
      private life as so...
What American is associated
      with Cincinnatus, the ideal
      Roman citizen who returned to
      private life as so...
Even though they did not support
      an established religion in
      America, the Founding Fathers
      were influence...
Even though they did not support
      an established religion in
      America, the Founding Fathers
      were influence...
Which of these statements is NOT
      true regarding private morality?

      A. It is part of the Greek and Roman
      ...
Which of these statements is NOT
      true regarding private morality?

      A. It is part of the Greek and Roman
      ...
Whose philosophy of “natural
      rights,” the belief that
      governments existed for the
      benefit of the individ...
Whose philosophy of “natural
      rights,” the belief that
      governments existed for the
      benefit of the individ...
Who admired the British system
      of “mixed government,” stating
      that it was somewhat balanced
      because the ...
Who admired the British system
      of “mixed government,” stating
      that it was somewhat balanced
      because the ...
Who is called the “Father of the
      Constitution”?

      A. Thomas Jefferson
      B. Patrick Henry
      C. John Adam...
Who is called the “Father of the
      Constitution”?

      A. Thomas Jefferson
      B. Patrick Henry
      C. John Adam...
What does separation of powers refer
      to?

      A. The concept of people electing
         representatives and then ...
What does separation of powers refer
      to?

      A. The concept of people electing
         representatives and then ...
What notion does the heroism of the
      passengers of United Airlines Flight 93 on
      September 11, 2001, primarily i...
What notion does the heroism of the
      passengers of United Airlines Flight 93 on
      September 11, 2001, primarily i...
To what question is “Authority”
      the answer?

      A. Who leads the way?
      B. Who makes the rule?
      C. Who s...
To what question is “Authority”
      the answer?

      A. Who leads the way?
      B. Who makes the rule?
      C. Who s...
After they participate in the
      legislative process by electing
      the lawmakers, US citizens then
      have the _...
After they participate in the
      legislative process by electing
      the lawmakers, US citizens then
      have the _...
Which of these statements is NOT true regarding the
      responsibilities of citizens?

      A. Since not all citizens s...
Which of these statements is NOT true regarding the
      responsibilities of citizens?

      A. Since not all citizens s...
What form of government did James Madison
      support for the new country?

      A. A direct democracy in which all peo...
What form of government did James Madison
      support for the new country?

      A. A direct democracy in which all peo...
The loyalty that citizens owe the
      country where they were born
      or where they choose to live is
      known as ...
The loyalty that citizens owe the
      country where they were born
      or where they choose to live is
      known as ...
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NS1 3 1 Citizenship and Responsibility

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Bishop Kenny NJROTC NS1 Lesson 3.1 Citizenship and Responsibility

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NS1 3 1 Citizenship and Responsibility

  1. 1. CHAPTER 1 Citizenship and Responsibility 1
  2. 2. Authority and Laws One of NJROTC‟s goals is to develop informed, responsible citizens. 2
  3. 3. CITIZEN • has, by birth or choice, an allegiance to a particular country. 3
  4. 4. Citizen A member of a political community 4
  5. 5. CITIZENSHIP • a two-way street. The citizen owes loyalty to his/her country and the country owes protection to its citizens. 5
  6. 6. Citizenship The status of a citizen with its attendant duties, rights and privileges 6
  7. 7. “Only an average citizen?” “Just a private citizen?” Throughout American history, individual citizens have played important roles like the ones who died to save others on Flight 93 on 11 September 2001. 7
  8. 8. Developing responsible, informed _______ is one of NJROTC‟s primary goals. A. citizens B. voters C. officers D. workers 8
  9. 9. Developing responsible, informed _______ is one of NJROTC‟s primary goals. A. citizens B. voters C. officers D. workers 9
  10. 10. Authority is the answer to the question, “Who says so?” One person makes the laws for everyone. Tribal Chieftain Dictator King 10
  11. 11. Law A rule of conduct or procedure established by custom, agreement, or authority 11
  12. 12. In modern democracies, the power of the government is derived from the people through their elected legislators to create and uphold laws on their behalf. 12
  13. 13. Laws are agreements by which we live. 13
  14. 14. No need for laws or rules. 14
  15. 15. In the larger world there are laws regulating all kinds of behavior for safety and quality of life for all members of the society. 15
  16. 16. Governments and lives have changed greatly over the millennium. King Hammurabi Babylon (1700 B.C.) Emperor Justinian I (527-565) A.D. Complex societies need laws and regulations of U. S. House of many kinds. 16 Representatives
  17. 17. National Congress makes laws that apply to State the whole nation County allowing local government to City adjust for their Community area. 17
  18. 18. All major members of local and national governments are elected by citizens. • National • State • County • City • Community 18
  19. 19. All the laws these governments pass have the force and consent of the 19 people behind them.
  20. 20. Senate and House Congress is a of Representatives Constituted Authority Its members were “appointed to an office or lawfully elected.” 20
  21. 21. Constituted Authority Power to influence or command thought, opinion, or behavior, exercised by one lawfully elected or appointed 21
  22. 22. Accepting the authority of the constituted authoritative body is your responsibility. As an American citizen, you have a say by voting for those who represent you. 22
  23. 23. esponsibilities R ights Authoritative bodies make assurances to the people (rights) for granting them the authority (by vote) to continue governing. Civil rights protect people in their private lives. Political rights allow people to participate in their own governance. 23
  24. 24. The answer to the question, “Who says so?” is _______. A. citizens B. custom C. lawmakers D. authority 24
  25. 25. The answer to the question, “Who says so?” is _______. A. citizens B. custom C. lawmakers D. authority 25
  26. 26. Laws may be thought of as the _______ by which people live. A. rules B. restrictions C. bonds D. agreements 26
  27. 27. Laws may be thought of as the _______ by which people live. A. rules B. restrictions C. bonds D. agreements 27
  28. 28. The Citizen‟s Role Rights and Responsibilities A person becomes an American citizen 28 in one of three ways:
  29. 29. 1. Birth 2. Naturalization 29 3. Act of Congress
  30. 30. A person becomes a citizen by being born in the United States. Jus Soli means law of the soil. Children of parents who are not citizens become citizens if they are born in the 30 United States.
  31. 31. Jus Sanguinis means law of the blood. Children born in a foreign country whose parents are United States citizens also become citizens of the United States. 31
  32. 32. A person who enters the U.S. legally can complete the process of naturalization and become a citizen. 32
  33. 33. The naturalization process includes: • Waiting period • Attending citizenship classes • Passing a basic test on government and civics • Appearing before a federal judge • Swearing an oath of allegiance to the 33 United States of America
  34. 34. Guam Alaska Puerto Rico Act of Congress . . Citizenship granted to Hawaii people in Unites States United States territories. 34 Virgin Islands
  35. 35. US citizenship based on birth on US soil is known as _______. A. ius civis B. ius populi C. ius sanguinis D. ius soli 35
  36. 36. US citizenship based on birth on US soil is known as _______. A. ius civis B. ius populi C. ius sanguinis D. ius soli 36
  37. 37. Responsibility as a Citizen Native-born or naturalized, all citizens have the same responsibilities: Respect and obey the laws of the 37 United States
  38. 38. Prohibition Sometimes laws are changed or need to XVlll Amendment change. Citizens need to obey the laws until they are changed. It‟s a matter of responsibility and loyalty to country. 38
  39. 39. Founding Fathers: • Fought through the existing laws until intolerable • Showed measure of loyalty with explanation of reasons for separation • Recognized their responsibilities to justify their change of allegiance 39
  40. 40. Responsibility as a Citizen Participate by voting at every opportunity. 40
  41. 41. The 26th amendment to the Constitution, passed in 1971, lowered the voting age 41 to 18.
  42. 42. You can begin early in the voting process by voting in school elections and in the activities of clubs and organizations. 42
  43. 43. Responsibility as a Citizen Good citizens must be willing to defend their nation against foreign aggression. 43
  44. 44. Good citizens support the efforts of those willing to make sacrifices 44 for the defense of their country.
  45. 45. “…we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor.” The founders of our country were willing to sacrifice everything to establish our 45 nation.
  46. 46. Alexis de Tocqueville • One of the best known foreign observers • Impressed by the equality of opportunity • How can a society so devoted to materialism produce 46 civic spirit?
  47. 47. He believed the answer was in the tradition of local self-government and free association, the “spirit of association.” 47
  48. 48. Spirit of Association The fondness American citizens have for banding together in organizations to address problems of common interest 48
  49. 49. Jean-Jacques David Hume John Locke Rousseau The “American experiment” drew on many ideas and the thinking of many different philosophers. Baron de 49 Montesquieu
  50. 50. True or False: Native-born citizens have more civil responsibilities than naturalized citizens. 50
  51. 51. True or False: Native-born citizens have more civil responsibilities than naturalized citizens. False 51
  52. 52. At the end of the Declaration of Independence, the signers signed below these words: “. . . we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred _______.” A. trust B. allegiance C. honor D. friendship 52
  53. 53. At the end of the Declaration of Independence, the signers signed below these words: “. . . we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred _______.” A. trust B. allegiance C. honor D. friendship 53
  54. 54. Characteristics of a Good Citizen Countries expect certain things from their citizens besides mere allegiance. Here are some of the things good American citizens do: 54
  55. 55. • Value, respect, and defend rights guaranteed by the U. S. Constitution. 55
  56. 56. • Accept the basic idea of majority rule 56 under the U. S. Constitution.
  57. 57. • Believe in equal opportunity for everyone. 57
  58. 58. • Respect and uphold the law and its agencies. 58
  59. 59. • Vote. 59
  60. 60. • Accept taxes as the price of necessary April public services and pay them promptly. 60
  61. 61. • Accept civic responsibilities, such as jury duty, and carry them out to the 61 best of their ability.
  62. 62. • Support efforts to prevent war but stand ready to defend the country if 62 necessary.
  63. 63. • Know how to work with others on social action—to win support for desirable legislation, for instance. 63
  64. 64. • Know that a democracy needs citizens who are well informed, so they pay attention to the news, especially by 64 reading newspapers in print or online.
  65. 65. • Understand that democracy requires citizens to be educated. 65
  66. 66. Strip-mining Clear-cutting • Respect property rights and regulations, and meet their obligations under contracts. 66
  67. 67. • Support fair business practices and fair relations between employers and employees. 67
  68. 68. New York Stock Exchange • Take responsibility for making our free-market economy work, with government help and regulation when necessary. 68
  69. 69. • Have some understanding of other economic systems, including their 69 political and social aspects.
  70. 70. • Accept family responsibilities and uphold standards in their neighborhood and larger community. 70
  71. 71. • Understand other cultures and ways of life. 71
  72. 72. • Put the general welfare above their own when they must choose. 72
  73. 73. • Understand how people depend on one another around the world to work together to make a good life. 73
  74. 74. • Understand that in the long run, people will govern themselves better than any other group or individual would. 74 Royal Families
  75. 75. • Take responsibility for the wise use of natural resources. Logging Fishing 75 Mining
  76. 76. • Rely on democratic principles as guides in evaluating their own and 76 other people‟s behavior.
  77. 77. • Feel they have inherited an unfinished experiment in self-government, which is their duty and privilege to carry on. President John F. Kennedy “Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country.” 77
  78. 78. George John F. Martin Luther Washington Kennedy King Jr. • Cultivate qualities of personal character such as courage, wisdom, and generosity toward 78 others.
  79. 79. Good citizens understand that our government is a/an _______ self- government and that they must carry it on. A. ever-changing model of B. unfinished experiment in C. admired example of D. universally respected design in 79
  80. 80. Good citizens understand that our government is a/an _______ self- government and that they must carry it on. A. ever-changing model of B. unfinished experiment in C. admired example of D. universally respected design in 80
  81. 81. Good citizens support all these practices for the good of the nation except which one? A. Equal opportunity for everyone B. Government-regulated economy C. Prudent use of natural resources D. Fair business practices 81
  82. 82. Good citizens support all these practices for the good of the nation except which one? A. Equal opportunity for everyone B. Government-regulated economy C. Prudent use of natural resources D. Fair business practices 82
  83. 83. Bill of Responsibilities Developed by the Freedoms Foundation of Valley Forge How does it compare with “Characters of a Good Citizen?” 83
  84. 84. Preamble Freedom and responsibility are mutual and inseparable; we can ensure enjoyment of the one only by exercising the other. Freedom for all of us depends on responsibility by each of us. 84
  85. 85. To secure and expand our liberties, therefore, we accept these responsibilities as individual members of a free society. 85
  86. 86. 1. Be fully responsible for our own actions and the consequences 86 of those actions.
  87. 87. 2. Respect the rights and beliefs of others. 87
  88. 88. 3. Give sympathy, understanding, and help to others. 88
  89. 89. 4. Do our best to meet our own and our families' needs. There is no personal freedom without economic freedom. 89
  90. 90. 5. Respect and obey laws. Liberty itself is built on a foundation of law. 90
  91. 91. Private Public 6. Respect the property of others, both private and public. 91
  92. 92. 7. Share with others your appreciation of the benefits and obligations of freedom. Freedom shared is freedom strengthened. 92
  93. 93. 8. Participate constructively in the nation‟s political life. 93
  94. 94. 9. Help freedom survive by assuming personal responsibility for its defense. 94
  95. 95. 10. Respect the rights and meet the responsibilities on which our liberty rests and our democracy depends. 95
  96. 96. The Bill of Responsibilities developed by the Freedoms Foundation links freedom and _______ as mutual and inseparable in a nation. A. action B. laws C. responsibility D. respect 96
  97. 97. The Bill of Responsibilities developed by the Freedoms Foundation links freedom and _______ as mutual and inseparable in a nation. A. action B. laws C. responsibility D. respect 97
  98. 98. The Bill of Responsibilities developed by the Freedoms Foundation states that citizens should be courteous and considerate of the rights and beliefs of others so that _______ can flourish. A. diversity B. respect C. productivity D. individuality 98
  99. 99. The Bill of Responsibilities developed by the Freedoms Foundation states that citizens should be courteous and considerate of the rights and beliefs of others so that _______ can flourish. A. diversity B. respect C. productivity D. individuality 99
  100. 100. The Role of Government Plato Aristotle Socrates The Founders knew history. Our idea of government began with the writings of the Greek philosophers. 100
  101. 101. The Greeks described three types of government. Monarchy, Aristocracy, Democracy, rule by one. rule by a few. rule by many. 101
  102. 102. The Founders were also familiar with their contemporary political thinkers. During the European “Age of Enlightenment” reason and science were celebrated and embraced. 102
  103. 103. The Founders were influenced by their Judeo-Christian religious tradition. They were from many different strands of religious thought but took the Bible seriously and spoke of providence. The constitutional system reflected these influences. 103
  104. 104. Providence The care, guardianship, and control exercised by a deity 104
  105. 105. What name is given to a form of government where one person rules? A. Aristocracy B. Democracy C. Monarchy D. Oligarchy 105
  106. 106. What name is given to a form of government where one person rules? A. Aristocracy B. Democracy C. Monarchy D. Oligarchy 106
  107. 107. The Founders turned to the Roman Republic (509 BC-27 BC) as one of the models. It lasted 500 years (before the autocratic Roman Empire) and set the model for classical republicanism, citizens 107 working together for the common good.
  108. 108. Classical Republicanism A theory that holds that the best kind of government is one that promotes the common welfare instead of the interests of one class of citizens 108
  109. 109. One of the ideals was civic virtue, a willingness to put public service ahead of making money or tending to family. 109
  110. 110. Civic Virtue The dedication of citizens to the common good, even at the cost of their individual interests 110
  111. 111. Cincinnatus George Washington Cincinnatus embodied this ideal, returning to his farm after service as Roman consul. People admired George Washington for following Cincinnatus‟ example. 111
  112. 112. American view to making classical republicanism work. • Civic Virtue • Moral education 112 • Small, uniform communities
  113. 113. Ancients believed children needed to learn civic virtue: • courage • fairness • generosity • self-control The whole community took part. {“It takes a village to raise a child”} They were also taught to practice civic religion believing that deities were 113 watching over them.
  114. 114. Classical republicanism favored small uniform communities: • Everyone knew everyone • No one was much richer or poorer 114 • Everyone shared a common religion
  115. 115. Limitations: • Americans didn‟t worship as Romans • Didn‟t want state or established religion First Amendment 1791 “Congress will make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof…” 115
  116. 116. Established religion A religion supported by the state through tax money 116
  117. 117. America was diverse and colonial Americans didn‟t want to be “all the same.” They sought economic opportunity in a vast country and wanted an expandable system of government. 117
  118. 118. In what century did the Roman Republic end? A. 2nd century B.C. B. 1st century B.C. C. 1st century A.D. D. 2nd century A.D. 118
  119. 119. In what century did the Roman Republic end? A. 2nd century B.C. B. 1st century B.C. C. 1st century A.D. D. 2nd century A.D. 119
  120. 120. What term is used to refer to a willingness to put public service above individual or familial welfare? A. Altruism B. Spirit of Association C. Civil Obedience D. Civic virtue 120
  121. 121. What term is used to refer to a willingness to put public service above individual or familial welfare? A. Altruism B. Spirit of Association C. Civil Obedience D. Civic virtue 121
  122. 122. The Judeo-Christian Heritage Judeo-Christian religious heritage greatly influenced the Founders. Although skeptical of religious orthodoxy, they believed organized religion could make better citizens by communicating virtue. 122
  123. 123. Judeo-Christian Relating to beliefs and practices that have their historical roots in Judaism and Christianity 123
  124. 124. Religious orthodoxy Strict adherence to codified beliefs 124
  125. 125. Judeo-Christian religious heritage emphasized private morality over the Romans‟ concept of public virtue. Considered each individual to have a soul, with dignity, worth, 125 and rights of his or her own.
  126. 126. Private Morality The principles of virtue as expressed in Judeo-Christian teachings 126
  127. 127. Contemporary Influences John Locke Thomas Jefferson John Locke, hero of Thomas Jefferson, was a major influence on the Founders. “natural rights”—the state exists for the benefit of the individual 127
  128. 128. Baron de Montesquieu was another major influence. The Frenchman admired the British system of “mixed government” that provided relative balance with professional and middle class involvement. 128
  129. 129. True or False: The Judeo-Christian tradition emphasizes public virtue while the ancient Greek and Roman religions emphasized private morality. 129
  130. 130. True or False: The Judeo-Christian tradition emphasizes public virtue while the ancient Greek and Roman religions emphasized private morality. False 130
  131. 131. James Madison and Constitutional Republicanism Great achievement—drew from all influences to create a new system that included aspects of two ancient concepts: a democracy and a republic. 131
  132. 132. As Madison saw it: Democracy—people administer government themselves so it only works on a small scale. Republic—people‟s representatives administer government so it works on a broader scale. 132
  133. 133. Federal Constitutional Republic A government that derives its power from the people through elected representatives while protecting the rights of the people with a series of written restrictions. 133
  134. 134. Founding era Americans and their ancestors came to the New World for spiritual and economic opportunities They were more representative of human nature as described by natural-rights philosophers than the ideals of self-sacrifice and conformity in classical republicanism. 134
  135. 135. George Washington was exceptional. Founders built a system that took human nature and enlightened self-interest into account. 135
  136. 136. Constitutional Convention 1787. Madison argues for: • government that encourages good republican citizens with civic virtue • safeguarding citizens‟ freedoms with checks and balances, and the separation of powers 136
  137. 137. Separation of Powers The division of the government into executive, legislative and judicial branches 137
  138. 138. Various influences and schools of thought resulted in the United States Constitution. As an heir to this system, you enjoy the rights ensured by the Constitution and have a responsibility to protect them 138 for yourself and others.
  139. 139. What is considered James Madison‟s greatest achievement in his concept for the government of America? A. Analyzing the causes of the French Revolution and incorporating checks and balances against the central power B. Modeling the new system on the British system but establishing the right of all citizens to vote and participate in the decision-making C. Ignoring established models of government and forming one specific for the new capitalist and ambitious spirit of America D. Drawing from both a democracy and a republic to have elected representatives handle the 139 government with a system of safeguards
  140. 140. What is considered James Madison‟s greatest achievement in his concept for the government of America? A. Analyzing the causes of the French Revolution and incorporating checks and balances against the central power B. Modeling the new system on the British system but establishing the right of all citizens to vote and participate in the decision-making C. Ignoring established models of government and forming one specific for the new capitalist and ambitious spirit of America D. Drawing from both a democracy and a republic to have elected representatives handle the 140 government with a system of safeguards
  141. 141. „Ordinary‟ Citizens Defend the Capital on 9/11 Armed services have a special responsibility for defending the United 141 States but not the sole responsibility.
  142. 142. Sometimes „ordinary‟ citizens step up to extraordinary challenges to protect the country. 142
  143. 143. United Flt 93 September 11, 2001 Heroic passengers didn‟t say “not my job”; they didn‟t wait; they made the ultimate sacrifice for their country. 143
  144. 144. ? ? September 11, 2001 Terrorists hijacked four commercial aircraft to turn them into guided missiles. 144
  145. 145. Two planes destroyed the World Trade Center, a third hit the Pentagon—nearly 145 3,000 deaths.
  146. 146. No one knows the intended target for the fourth plane. United Flt 93 Newark, New Jersey to San Francisco, California 146
  147. 147. 9:28 a.m.—Hijackers took over Flt 93 9:32 a.m.—Hijackers announced there is a bomb on board The announcement was a lie to explain the course change. 147
  148. 148. Passengers made cell phone calls, learned of the World Trade Center attack, and decided to rush the terrorists. 148
  149. 149. 9:57 a.m.—Passengers try to break through to the cockpit Hijacker rolls, climbs, and dives, to throw the passengers and crew off. 149
  150. 150. Passengers continued and were seconds from breaking into the cockpit when the hijacker nosed into the final dive. 150
  151. 151. In less than seven minutes, it was over. United Flt 93 plowed into a field in Shanksville, Pennsylvania. 151
  152. 152. 9/11 Commission: • pilot‟s objective “…crash his airliner into symbols of the American Public.” • “He was defeated by the unarmed, alerted passengers of United 93.” 152
  153. 153. 9/11 Commission: • “…the nation owes a debt to the passengers of United 93.” • “Their action saved the lives of countless others and may have saved either the U.S. 153 Capitol or the White House.”
  154. 154. Approximately how many people died on the morning of September 11, 2001, in the terrorist attack on New York City? A. 1500 B. 2000 C. 3000 D. 4000 154
  155. 155. Approximately how many people died on the morning of September 11, 2001, in the terrorist attack on New York City? A. 1500 B. 2000 C. 3000 D. 4000 155
  156. 156. Conclusion Citizenship is a membership in a political community. A citizen has rights and responsibilities: • Voting • Paying taxes • Obeying laws • Supporting national defense Laws have the force of the people behind 156 them.
  157. 157. American system of government— Federal Constitutional Republic James Madison—“Father of the United States Constitution” He drew ideas from: • ancient Greeks and Romans • important thinkers of his day • Judeo-Christian tradition 157
  158. 158. The new American government system he developed —Federal Constitutional Republic—was intended to encourage people to act as civic minded good citizens but has checks and balances, along with separation of powers, to guard against consequences 158 if they did not.
  159. 159. Citizenship is a reciprocal relationship: citizens owe the country loyalty and the country owes its citizens _______. A. support B. education C. order D. protection 159
  160. 160. Citizenship is a reciprocal relationship: citizens owe the country loyalty and the country owes its citizens _______. A. support B. education C. order D. protection 160
  161. 161. Through custom or agreement, groups of people establish rules known as _______ to guide or restrict them in behaviors or procedures. A. laws B. rituals C. constitutions D. statutes 161
  162. 162. Through custom or agreement, groups of people establish rules known as _______ to guide or restrict them in behaviors or procedures. A. laws B. rituals C. constitutions D. statutes 162
  163. 163. What is meant by a constituted authority, such as the US Congress? A. An authority limited in scope or controlled by greater forces B. An authority lawfully appointed or elected C. An authority composed of various elements or diverse interests D. An authority unified or working on a common goal 163
  164. 164. What is meant by a constituted authority, such as the US Congress? A. An authority limited in scope or controlled by greater forces B. An authority lawfully appointed or elected C. An authority composed of various elements or diverse interests D. An authority unified or working on a common goal 164
  165. 165. What term is used to refer to the rights protecting private individuals from arbitrary or unfair government actions? A. Inherent B. Human C. Collective D. Civil 165
  166. 166. What term is used to refer to the rights protecting private individuals from arbitrary or unfair government actions? A. Inherent B. Human C. Collective D. Civil 166
  167. 167. What legal term is used to refer to the right to US citizenship based on being born on American soil? A. Ius sanguinis B. Ius civis C. Ius soli D. Ius populi 167
  168. 168. What legal term is used to refer to the right to US citizenship based on being born on American soil? A. Ius sanguinis B. Ius civis C. Ius soli D. Ius populi 168
  169. 169. What legal term is used to refer to the right to US citizenship based on being born to an American citizen? A. Ius sanguinis B. Ius soli C. Ius civis D. Ius populi 169
  170. 170. What legal term is used to refer to the right to US citizenship based on being born to an American citizen? A. Ius sanguinis B. Ius soli C. Ius civis D. Ius populi 170
  171. 171. What term is used to refer to the process by which legal residents of the US who are not citizens can become citizens? A. Immigration B. Rescission C. Residency D. Naturalization 171
  172. 172. What term is used to refer to the process by which legal residents of the US who are not citizens can become citizens? A. Immigration B. Rescission C. Residency D. Naturalization 172
  173. 173. A good citizen views _______ as the price for public services. A. social action B. taxes C. equal opportunity D. a free-market economy 173
  174. 174. A good citizen views _______ as the price for public services. A. social action B. taxes C. equal opportunity D. a free-market economy 174
  175. 175. Who visited and studied America, noting how its devotion to materialism was able to exist alongside its civic spirit? A. John Locke B. Thomas Hobbes C. Alexis de Tocqueville D. Baron de Montesquieu 175
  176. 176. Who visited and studied America, noting how its devotion to materialism was able to exist alongside its civic spirit? A. John Locke B. Thomas Hobbes C. Alexis de Tocqueville D. Baron de Montesquieu 176
  177. 177. What term is used to refer to the inclination of Americans to band together to confront problems of common interest? A. Spirit of cooperation B. Spirit of association C. Spirit of mutuality D. Spirit of community 177
  178. 178. What term is used to refer to the inclination of Americans to band together to confront problems of common interest? A. Spirit of cooperation B. Spirit of association C. Spirit of mutuality D. Spirit of community 178
  179. 179. Why did the Founding Fathers publish the document known as the Declaration of Independence? A. To explain the reasons for their decision to break away from the British Empire B. To denounce the British Empire‟s injustices to its colonists worldwide C. To describe in detail the kind of government they planned to set up D. To warn the world about the new country‟s philosophy of isolationism 179
  180. 180. Why did the Founding Fathers publish the document known as the Declaration of Independence? A. To explain the reasons for their decision to break away from the British Empire B. To denounce the British Empire‟s injustices to its colonists worldwide C. To describe in detail the kind of government they planned to set up D. To warn the world about the new country‟s philosophy of isolationism 180
  181. 181. The Bill of Responsibilities developed by the Freedoms Foundation states that freedom and _______ are mutual and inseparable in a nation. A. action B. laws C. responsibility D. respect 181
  182. 182. The Bill of Responsibilities developed by the Freedoms Foundation states that freedom and _______ are mutual and inseparable in a nation. A. action B. laws C. responsibility D. respect 182
  183. 183. In the second half of the 18th century, an interest in reason and science flourished in Europe, and this era became known as the Age of _______. A. Humanism B. Discovery C. Imagination D. Enlightenment 183
  184. 184. In the second half of the 18th century, an interest in reason and science flourished in Europe, and this era became known as the Age of _______. A. Humanism B. Discovery C. Imagination D. Enlightenment 184
  185. 185. In the form of government called a/an _______, one person rules, while in a/an _______, a few people rule. A. aristocracy, democracy B. monarchy, aristocracy C. aristocracy, monarchy D. monarchy, democracy 185
  186. 186. In the form of government called a/an _______, one person rules, while in a/an _______, a few people rule. A. aristocracy, democracy B. monarchy, aristocracy C. aristocracy, monarchy D. monarchy, democracy 186
  187. 187. Frequently mentioned by the Founding Fathers, the concept of _______ refers to the care and control given to humans by a deity. A. benevolence B. providence C. destiny D. fortune 187
  188. 188. Frequently mentioned by the Founding Fathers, the concept of _______ refers to the care and control given to humans by a deity. A. benevolence B. providence C. destiny D. fortune 188
  189. 189. According to the theory of classical republicanism, the best government directs its efforts toward the _______ instead of toward the interests of a select group. A. private morality B. constituted authority C. common welfare D. silent majority 189
  190. 190. According to the theory of classical republicanism, the best government directs its efforts toward the _______ instead of toward the interests of a select group. A. private morality B. constituted authority C. common welfare D. silent majority 190
  191. 191. What term is used to refer to public-spiritedness or a readiness to put public service above individual needs? A. Spirit of association B. Spirit of community C. Civil obedience D. Civic virtue 191
  192. 192. What term is used to refer to public-spiritedness or a readiness to put public service above individual needs? A. Spirit of association B. Spirit of community C. Civil obedience D. Civic virtue 192
  193. 193. What American is associated with Cincinnatus, the ideal Roman citizen who returned to private life as soon as he had met his country‟s military needs? A. James Madison B. George Washington C. Benjamin Franklin D. John Adams 193
  194. 194. What American is associated with Cincinnatus, the ideal Roman citizen who returned to private life as soon as he had met his country‟s military needs? A. James Madison B. George Washington C. Benjamin Franklin D. John Adams 194
  195. 195. Even though they did not support an established religion in America, the Founding Fathers were influenced by the _______ heritage, which they believed was a method of instilling virtue. A. Judeo-Christian B. Protestant C. Roman Catholic D. Ancient Roman 195
  196. 196. Even though they did not support an established religion in America, the Founding Fathers were influenced by the _______ heritage, which they believed was a method of instilling virtue. A. Judeo-Christian B. Protestant C. Roman Catholic D. Ancient Roman 196
  197. 197. Which of these statements is NOT true regarding private morality? A. It is part of the Greek and Roman heritage. B. Its emphasis is on love and kindness. C. Its principles include the belief that people have souls, dignity, value, and rights. D. It derives much of its teachings from the Ten Commandments 197 and the Sermon on the Mount.
  198. 198. Which of these statements is NOT true regarding private morality? A. It is part of the Greek and Roman heritage. B. Its emphasis is on love and kindness. C. Its principles include the belief that people have souls, dignity, value, and rights. D. It derives much of its teachings from the Ten Commandments 198 and the Sermon on the Mount.
  199. 199. Whose philosophy of “natural rights,” the belief that governments existed for the benefit of the individual, heavily influenced the Founding Fathers? A. Alexis de Tocqueville B. Thomas Paine C. John Locke D. Baron de Montesquieu 199
  200. 200. Whose philosophy of “natural rights,” the belief that governments existed for the benefit of the individual, heavily influenced the Founding Fathers? A. Alexis de Tocqueville B. Thomas Paine C. John Locke D. Baron de Montesquieu 200
  201. 201. Who admired the British system of “mixed government,” stating that it was somewhat balanced because the professional and middle classes had a voice in the government? A. John Locke B. Baron de Montesquieu C. Alexis de Tocqueville D. Thomas Jefferson 201
  202. 202. Who admired the British system of “mixed government,” stating that it was somewhat balanced because the professional and middle classes had a voice in the government? A. John Locke B. Baron de Montesquieu C. Alexis de Tocqueville D. Thomas Jefferson 202
  203. 203. Who is called the “Father of the Constitution”? A. Thomas Jefferson B. Patrick Henry C. John Adams D. James Madison 203
  204. 204. Who is called the “Father of the Constitution”? A. Thomas Jefferson B. Patrick Henry C. John Adams D. James Madison 204
  205. 205. What does separation of powers refer to? A. The concept of people electing representatives and then giving them the power to act and vote for them. B. The guarantee that states‟ rights will never become less powerful than the rights of the federal government. C. The division of the federal government into three branches with safeguards of checks and balances. D. The extensive list of reasons for the 205 colonies‟ break from Britain
  206. 206. What does separation of powers refer to? A. The concept of people electing representatives and then giving them the power to act and vote for them. B. The guarantee that states‟ rights will never become less powerful than the rights of the federal government. C. The division of the federal government into three branches with safeguards of checks and balances. D. The extensive list of reasons for the 206 colonies‟ break from Britain
  207. 207. What notion does the heroism of the passengers of United Airlines Flight 93 on September 11, 2001, primarily illustrate? A. That there is no such things as “just a private citizen” B. That Americans are now having to fight a foreign enemy on their own soil C. That the fight for freedom must be carried out on land, on sea, and in the air D. That people are more likely to be heroic in groups rather than as individuals 207
  208. 208. What notion does the heroism of the passengers of United Airlines Flight 93 on September 11, 2001, primarily illustrate? A. That there is no such things as “just a private citizen” B. That Americans are now having to fight a foreign enemy on their own soil C. That the fight for freedom must be carried out on land, on sea, and in the air D. That people are more likely to be heroic in groups rather than as individuals 208
  209. 209. To what question is “Authority” the answer? A. Who leads the way? B. Who makes the rule? C. Who says so? D. Who has the answer? 209
  210. 210. To what question is “Authority” the answer? A. Who leads the way? B. Who makes the rule? C. Who says so? D. Who has the answer? 210
  211. 211. After they participate in the legislative process by electing the lawmakers, US citizens then have the _______ to accept the authority of those whom they chose. A. right B. responsibility C. choice D. privilege 211
  212. 212. After they participate in the legislative process by electing the lawmakers, US citizens then have the _______ to accept the authority of those whom they chose. A. right B. responsibility C. choice D. privilege 212
  213. 213. Which of these statements is NOT true regarding the responsibilities of citizens? A. Since not all citizens serve in the armed forces, most are not able to assume any responsibility for defending the nation against foreign aggression. B. Citizens should vote not only because it is a privilege but because it allows them to think through issues and evaluate candidates carefully. C. Citizens ought to obey the laws of the land even though they do not approve of them, and they can always participate in the process to have laws changed. D. Because they have a responsibility to be informed, citizens should know about current events and the principles of free-market economy. 213
  214. 214. Which of these statements is NOT true regarding the responsibilities of citizens? A. Since not all citizens serve in the armed forces, most are not able to assume any responsibility for defending the nation against foreign aggression. B. Citizens should vote not only because it is a privilege but because it allows them to think through issues and evaluate candidates carefully. C. Citizens ought to obey the laws of the land even though they do not approve of them, and they can always participate in the process to have laws changed. D. Because they have a responsibility to be informed, citizens should know about current events and the principles of free-market economy. 214
  215. 215. What form of government did James Madison support for the new country? A. A direct democracy in which all people voted for every issue, as in ancient Greece. B. A classical republic in which representatives of the people managed the government, as in ancient Rome C. A combination of a direct democracy and a classical republic with the people electing representatives and their freedoms safeguarded by checks and balances. D. A new system which ignored established models of government and was structured specifically for the new capitalistic and 215 ambitious spirit of America
  216. 216. What form of government did James Madison support for the new country? A. A direct democracy in which all people voted for every issue, as in ancient Greece. B. A classical republic in which representatives of the people managed the government, as in ancient Rome C. A combination of a direct democracy and a classical republic with the people electing representatives and their freedoms safeguarded by checks and balances. D. A new system which ignored established models of government and was structured specifically for the new capitalistic and 216 ambitious spirit of America
  217. 217. The loyalty that citizens owe the country where they were born or where they choose to live is known as _______. A. affiliation B. obligation C. civic virtue D. allegiance 217
  218. 218. The loyalty that citizens owe the country where they were born or where they choose to live is known as _______. A. affiliation B. obligation C. civic virtue D. allegiance 218

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