UNIT 2 CHAPTER 2
       Leadership




1
The Two Orientations to Leadership
                 Behavior
    Being a successful leader requires training
    and pract...
Now what?




    A volunteer team forms at your school to
    help rebuild houses devastated by
    tornadoes. They elect...
This lesson will provide some advice and
    guidelines about leadership.
4
An important concept to understand is the
    difference between:
    • Leadership – the art of influencing and
      dire...
Building good leadership skills takes
    _______.

    A. desire and means
    B. planning and money
    C. authorization...
Building good leadership skills takes
    _______.

    A. desire and means
    B. planning and money
    C. authorization...
How does a leader get people to come
    together to accomplish a mission?
8
A leader must base his or her approach to a
task on the environment and on the readiness
of the team and individual member...
Readiness

     How prepared a team member is to
     carry out a particular task or tasks




10
Situational leadership is when a leader must
     base his or her approach on the situation in
     which the leader and t...
Situational Leadership

     A leadership model based on
     the concept that there is no
     single best way to influen...
Admiral                 Admiral
        Michael G. Mullen        Gary Roughead
         Chairman JCS                 CNO

...
Understanding situational leadership is knowing
how you and your people are oriented: are you
oriented towards people or t...
A leader’s approach to a task must
 take into consideration both the
 _______ and the readiness of the
 people.

 A. resou...
A leader’s approach to a task must
 take into consideration both the
 _______ and the readiness of the
 people.

 A. resou...
A leader who is
                         people oriented
                         focuses on
                         inte...
While a leader
                         oriented towards
                         task focuses on the
                    ...
Orientation Toward People




     Another name for orientation toward people
     is relationship behavior. This includes...
Relationship Behavior

     A leader’s engagement in
     supportive, two-way
     communication with his or
     her team...
People respond
                        better if they feel
                        their leader is
                       ...
Empathetic

     The action of understanding,
     being aware of, and being
     sensitive to the feelings,
     thoughts...
Leaders should bear in mind the old
     expression, ―You catch more flies with
     honey than you do with vinegar.‖
23
What leadership model is based on
 the concept that there is no single
 best way to lead people?

 A. Conditional
 B. Envi...
What leadership model is based on
 the concept that there is no single
 best way to lead people?

 A. Conditional
 B. Envi...
What term is used to refer to a
 leader’s supportive, two-way
 communication with team members?

 A. Group dynamics
 B. In...
What term is used to refer to a
 leader’s supportive, two-way
 communication with team members?

 A. Group dynamics
 B. In...
Orientation Toward Task
                            Task behavior
                            focuses on the
             ...
Task Behavior

     The leader’s involvement in
     defining the duties and
     responsibilities of an individual
     o...
In his book, Gary
     Yukl suggests that
     task behavior has
     limitations when
     used alone. That
     is why t...
When it comes to task behavior, a leader
     should survey the needs and abilities of
     his or her followers and then ...
If, as leader of the
                           tornado-relief
                           volunteers, you
                ...
If, as leader of the
                               tornado-relief
                               volunteers, you
        ...
Four Leadership Styles




 Task behavior and relationship behavior are
 distinct, but complementary, leadership
 behavior...
The Leadership Grid

     Participating            Selling
      Style 3                  Style 2
 High Relationship      ...
True or False: Team members are apt
 to be more cooperative if the leader
 simply issues orders and criticizes
 their perf...
True or False: Team members are apt
 to be more cooperative if the leader
 simply issues orders and criticizes
 their perf...
Telling
                            (Style I)




     A leader provides specific instructions and
     closely supervises...
Telling
                          (Style I)




 Typical telling behaviors include:
 • Directing others on what to do
 • S...
Selling
      (Style 2)



     A leader closely supervises task
     accomplishment, but explains decisions,
     solicit...
Selling
     (Style 2)

Typical selling behaviors include:
• Supervising closely
• Following up
• Explaining relationships...
Participating
                         (Style 3)




A leader facilitates and supports subordinates’
efforts toward task a...
Participating
                          (Style 3)



Participating behaviors include:
• Asking team members for ideas
• En...
Delegating
                          (Style 4)




A leader turns over the authority for decision-
making and problem solv...
Delegating
                           (Style 4)




     Remember that you can delegate authority,
45
     but you cannot ...
Delegating
                               (Style 4)
Delegating behaviors include:
• Setting task boundaries
• Letting othe...
In what leadership style do the
 behaviors include close supervision,
 follow-up, explanations about tasks
 and goals, enc...
In what leadership style do the
 behaviors include close supervision,
 follow-up, explanations about tasks
 and goals, enc...
In what leadership style does the
 leader have a low relationship
 orientation and a low task orientation?

 A. Delegating...
In what leadership style does the
 leader have a low relationship
 orientation and a low task orientation?

 A. Delegating...
LEADERSHIP ETIQUETTE
             Successful Leaders…
     1. Will make decisions that will improve
        the entire gro...
Leadership
             Successful Leaders…
     1. Will make decisions that will improve
        the entire group or orga...
Leadership
             Successful Leaders…
     3. Are examples of fair play, integrity,
        and dependability




53
Leadership
             Successful Leaders…
     3. Are examples of fair play, integrity, and
        dependability

     ...
Leadership
             Successful Leaders…
     5. Understand that a leadership position
        is not a position of glo...
The decisions successful leaders
 make enhance the entire organization,
 not just _______.

 A. their team
 B. themselves
...
The decisions successful leaders
 make enhance the entire organization,
 not just _______.

 A. their team
 B. themselves
...
Leadership
             Successful Leaders…
     5. Understand that a leadership position
        is not a position of glo...
Leadership
             Successful Leaders…
     7. Know that they cannot be successful
        without the work, support,...
Leadership
             Successful Leaders…
     7. Know that they cannot be successful
        without the work, support,...
Leadership
             Successful Leaders…
     9. Work for the success of the entire
        organization and not for pe...
Leadership
              Successful Leaders…
      9. Work for the success of the entire
         organization and not for...
True or False: Successful leaders
 listen to the suggestions, feedback,
 and needs of only a few trusted team
 members.


...
True or False: Successful leaders
 listen to the suggestions, feedback,
 and needs of only a few trusted team
 members.

 ...
Primary Factors of The Leadership
                 Situation


                                You lead people
           ...
Leaders approach each leadership
     situation by considering four factors:


                            • Mission
     ...
The Mission




     Most missions involve many tasks. The
     leader must define the mission and set
     goals for comp...
The leader’s job is to translate this mission
     into goals that the team members will
     accept and understand.
68
A leader should
                                 involve team
                                 members in setting
        ...
A leader’s role is to set standards of job
     performance and to communicate them to the
     team. These standards must...
If a team member ignores the standards, the
 leader must determine the reason and move
 quickly to correct the situation t...
What action should a leader take for
 those who ignore job performance
 standards?

 A. Accept the reality of such
    ind...
What action should a leader take for
 those who ignore job performance
 standards?

 A. Accept the reality of such
    ind...
The People




     As a leader, you must be sensitive to people
     because after all, people perform the mission.
     ...
Ability has two main elements:
     • Training
     • Experience
75
Training




     You should assess each team member’s
     level of training. No matter how committed
     followers are ...
Experience

          A leader, should know
          the:
          • background
          • experience
          • abili...
Keep in mind, while
     making assignments
     seniority or rank may
     be a good overall
     indicator, but the
    ...
A leader must know the _______ of the
 members of their team before he/she
 can get the best performance out of
 them.

 A...
A leader must know the _______ of the
 members of their team before he/she
 can get the best performance out of
 them.

 A...
The Leadership Style




 Successful leaders adapt their leadership style
 to meet the mission demands and to reflect the
...
The Leadership Style

     For example:
     • If you communicate well but don’t like
       public speaking, use personal...
Your leadership style must correspond to
 your team members’ knowledge, abilities,
 and skills.


 1. When one or more of ...
Your leadership style must correspond to
 your team members’ knowledge, abilities,
 and skills.


 2. If your team members...
Your leadership style must correspond to
 your team members’ knowledge, abilities,
 and skills.
 3. If your team members h...
The Environment
                         There’s no way to plan
                         for every possible
              ...
Think again about
                              the volunteer team
                              formed at your
          ...
Think again about
                              the volunteer team
                              formed at your
          ...
A good leader will choose a leadership
 style that takes into account his/her
 own _______.

 A. goals
 B. strengths and w...
A good leader will choose a leadership
 style that takes into account his/her
 own _______.

 A. goals
 B. strengths and w...
If a leader realizes that he/she is not
 comfortable in the role of public speaker,
 which of these adaptations would best...
If a leader realizes that he/she is not
 comfortable in the role of public speaker,
 which of these adaptations would best...
Six Traits of an Effective Leader



                        Effective leaders have
                        certain distin...
Character is who you
                        are 24 hours a day,
                        seven days a week,
              ...
Many traits go into building a strong
 character. As a future leader, there are
 six traits that are essential for your
 s...
Integrity

         Having integrity means
         establishing a set of
         values and adhering to
         them.

...
How can you spot integrity?

                     A leader who has
                     an opportunity to
                ...
How can you spot integrity?

                     The leader decides
                     to counsel, rather
             ...
Loyalty




     This is the ability to remain faithful to your
     superiors, peers, and subordinates. Only
     when le...
An individual’s _______ defines
  him/her as a leader and serves as the
  basis for decisions and treatment of
  others.

...
An individual’s _______ defines
  him/her as a leader and serves as the
  basis for decisions and treatment of
  others.

...
Commitment




  Dedicated service is the hallmark of the
  leader. A leader must demonstrate total
  dedication to the Un...
An example of
                                commitment:




  The leader calls on the team to rally around a
  team memb...
No team member takes on this role of support
    alone. The leader asks team members to
    express their own commitment, ...
Energy




           Admiral                  General
        Arleigh Burke             Colin Powell

      Energy is an ...
You can fail, despite your talents, if you
      don’t use all your energy to finish the job.
      Applying your energy t...
An example of
                               energy is holding a
                               scheduled outdoor
        ...
A leader should be a model of _______
  toward the U.S. and to the Navy, but
  also to the team, which might be
  displaye...
A leader should be a model of _______
  toward the U.S. and to the Navy, but
  also to the team, which might be
  displaye...
Decisiveness




 Decisiveness is a willingness to act then
 have the self-confidence to make timely
 decisions and commun...
Decisiveness
                       includes the
                       willingness to accept
                       respo...
A team leader
                                has five team
                                members but
                  ...
A team leader
                               has five team
                               members but
                    ...
Selflessness
      Selflessness is the ability to sacrifice
      personal needs and wants for a greater
      cause.




...
Leaders put accomplishing their mission
  and caring for their people before their own
  welfare or desires. Willingness t...
Selflessness includes the courage to face
      and overcome difficulties and physical
      dangers. This includes the ne...
What term is used to refer to a
  willingness to act?

  A. Commitment
  B. Energy
  C. Motivation
  D. Decisiveness




1...
What term is used to refer to a
  willingness to act?

  A. Commitment
  B. Energy
  C. Motivation
  D. Decisiveness




1...
Personal Qualities of an Effective Leader


      Personal qualities common in a successful
      leader:
      • Courage ...
Courage




A good leader has the moral courage to make
difficult decisions. A leader with moral
courage has the strength ...
Courage and strength of character are
      essential to effective leadership.
      That’s one reason courage is a Navy
 ...
Responsibility




 Good leaders are responsible and accountable
 for their actions. You must be willing to
 answer to you...
The Ability to Set an Example

                   A good leader must
                   always set a good
                ...
Effective leaders must demonstrate
  moral _______ to make tough
  decisions and face difficulties, rather
  than pass the...
Effective leaders must demonstrate
  moral _______ to make tough
  decisions and face difficulties, rather
  than pass the...
Self-Discipline




      There will always be rules, and you will be
      expected to be disciplined enough to follow
  ...
A good leader will always be dependable
       and willing to fulfill responsibilities
       without the need of direct s...
Self-Confidence




      A good leader knows self, abilities, and is
      decisive.
128
You must practice your leadership skills to
  develop them. The NJROTC program offers
  you numerous opportunities to prac...
A Sense of Humor




 A good leader must be friendly and have the
 ability to see humor in a situation.
 Sometimes, as the...
So that they can meet standards and
  comply with rules and regulations in
  many areas of life, young people must
  provi...
So that they can meet standards and
  comply with rules and regulations in
  many areas of life, young people must
  provi...
Tact
      A good leader has the ability to deal with
      others in a respectful manner.




133
The leader who displays tact in dealing
      with others encourages courteous
      treatment in return.




134
The use of tact is very important in times of
      stress, such as when you are criticizing a
      subordinate.
135
The sarcastic or ―smart aleck‖ approach
      usually does not create a positive response
      to directions or orders.
1...
Common Sense




    Good leaders try to make the right choices
    and treat others as they would like to be
137
    trea...
Questions to ask yourself when making
  choices:

  • If I do what I’m thinking of doing, would
    I be willing to have m...
• If I were considering using someone
    else for my own personal gain, would I
    allow myself to be used in that way?
...
• Would I be willing to explain to a jury
    why I chose this action?




140
• Would I do this if I knew it would be on
    tonight’s television news?




141
• What would I think of this action if my
    worst enemy did it?




142
• If my reason for acting this way is that
    everyone else does it, would I do it if no
    one else did it?




143
• Would I do this if I knew I would have to
    explain my reasons to my family?




144
• Would I be content with this action if
    my boss or a member of my family
    did the same thing?




145
• Would I be content to have each of my
    followers behave exactly as I intend to
    in this situation?




146
• My team could win the game by
    violating a rule. Before I call this play,
    would I be upset if the losing team too...
• If what I do hurts no one very much,
    would I be willing to let everyone do
    the same thing?




148
• If there is very little harm in what I
    want to do, what kind of person will
    I become if it gets to be a habit?

...
If a leader uses _______, he/she treats
  others courteously and respectfully,
  especially in situations where he/she
  m...
If a leader uses _______, he/she treats
  others courteously and respectfully,
  especially in situations where he/she
  m...
True or False: Being sarcastic or
  insensitive is the opposite of using
  tact.




152
True or False: Being sarcastic or
  insensitive is the opposite of using
  tact.

  True




153
Qualifications for Leadership


                        Former CNO Admiral
                        George W. Anderson Jr.
...
• ABILITY TO MAKE
        DECISIONS - They
        evaluate information,
        analyze the problem, and
        then int...
• PERSONAL
        APPEARANCE - They
        take pride in every
        detail of their personal
        appearance.




...
• MILITARY BEARING -
        They conduct
        themselves in a
        professional military
        manner 24 hours a
...
• MENTAL ALERTNESS -
        They give continual
        attention to detail
        coupled with an
        awareness of ...
• ABILITY TO EXPRESS
        SELF - They express
        themselves clearly,
        orally and in writing, to
        com...
• BEING A GOOD
        SHIPMATE - They do not
        lose sight of their
        relationships with
        others in the...
• IMAGINATION - They use
        their imagination and
        initiative to improve the
        task performance of their...
• KNOWLEDGE OF THE
        JOB - They have a
        complete mastery of
        their job plus a detailed
        knowled...
• MANNER OF PERFORMANCE - They know
        themselves, the job, the enlisted personnel,
        and the immediate situati...
• SOCIAL GRACE - They
        know the rules of social
        etiquette, such as which
        fork to use; but more
    ...
• SENSE OF HUMOR -
        They keep everything in
        the proper perspective;
        they distinguish
        betwee...
• PERSONAL BEHAVIOR -
        They reflect integrity and
        honor in every facet of
        their behavior.




166
Former Chief of Naval Operations
  Adm. George W. Anderson Jr. states
  that effective leaders go further than
  knowing r...
Former Chief of Naval Operations
  Adm. George W. Anderson Jr. states
  that effective leaders go further than
  knowing r...
True or False: Former Chief of Naval
  Operations Adm. George W. Anderson
  Jr. believes that effective leaders use
  thei...
True or False: Former Chief of Naval
  Operations Adm. George W. Anderson
  Jr. believes that effective leaders use
  thei...
Leadership Opportunities in NJROTC




      One of the many benefits of participating
      in NJROTC is the many opportu...
Unit Organization
172
Organization of Small Units




173
Organization of Large Units




174
175
Units with more than _______ cadets
  are organized into a battalion that has
  two or more companies.

  A. 99
  B. 125
 ...
Units with more than _______ cadets
  are organized into a battalion that has
  two or more companies.

  A. 99
  B. 125
 ...
A unit will usually have a:
      • Color guard
178
• Drill Team
179
• Armed Drill Team




180
• Rifle Team
181
A unit could have an:
      • Academic Team
182
• Pistol Team




183
• Orienteering Team
184
• Drum and Bugle Corps
185
• Athletic Team




            Each team normally has a cadet
            as team captain or commander.

186
Most NJROTC units have at least three
  teams, including a color guard team, a
  drill team, and a _______.

  A. drum and...
Most NJROTC units have at least three
  teams, including a color guard team, a
  drill team, and a/an _______.

  A. drum ...
Sample Leadership Position
              Descriptions
           NJROTC Enlisted Rates
      Seaman   Petty Officer   Chie...
Captain

      Commander

      Lieutenant       NJROTC
      Commander         Officer
      Lieutenant        Ranks

   ...
CADET
                               CAPTAIN


  • The collar device is six attached gold bars.
  • The highest rank that ...
Company/Battalion Commander




192
Company/Battalion Commander:

 • Accountable for appearance, discipline,
   efficiency, training, performance, and
   cond...
Executive Officer




194
Executive Officer:

 • Acts in place of the Company Commander,
   if required

 • Supervises the unit staff

 • Carries ou...
Operations Officer




196
Operations Officer:

 • Schedules and coordinates all activities of
   the unit

 • Prepares a unit annual, monthly, and
 ...
What officer ensures that suitable
  leadership opportunities are available
  for all cadets?

  A. Company Commander
  B....
What officer ensures that suitable
  leadership opportunities are available
  for all cadets?

  A. Company Commander
  B....
Administrative Officer


  Administrative Officer:

  • Keeps unit administrative files and records

  • Ensures that all ...
Supply Officer




201
Supply Officer:

  • Inventories, orders, and issues all unit
    supplies and equipment

  • Orders, stores, inventories,...
Platoon Commander




203
Platoon Commander:

      • Accountable for appearance, discipline,
        training, performance, and conduct of
        ...
Team Captains




      Armed Drill        Color Guard




205   Unarmed Drill        Athletics
Team Captains:

  • Accountable for the selection, training,
    motivation, and performance of the
    assigned team memb...
What officer maintains files, prepares
  correspondence, and ensures the
  timely submission of reports?

  A. Administrat...
What officer maintains files, prepares
  correspondence, and ensures the
  timely submission of reports?

  A. Administrat...
Conclusion

                            Scaling the Herndon
                            monument by first
                ...
You can be a leader!




  Working to nurture the qualities of successful
  leadership in your own character is essential
...
What term is used to refer to the
      art of influencing and directing
      people in order to accomplish a
      missi...
What term is used to refer to the
      art of influencing and directing
      people in order to accomplish a
      missi...
What term is used to refer to
      directing the use of resources to
      achieve team objectives?

      A. Logistics
 ...
What term is used to refer to
      directing the use of resources to
      achieve team objectives?

      A. Logistics
 ...
What leadership style is based
      on the idea that there is no one
      best way to lead and influence
      people an...
What leadership style is based
      on the idea that there is no one
      best way to lead and influence
      people an...
A leader who is oriented toward
      the _______ analyzes how best
      to use the people to get the job
      done.

  ...
A leader who is oriented toward
      the _______ analyzes how best
      to use the people to get the job
      done.

  ...
A leader who is oriented toward
      the _______ uses his/her
      interaction with the individual
      team members to...
A leader who is oriented toward
      the _______ uses his/her
      interaction with the individual
      team members to...
What term is used to refer to a
      leader’s supportive, two-way
      communication with team
      members?

      A. ...
What term is used to refer to a
      leader’s supportive, two-way
      communication with team
      members?

      A. ...
If a leader shows understanding,
      awareness, and sensitivity
      toward team members, he/she is
      being _______...
If a leader shows understanding,
      awareness, and sensitivity
      toward team members, he/she is
      being _______...
What term is used to refer to a
      leader’s involvement in defining
      the team’s job and includes
      direction o...
What term is used to refer to a
      leader’s involvement in defining
      the team’s job and includes
      direction o...
In what leadership style does the
      leader provide specific
      instructions and close
      supervision, with a hig...
In what leadership style does the
      leader provide specific
      instructions and close
      supervision, with a hig...
In what leadership style does the
      leader closely supervise task
      completion and give explanations
      and cha...
In what leadership style does the
      leader closely supervise task
      completion and give explanations
      and cha...
In what leadership style does the
      leader advance efforts toward task
      completion by soliciting ideas from
     ...
In what leadership style does the
      leader advance efforts toward task
      completion by soliciting ideas from
     ...
In what leadership style does the
      leader hand over decision-making
      responsibility, problem solving,
      and ...
In what leadership style does the
      leader hand over decision-making
      responsibility, problem solving,
      and ...
Which of the following statements about
      leaders is NOT true?

      A. According to leadership etiquette, a
        ...
Which of the following statements about
      leaders is NOT true?

      A. According to leadership etiquette, a
        ...
A leader must establish _______
      that are reasonable and clearly
      defined, recognizing those who
      meet them...
A leader must establish _______
      that are reasonable and clearly
      defined, recognizing those who
      meet them...
Even if team members’
      commitment level is high, if
      they do not have adequate
      _______ for the mission the...
Even if team members’
      commitment level is high, if
      they do not have adequate
      _______ for the mission the...
An individual’s _______ is
      constant, and defines him/her
      as a leader, serves as the basis
      for decisions ...
An individual’s _______ is
      constant, and defines him/her
      as a leader, serves as the basis
      for decisions ...
After a team is assigned a mission, the leader
      should take all of the following actions except
      which one?

   ...
After a team is assigned a mission, the leader
      should take all of the following actions except
      which one?

   ...
What course of action should a leader
      take with team members who do not
      know how to do the job?

      A. Enco...
What course of action should a leader
      take with team members who do not
      know how to do the job?

      A. Enco...
What course of action should a leader take
      with team members who are experienced
      and enthusiastic about their ...
What course of action should a leader take
      with team members who are experienced
      and enthusiastic about their ...
A leader with _______ is whole
      in body, mind, and spirit and
      treats all team members fairly,
      no matter h...
A leader with _______ is whole
      in body, mind, and spirit and
      treats all team members fairly,
      no matter h...
What term is used to refer to a
      willingness to act?

      A. Commitment
      B. Energy
      C. Decisiveness
     ...
What term is used to refer to a
      willingness to act?

      A. Commitment
      B. Energy
      C. Decisiveness
     ...
A leader who is _______ shows
      faithfulness and allegiance to
      colleagues, whether they are
      peers, superio...
A leader who is _______ shows
      faithfulness and allegiance to
      colleagues, whether they are
      peers, superio...
A leader’s _______ is the
      enthusiasm, perseverance, and
      stamina he/she brings to a task.

      A. motivation
...
A leader’s _______ is the
      enthusiasm, perseverance, and
      stamina he/she brings to a task.

      A. motivation
...
What term is used to refer to the
      sacrifice of personal needs and
      wants for a greater good?

      A. Selfless...
What term is used to refer to the
      sacrifice of personal needs and
      wants for a greater good?

      A. Selfless...
If a leader uses _______, he/she
      treats others courteously and
      respectfully, especially in
      situations wh...
If a leader uses _______, he/she
      treats others courteously and
      respectfully, especially in
      situations wh...
Since a leader sets the
      standards for conduct and
      performance by personal
      example, team members will
   ...
Since a leader sets the
      standards for conduct and
      performance by personal
      example, team members will
   ...
Former Chief of Naval Operations
      Adm. George Anderson states
      that effective leaders go further
      than know...
Former Chief of Naval Operations
      Adm. George Anderson states
      that effective leaders go further
      than know...
NJROTC units with 151-299
      cadets are organized into a
      _______.

      A. company
      B. battalion
      C. r...
NJROTC units with 151-299
      cadets are organized into a
      _______.

      A. company
      B. battalion
      C. r...
What officer maintains files,
      prepares correspondence, and
      ensures the timely submission
      of reports?

  ...
What officer maintains files,
      prepares correspondence, and
      ensures the timely submission
      of reports?

  ...
What officer oversees the
      appearance, discipline, and
      conduct of the unit and ensures
      that suitable lead...
What officer oversees the
      appearance, discipline, and
      conduct of the unit and ensures
      that suitable lead...
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NS1 2.2 Leadership

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NS1 2.2 Leadership

  1. 1. UNIT 2 CHAPTER 2 Leadership 1
  2. 2. The Two Orientations to Leadership Behavior Being a successful leader requires training and practice, but you can begin to acquire and practice leadership skills right now at: • School • Community 2
  3. 3. Now what? A volunteer team forms at your school to help rebuild houses devastated by tornadoes. They elect you as its leader. 3
  4. 4. This lesson will provide some advice and guidelines about leadership. 4
  5. 5. An important concept to understand is the difference between: • Leadership – the art of influencing and directing people to accomplish the mission • Management – supervising the use of resources to achieve team objectives. In essence, you lead people, and manage things. 5
  6. 6. Building good leadership skills takes _______. A. desire and means B. planning and money C. authorization and networking D. training and practice 6
  7. 7. Building good leadership skills takes _______. A. desire and means B. planning and money C. authorization and networking D. training and practice 7
  8. 8. How does a leader get people to come together to accomplish a mission? 8
  9. 9. A leader must base his or her approach to a task on the environment and on the readiness of the team and individual members. 9
  10. 10. Readiness How prepared a team member is to carry out a particular task or tasks 10
  11. 11. Situational leadership is when a leader must base his or her approach on the situation in which the leader and team find themselves. 11
  12. 12. Situational Leadership A leadership model based on the concept that there is no single best way to influence and lead people 12
  13. 13. Admiral Admiral Michael G. Mullen Gary Roughead Chairman JCS CNO Situational leadership is flexible and is based on the abilities, knowledge, skills, and motivational level of the team or group the leader is influencing. 13
  14. 14. Understanding situational leadership is knowing how you and your people are oriented: are you oriented towards people or towards a task? 14
  15. 15. A leader’s approach to a task must take into consideration both the _______ and the readiness of the people. A. resources B. environment C. facilities D. logistics 15
  16. 16. A leader’s approach to a task must take into consideration both the _______ and the readiness of the people. A. resources B. environment C. facilities D. logistics 16
  17. 17. A leader who is people oriented focuses on interaction with his or her people and uses this to complete the task. Admiral Gary Roughead CNO 17
  18. 18. While a leader oriented towards task focuses on the job to be done and how to best use their people to that end. Admiral Michael G. Mullen Chairman JCS 18
  19. 19. Orientation Toward People Another name for orientation toward people is relationship behavior. This includes, listening, praising, collaborating, and counseling. 19
  20. 20. Relationship Behavior A leader’s engagement in supportive, two-way communication with his or her team members 20
  21. 21. People respond better if they feel their leader is supportive and empathetic. A leader who simply issues orders and then criticizes performance will have a hard time gaining their MCPON cooperation. Joe R. Campa Jr. 21
  22. 22. Empathetic The action of understanding, being aware of, and being sensitive to the feelings, thoughts, and experiences of another 22
  23. 23. Leaders should bear in mind the old expression, ―You catch more flies with honey than you do with vinegar.‖ 23
  24. 24. What leadership model is based on the concept that there is no single best way to lead people? A. Conditional B. Environmental C. Situational D. Adaptable 24
  25. 25. What leadership model is based on the concept that there is no single best way to lead people? A. Conditional B. Environmental C. Situational D. Adaptable 25
  26. 26. What term is used to refer to a leader’s supportive, two-way communication with team members? A. Group dynamics B. Interpersonal communication C. Empathy management D. Relationship behavior 26
  27. 27. What term is used to refer to a leader’s supportive, two-way communication with team members? A. Group dynamics B. Interpersonal communication C. Empathy management D. Relationship behavior 27
  28. 28. Orientation Toward Task Task behavior focuses on the practical aspects of the job or mission. These behaviors include directing team members on: • What to do • How to do it • When to do it 28
  29. 29. Task Behavior The leader’s involvement in defining the duties and responsibilities of an individual or a group 29
  30. 30. In his book, Gary Yukl suggests that task behavior has limitations when used alone. That is why task behavior and relationship behavior must go hand in hand. 30
  31. 31. When it comes to task behavior, a leader should survey the needs and abilities of his or her followers and then choose a leadership style accordingly. 31
  32. 32. If, as leader of the tornado-relief volunteers, you knew that: • Maria was a self-starter and needed little motivation, you would make sure she understood her task and get out of her way. You would allow her to work independently. 32
  33. 33. If, as leader of the tornado-relief volunteers, you knew that: • Randy seemed uncertain about how to accomplish his task, you would step in and use task behavior to give Randy instructions, training, and guidance. 33
  34. 34. Four Leadership Styles Task behavior and relationship behavior are distinct, but complementary, leadership behaviors. These four styles make up the leadership grid. 34
  35. 35. The Leadership Grid Participating Selling Style 3 Style 2 High Relationship High Task Orientation Orientation High Relationship Low Task Orientation Orientation Delegating Telling Style 4 Style 1 Low Relationship High Task Orientation Orientation Low Relationship Low Task Orientation Orientation 35
  36. 36. True or False: Team members are apt to be more cooperative if the leader simply issues orders and criticizes their performance because they will want to earn his/her approval. 36
  37. 37. True or False: Team members are apt to be more cooperative if the leader simply issues orders and criticizes their performance because they will want to earn his/her approval. False 37
  38. 38. Telling (Style I) A leader provides specific instructions and closely supervises task accomplishment. This has a high task orientation and low relationship orientation. 38
  39. 39. Telling (Style I) Typical telling behaviors include: • Directing others on what to do • Supervising them closely • Following up to ensure they complete their tasks. 39
  40. 40. Selling (Style 2) A leader closely supervises task accomplishment, but explains decisions, solicits suggestions, and supports progress. This has a high task orientation and a high relationship orientation. 40
  41. 41. Selling (Style 2) Typical selling behaviors include: • Supervising closely • Following up • Explaining relationships between tasks and team goals • Encouraging questions • Supporting progress. 41
  42. 42. Participating (Style 3) A leader facilitates and supports subordinates’ efforts toward task accomplishment and shares responsibility for decision-making with them. Participating leaders have a high relationship orientation but a low task orientation. 42
  43. 43. Participating (Style 3) Participating behaviors include: • Asking team members for ideas • Encouraging others to try out their ideas • Allowing others to structure their tasks • Sharing control and accountability. 43
  44. 44. Delegating (Style 4) A leader turns over the authority for decision- making and problem solving to subordinates. Delegating leaders have both a low relationship orientation and a low task orientation. 44
  45. 45. Delegating (Style 4) Remember that you can delegate authority, 45 but you cannot delegate responsibility.
  46. 46. Delegating (Style 4) Delegating behaviors include: • Setting task boundaries • Letting others make their own decisions • Allowing members to chart their own courses of action • Giving group members the freedom they need to do the job well • Providing help when asked • Monitoring progress 46
  47. 47. In what leadership style do the behaviors include close supervision, follow-up, explanations about tasks and goals, encouragement of questions, and support of progress? A. Telling B. Delegating C. Selling D. Participating 47
  48. 48. In what leadership style do the behaviors include close supervision, follow-up, explanations about tasks and goals, encouragement of questions, and support of progress? A. Telling B. Delegating C. Selling D. Participating 48
  49. 49. In what leadership style does the leader have a low relationship orientation and a low task orientation? A. Delegating B. Selling C. Telling D. Participating 49
  50. 50. In what leadership style does the leader have a low relationship orientation and a low task orientation? A. Delegating B. Selling C. Telling D. Participating 50
  51. 51. LEADERSHIP ETIQUETTE Successful Leaders… 1. Will make decisions that will improve the entire group or organization rather than just themselves 51
  52. 52. Leadership Successful Leaders… 1. Will make decisions that will improve the entire group or organization rather than just themselves 2. Realize that they also have a superior; no one is ever elected to an office or level where they have no one to be accountable to 52
  53. 53. Leadership Successful Leaders… 3. Are examples of fair play, integrity, and dependability 53
  54. 54. Leadership Successful Leaders… 3. Are examples of fair play, integrity, and dependability 4. Will genuinely listen to the needs, feedback and suggestions of all the members of the organization and not just a select few 54
  55. 55. Leadership Successful Leaders… 5. Understand that a leadership position is not a position of glory and popularity, but a position of responsibility. 55
  56. 56. The decisions successful leaders make enhance the entire organization, not just _______. A. their team B. themselves C. their division D. their managers 56
  57. 57. The decisions successful leaders make enhance the entire organization, not just _______. A. their team B. themselves C. their division D. their managers 57
  58. 58. Leadership Successful Leaders… 5. Understand that a leadership position is not a position of glory and popularity, but a position of responsibility 6. Are willing to roll up their sleeves and help other members of the organization when things get tough 58
  59. 59. Leadership Successful Leaders… 7. Know that they cannot be successful without the work, support, and loyalty of all members of the organization 59
  60. 60. Leadership Successful Leaders… 7. Know that they cannot be successful without the work, support, and loyalty of all members of the organization 8. Will sacrifice personal glory and recognition so that it may be shared equally with all of the followers 60
  61. 61. Leadership Successful Leaders… 9. Work for the success of the entire organization and not for personal gain 61
  62. 62. Leadership Successful Leaders… 9. Work for the success of the entire organization and not for personal gain 10. Know that whatever power they may possess was given by the members of the organization. If improperly used, this power can be swept away and given to someone else. 62
  63. 63. True or False: Successful leaders listen to the suggestions, feedback, and needs of only a few trusted team members. 63
  64. 64. True or False: Successful leaders listen to the suggestions, feedback, and needs of only a few trusted team members. False 64
  65. 65. Primary Factors of The Leadership Situation You lead people and you manage things. The situation the team finds itself in will dictate how much time the leader must devote to each activity. 65
  66. 66. Leaders approach each leadership situation by considering four factors: • Mission • People • Leadership style • Environment 66
  67. 67. The Mission Most missions involve many tasks. The leader must define the mission and set goals for completing the different parts of the team’s tasks. 67
  68. 68. The leader’s job is to translate this mission into goals that the team members will accept and understand. 68
  69. 69. A leader should involve team members in setting goals. The goals the leader and team set must be challenging but attainable. Unrealistic goals: • Frustrate even the most dedicated while • Frivolous goals reduce belief in the mission’s worth. 69
  70. 70. A leader’s role is to set standards of job performance and to communicate them to the team. These standards must be reasonable, consistent with mission, and clearly defined for every individual. 70
  71. 71. If a team member ignores the standards, the leader must determine the reason and move quickly to correct the situation through training or, if needed, administrative or disciplinary action to prevent the spread of the behavior. 71
  72. 72. What action should a leader take for those who ignore job performance standards? A. Accept the reality of such individuals. B. Give them another assignment. C. Take swift corrective action. D. Formulate an incentive plan. 72
  73. 73. What action should a leader take for those who ignore job performance standards? A. Accept the reality of such individuals. B. Give them another assignment. C. Take swift corrective action. D. Formulate an incentive plan. 73
  74. 74. The People As a leader, you must be sensitive to people because after all, people perform the mission. You cannot get the most out of people on your team unless you first know their abilities. 74
  75. 75. Ability has two main elements: • Training • Experience 75
  76. 76. Training You should assess each team member’s level of training. No matter how committed followers are to the mission, they cannot contribute to it if they lack proper training. 76
  77. 77. Experience A leader, should know the: • background • experience • ability of each team member regarding every task assigned them. 77
  78. 78. Keep in mind, while making assignments seniority or rank may be a good overall indicator, but the person may never have done a certain job or been in a particular environment before. 78
  79. 79. A leader must know the _______ of the members of their team before he/she can get the best performance out of them. A. family situations B. expectations C. personal goals D. abilities 79
  80. 80. A leader must know the _______ of the members of their team before he/she can get the best performance out of them. A. family situations B. expectations C. personal goals D. abilities 80
  81. 81. The Leadership Style Successful leaders adapt their leadership style to meet the mission demands and to reflect the abilities and experience of their people, but in choosing a leadership style, good leaders also take into account their own individual strengths and weaknesses. 81
  82. 82. The Leadership Style For example: • If you communicate well but don’t like public speaking, use personal conferences as much as possible. • If you write well, take advantage of the skill by writing letter of appreciation, or other forms of correspondence. • If you’re adept at leading discussions, bring people together to solve problems. 82
  83. 83. Your leadership style must correspond to your team members’ knowledge, abilities, and skills. 1. When one or more of your team members doesn’t know how to do the job, you must spend much time giving that member guidance and support. 83
  84. 84. Your leadership style must correspond to your team members’ knowledge, abilities, and skills. 2. If your team members are able but lack motivation, let them participate in planning the task. Motivate them by maintaining a professional working relationship. With this encouragement from you, they’ll soon show greater motivation. 84
  85. 85. Your leadership style must correspond to your team members’ knowledge, abilities, and skills. 3. If your team members have extensive experience and are enthusiastic about the task, provide them greater freedom. If they are on the track toward meeting your goals and objectives, let them complete their task in the way they choose. As the leader, you are still responsible for the mission, so be sure to monitor the group’s progress. 85
  86. 86. The Environment There’s no way to plan for every possible outcome. Good leaders know a leadership method that worked in one situation with one group may not work with the same group Admiral in a different Michael G. Mullen environment. Chairman JCS 86
  87. 87. Think again about the volunteer team formed at your school to help the tornado victims. Even if the team is great, it will encounter problems which will develop and create a new and unpredictable environment that the group’s leader will have to deal with. 87
  88. 88. Think again about the volunteer team formed at your school to help the tornado victims. As a leader, you must alter your leadership behavior as necessary to accommodate changes in the mission’s environment. The key is to stay flexible and adapt to the situation you face. 88
  89. 89. A good leader will choose a leadership style that takes into account his/her own _______. A. goals B. strengths and weaknesses C. comfort zone D. ambitions 89
  90. 90. A good leader will choose a leadership style that takes into account his/her own _______. A. goals B. strengths and weaknesses C. comfort zone D. ambitions 90
  91. 91. If a leader realizes that he/she is not comfortable in the role of public speaker, which of these adaptations would best compensate for that weakness? A. Ask a team member skilled in public speaking to take over this responsibility B. Communicate with group members only in writing C. Meet with the team members in small groups D. Hold large meetings anyway even if they are not particularly effective 91
  92. 92. If a leader realizes that he/she is not comfortable in the role of public speaker, which of these adaptations would best compensate for that weakness? A. Ask a team member skilled in public speaking to take over this responsibility B. Communicate with group members only in writing C. Meet with the team members in small groups D. Hold large meetings anyway even if they are not particularly effective 92
  93. 93. Six Traits of an Effective Leader Effective leaders have certain distinguishing characteristics, or traits, that make up the foundation of their approach to their work. MCPON Joe R. Campa Jr. 93
  94. 94. Character is who you are 24 hours a day, seven days a week, regardless of: • Where you are • Who you are with • Who might be MCPON watching. Joe R. Campa Jr. 94
  95. 95. Many traits go into building a strong character. As a future leader, there are six traits that are essential for your success. They are: • Integrity • Loyalty • Commitment • Energy • Decisiveness • Selflessness 95
  96. 96. Integrity Having integrity means establishing a set of values and adhering to them. This is the combination of sound moral principles, truthfulness, and honesty. 96
  97. 97. How can you spot integrity? A leader who has an opportunity to pass off an unpleasant task to a sleeping team member follows the schedule and fairly assigns the task to the next person on the list. 97
  98. 98. How can you spot integrity? The leader decides to counsel, rather than punish, the sleeping team member. A leader with integrity treats all team members fairly, putting aside personal feelings. 98
  99. 99. Loyalty This is the ability to remain faithful to your superiors, peers, and subordinates. Only when leaders are loyal to their team can they expect the team to be loyal to them. 99
  100. 100. An individual’s _______ defines him/her as a leader and serves as the basis for decisions and treatment of others. A. character B. background C. experience D. personality 100
  101. 101. An individual’s _______ defines him/her as a leader and serves as the basis for decisions and treatment of others. A. character B. background C. experience D. personality 101
  102. 102. Commitment Dedicated service is the hallmark of the leader. A leader must demonstrate total dedication to the United States, the Navy, and the team. Commitment, a Navy Core Value, is contagious. 102
  103. 103. An example of commitment: The leader calls on the team to rally around a team member who’s having personal problems. Under their leader’s guidance, team members stand united to act if a fellow team member asks for help. 103
  104. 104. No team member takes on this role of support alone. The leader asks team members to express their own commitment, not only to the team member in trouble, but to the team 104 as a unit.
  105. 105. Energy Admiral General Arleigh Burke Colin Powell Energy is an enthusiasm and drive to take the initiative. Throughout history, successful leaders have had the perseverance and stamina to stay the course and get the job done. 105
  106. 106. You can fail, despite your talents, if you don’t use all your energy to finish the job. Applying your energy to the team and its mission is the key to success. 106
  107. 107. An example of energy is holding a scheduled outdoor training session, during an unexpected snowstorm. The leader reminds the team that the training is essential to prepare for its mission. Rather than cancel the training, the leader encourages team members to relish the opportunity to come together in adversity to perform. 107
  108. 108. A leader should be a model of _______ toward the U.S. and to the Navy, but also to the team, which might be displayed by asking for a show of support for a team member who is ill. A. commitment B. energy C. decisiveness D. integrity 108
  109. 109. A leader should be a model of _______ toward the U.S. and to the Navy, but also to the team, which might be displayed by asking for a show of support for a team member who is ill. A. commitment B. energy C. decisiveness D. integrity 109
  110. 110. Decisiveness Decisiveness is a willingness to act then have the self-confidence to make timely decisions and communicate those decisions to the team. 110
  111. 111. Decisiveness includes the willingness to accept responsibility for the outcome of one’s acts. Leaders are always accountable—when things go wrong as well as when they go right. President George W. Bush 111
  112. 112. A team leader has five team members but only three slots in a training program. The leader assesses the team members individually and decides which three will benefit most from the training. In private, the leader tells each member of the decision and gives reasons for it. 112
  113. 113. A team leader has five team members but only three slots in a training program. Because the decision was made fairly, the two team members not selected should respect the decision just as much as the members who are chosen do. All members know that the leader made the decision based on careful thought, not on personal preference. 113
  114. 114. Selflessness Selflessness is the ability to sacrifice personal needs and wants for a greater cause. 114
  115. 115. Leaders put accomplishing their mission and caring for their people before their own welfare or desires. Willingness to sacrifice is essential to military service. 115
  116. 116. Selflessness includes the courage to face and overcome difficulties and physical dangers. This includes the need to make difficult decisions. 116
  117. 117. What term is used to refer to a willingness to act? A. Commitment B. Energy C. Motivation D. Decisiveness 117
  118. 118. What term is used to refer to a willingness to act? A. Commitment B. Energy C. Motivation D. Decisiveness 118
  119. 119. Personal Qualities of an Effective Leader Personal qualities common in a successful leader: • Courage • Confidence • Sense of • Sense of humor responsibility • Tact • Set the example • Common sense • Self-Discipline 119
  120. 120. Courage A good leader has the moral courage to make difficult decisions. A leader with moral courage has the strength of character to confront a tough situation head-on rather than pass the buck to someone else and refuse to decide. 120
  121. 121. Courage and strength of character are essential to effective leadership. That’s one reason courage is a Navy core value. 121 121
  122. 122. Responsibility Good leaders are responsible and accountable for their actions. You must be willing to answer to your superiors as well as to your followers. 122
  123. 123. The Ability to Set an Example A good leader must always set a good example in standard of performance, conduct, and appearance. Lack of self-control in a leader destroys a unit’s cohesion and impairs its ability to perform. 123
  124. 124. Effective leaders must demonstrate moral _______ to make tough decisions and face difficulties, rather than pass the buck. A. courage B. energy C. integrity D. control 124
  125. 125. Effective leaders must demonstrate moral _______ to make tough decisions and face difficulties, rather than pass the buck. A. courage B. energy C. integrity D. control 125
  126. 126. Self-Discipline There will always be rules, and you will be expected to be disciplined enough to follow them. If you do not provide your own discipline (self-discipline), someone else will usually have to provide it for you. 126
  127. 127. A good leader will always be dependable and willing to fulfill responsibilities without the need of direct supervision. 127 127
  128. 128. Self-Confidence A good leader knows self, abilities, and is decisive. 128
  129. 129. You must practice your leadership skills to develop them. The NJROTC program offers you numerous opportunities to practice leadership skills and develop self- confidence. 129
  130. 130. A Sense of Humor A good leader must be friendly and have the ability to see humor in a situation. Sometimes, as the old saying goes, laughter is the best medicine. 130
  131. 131. So that they can meet standards and comply with rules and regulations in many areas of life, young people must provide their own _______, or someone else will have to do it for them. A. energy B. discipline C. knowledge D. organization 131
  132. 132. So that they can meet standards and comply with rules and regulations in many areas of life, young people must provide their own _______, or someone else will have to do it for them. A. energy B. discipline C. knowledge D. organization 132
  133. 133. Tact A good leader has the ability to deal with others in a respectful manner. 133
  134. 134. The leader who displays tact in dealing with others encourages courteous treatment in return. 134
  135. 135. The use of tact is very important in times of stress, such as when you are criticizing a subordinate. 135
  136. 136. The sarcastic or ―smart aleck‖ approach usually does not create a positive response to directions or orders. 136
  137. 137. Common Sense Good leaders try to make the right choices and treat others as they would like to be 137 treated.
  138. 138. Questions to ask yourself when making choices: • If I do what I’m thinking of doing, would I be willing to have my action enacted into law and required of everyone? 138
  139. 139. • If I were considering using someone else for my own personal gain, would I allow myself to be used in that way? 139
  140. 140. • Would I be willing to explain to a jury why I chose this action? 140
  141. 141. • Would I do this if I knew it would be on tonight’s television news? 141
  142. 142. • What would I think of this action if my worst enemy did it? 142
  143. 143. • If my reason for acting this way is that everyone else does it, would I do it if no one else did it? 143
  144. 144. • Would I do this if I knew I would have to explain my reasons to my family? 144
  145. 145. • Would I be content with this action if my boss or a member of my family did the same thing? 145
  146. 146. • Would I be content to have each of my followers behave exactly as I intend to in this situation? 146
  147. 147. • My team could win the game by violating a rule. Before I call this play, would I be upset if the losing team took the same action? 147
  148. 148. • If what I do hurts no one very much, would I be willing to let everyone do the same thing? 148
  149. 149. • If there is very little harm in what I want to do, what kind of person will I become if it gets to be a habit? 149
  150. 150. If a leader uses _______, he/she treats others courteously and respectfully, especially in situations where he/she must criticize a subordinate. A. a sense of humor B. empathy C. tact D. self-control 150
  151. 151. If a leader uses _______, he/she treats others courteously and respectfully, especially in situations where he/she must criticize a subordinate. A. a sense of humor B. empathy C. tact D. self-control 151
  152. 152. True or False: Being sarcastic or insensitive is the opposite of using tact. 152
  153. 153. True or False: Being sarcastic or insensitive is the opposite of using tact. True 153
  154. 154. Qualifications for Leadership Former CNO Admiral George W. Anderson Jr. lists these qualifications in judging officers’ abilities as leaders: • ACHIEVEMENTS - They produce results; many are industrious. The effectiveness of the work serves as a measure of their achievements. 154
  155. 155. • ABILITY TO MAKE DECISIONS - They evaluate information, analyze the problem, and then integrate the two into a sound and incisive decision. (This is closely allied to achievement.) 155
  156. 156. • PERSONAL APPEARANCE - They take pride in every detail of their personal appearance. 156
  157. 157. • MILITARY BEARING - They conduct themselves in a professional military manner 24 hours a day, every day. 157
  158. 158. • MENTAL ALERTNESS - They give continual attention to detail coupled with an awareness of the big picture. 158
  159. 159. • ABILITY TO EXPRESS SELF - They express themselves clearly, orally and in writing, to communicate their ideas and decisions. 159
  160. 160. • BEING A GOOD SHIPMATE - They do not lose sight of their relationships with others in the Navy. They realize they can be effective only through others. 160
  161. 161. • IMAGINATION - They use their imagination and initiative to improve the task performance of their entire unit as well as their own performance. 161
  162. 162. • KNOWLEDGE OF THE JOB - They have a complete mastery of their job plus a detailed knowledge of all its responsibilities, including those of subordinates. 162
  163. 163. • MANNER OF PERFORMANCE - They know themselves, the job, the enlisted personnel, and the immediate situation. They use four approaches to get this done: 1. Personally do it 2. Drive others to do it 3. Inspire others to do it 4. Combine the three in the best manner. 163
  164. 164. • SOCIAL GRACE - They know the rules of social etiquette, such as which fork to use; but more importantly, they know how to show a sincere interest in the people they meet. 164
  165. 165. • SENSE OF HUMOR - They keep everything in the proper perspective; they distinguish between the important and the trivial. 165
  166. 166. • PERSONAL BEHAVIOR - They reflect integrity and honor in every facet of their behavior. 166
  167. 167. Former Chief of Naval Operations Adm. George W. Anderson Jr. states that effective leaders go further than knowing rules of social etiquette, that they show a _______ interest in those they meet. A. lively B. polite C. sincere D. special 167
  168. 168. Former Chief of Naval Operations Adm. George W. Anderson Jr. states that effective leaders go further than knowing rules of social etiquette, that they show a _______ interest in those they meet. A. lively B. polite C. sincere D. special 168
  169. 169. True or False: Former Chief of Naval Operations Adm. George W. Anderson Jr. believes that effective leaders use their imaginations. 169
  170. 170. True or False: Former Chief of Naval Operations Adm. George W. Anderson Jr. believes that effective leaders use their imaginations. True 170
  171. 171. Leadership Opportunities in NJROTC One of the many benefits of participating in NJROTC is the many opportunities you have to develop and practice your leadership skills. 171
  172. 172. Unit Organization 172
  173. 173. Organization of Small Units 173
  174. 174. Organization of Large Units 174
  175. 175. 175
  176. 176. Units with more than _______ cadets are organized into a battalion that has two or more companies. A. 99 B. 125 C. 150 D. 175 176
  177. 177. Units with more than _______ cadets are organized into a battalion that has two or more companies. A. 99 B. 125 C. 150 D. 175 177
  178. 178. A unit will usually have a: • Color guard 178
  179. 179. • Drill Team 179
  180. 180. • Armed Drill Team 180
  181. 181. • Rifle Team 181
  182. 182. A unit could have an: • Academic Team 182
  183. 183. • Pistol Team 183
  184. 184. • Orienteering Team 184
  185. 185. • Drum and Bugle Corps 185
  186. 186. • Athletic Team Each team normally has a cadet as team captain or commander. 186
  187. 187. Most NJROTC units have at least three teams, including a color guard team, a drill team, and a _______. A. drum and bugle corps B. pistol team C. orienteering team D. rifle team 187
  188. 188. Most NJROTC units have at least three teams, including a color guard team, a drill team, and a/an _______. A. drum and bugle corps B. pistol team C. orienteering team D. rifle team 188
  189. 189. Sample Leadership Position Descriptions NJROTC Enlisted Rates Seaman Petty Officer Chief 189
  190. 190. Captain Commander Lieutenant NJROTC Commander Officer Lieutenant Ranks Lieutenant (Junior Grade) Ensign 190
  191. 191. CADET CAPTAIN • The collar device is six attached gold bars. • The highest rank that can be attained by a cadet in NJROTC. • Assignment as regimental commander (only if 300 or more cadets). 191
  192. 192. Company/Battalion Commander 192
  193. 193. Company/Battalion Commander: • Accountable for appearance, discipline, efficiency, training, performance, and conduct of the unit • Ensures that all cadets are afforded opportunities for leadership in accordance with their experience and ability • Carries out the orders of the naval science instructors 193
  194. 194. Executive Officer 194
  195. 195. Executive Officer: • Acts in place of the Company Commander, if required • Supervises the unit staff • Carries out all tasks assigned by the Company Commander 195
  196. 196. Operations Officer 196
  197. 197. Operations Officer: • Schedules and coordinates all activities of the unit • Prepares a unit annual, monthly, and weekly calendar of activities 197
  198. 198. What officer ensures that suitable leadership opportunities are available for all cadets? A. Company Commander B. Administrative Officer C. Operations Officer D. Executive Officer 198
  199. 199. What officer ensures that suitable leadership opportunities are available for all cadets? A. Company Commander B. Administrative Officer C. Operations Officer D. Executive Officer 199
  200. 200. Administrative Officer Administrative Officer: • Keeps unit administrative files and records • Ensures that all unit reports are prepared and submitted as required • Prepares all unit correspondence 200
  201. 201. Supply Officer 201
  202. 202. Supply Officer: • Inventories, orders, and issues all unit supplies and equipment • Orders, stores, inventories, and accounts for all uniform items • Maintains appearance, security, and control of unit storeroom 202
  203. 203. Platoon Commander 203
  204. 204. Platoon Commander: • Accountable for appearance, discipline, training, performance, and conduct of platoon members • Ensures that all members of the platoon are afforded opportunities for leadership in accordance with their experience and ability • Carries out the orders of the Company Commander 204
  205. 205. Team Captains Armed Drill Color Guard 205 Unarmed Drill Athletics
  206. 206. Team Captains: • Accountable for the selection, training, motivation, and performance of the assigned team members • Coordinates all team activities with the Operations Officer • Carries out orders and duties as assigned by the Company Commander 206
  207. 207. What officer maintains files, prepares correspondence, and ensures the timely submission of reports? A. Administrative Officer B. Executive Officer C. Operations Officer D. Supply Officer 207
  208. 208. What officer maintains files, prepares correspondence, and ensures the timely submission of reports? A. Administrative Officer B. Executive Officer C. Operations Officer D. Supply Officer 208
  209. 209. Conclusion Scaling the Herndon monument by first year Naval Academy plebes. The job is dirty, tiring, and strenuous. No one midshipman ever reaches the top by him or herself. This ritual is a symbol—not of how one person can scramble to the top solo—but of how Navy teamwork and successful leadership get things done. 209
  210. 210. You can be a leader! Working to nurture the qualities of successful leadership in your own character is essential to becoming a leader. This process takes work, but the effort will be well worth it. 210
  211. 211. What term is used to refer to the art of influencing and directing people in order to accomplish a mission? A. Guidance B. Management C. Leadership D. Supervision 211
  212. 212. What term is used to refer to the art of influencing and directing people in order to accomplish a mission? A. Guidance B. Management C. Leadership D. Supervision 212
  213. 213. What term is used to refer to directing the use of resources to achieve team objectives? A. Logistics B. Leadership C. Development D. Management 213
  214. 214. What term is used to refer to directing the use of resources to achieve team objectives? A. Logistics B. Leadership C. Development D. Management 214
  215. 215. What leadership style is based on the idea that there is no one best way to lead and influence people and is flexible because it is dependent upon the people and the task? A. Situational B. Adaptable C. Environmental D. Conditional 215
  216. 216. What leadership style is based on the idea that there is no one best way to lead and influence people and is flexible because it is dependent upon the people and the task? A. Situational B. Adaptable C. Environmental D. Conditional 216
  217. 217. A leader who is oriented toward the _______ analyzes how best to use the people to get the job done. A. people B. task C. organization D. environment 217
  218. 218. A leader who is oriented toward the _______ analyzes how best to use the people to get the job done. A. people B. task C. organization D. environment 218
  219. 219. A leader who is oriented toward the _______ uses his/her interaction with the individual team members to get the job done. A. task B. organization C. people D. mission 219
  220. 220. A leader who is oriented toward the _______ uses his/her interaction with the individual team members to get the job done. A. task B. organization C. people D. mission 220
  221. 221. What term is used to refer to a leader’s supportive, two-way communication with team members? A. Relationship behavior B. Task behavior C. Empathy management D. Group dynamics 221
  222. 222. What term is used to refer to a leader’s supportive, two-way communication with team members? A. Relationship behavior B. Task behavior C. Empathy management D. Group dynamics 222
  223. 223. If a leader shows understanding, awareness, and sensitivity toward team members, he/she is being _______. A. cooperative B. charismatic C. tactful D. empathetic 223
  224. 224. If a leader shows understanding, awareness, and sensitivity toward team members, he/she is being _______. A. cooperative B. charismatic C. tactful D. empathetic 224
  225. 225. What term is used to refer to a leader’s involvement in defining the team’s job and includes direction on what to do, when to do it, and how to do it? A. Managerial behavior B. Task behavior C. Situational behavior D. Relationship behavior 225
  226. 226. What term is used to refer to a leader’s involvement in defining the team’s job and includes direction on what to do, when to do it, and how to do it? A. Managerial behavior B. Task behavior C. Situational behavior D. Relationship behavior 226
  227. 227. In what leadership style does the leader provide specific instructions and close supervision, with a high task orientation and a low relationship orientation? A. Delegating B. Participating C. Selling D. Telling 227
  228. 228. In what leadership style does the leader provide specific instructions and close supervision, with a high task orientation and a low relationship orientation? A. Delegating B. Participating C. Selling D. Telling 228
  229. 229. In what leadership style does the leader closely supervise task completion and give explanations and chances for team members to ask questions, with a high task orientation and a high relationship orientation? A. Participating B. Telling C. Selling D. Delegating 229
  230. 230. In what leadership style does the leader closely supervise task completion and give explanations and chances for team members to ask questions, with a high task orientation and a high relationship orientation? A. Participating B. Telling C. Selling D. Delegating 230
  231. 231. In what leadership style does the leader advance efforts toward task completion by soliciting ideas from and giving decision-making responsibility to team members, with a high relationship orientation and a low task orientation? A. Participating B. Delegating C. Selling D. Telling 231
  232. 232. In what leadership style does the leader advance efforts toward task completion by soliciting ideas from and giving decision-making responsibility to team members, with a high relationship orientation and a low task orientation? A. Participating B. Delegating C. Selling D. Telling 232
  233. 233. In what leadership style does the leader hand over decision-making responsibility, problem solving, and implementation to team members, with a low relationship orientation and a low task orientation? A. Telling B. Delegating C. Selling D. Participating 233
  234. 234. In what leadership style does the leader hand over decision-making responsibility, problem solving, and implementation to team members, with a low relationship orientation and a low task orientation? A. Telling B. Delegating C. Selling D. Participating 234
  235. 235. Which of the following statements about leaders is NOT true? A. According to leadership etiquette, a successful leader pitches in and helps when times get hard. B. Successful leaders know that their power comes from within, and it can never be taken away. C. Successful leaders understand that leadership is a responsibility, not a position of glory and popularity. D. Successful leaders are aware that they, like everyone else, are accountable to 235 someone.
  236. 236. Which of the following statements about leaders is NOT true? A. According to leadership etiquette, a successful leader pitches in and helps when times get hard. B. Successful leaders know that their power comes from within, and it can never be taken away. C. Successful leaders understand that leadership is a responsibility, not a position of glory and popularity. D. Successful leaders are aware that they, like everyone else, are accountable to 236 someone.
  237. 237. A leader must establish _______ that are reasonable and clearly defined, recognizing those who meet them and correcting those who do not. A. self-assessment methods B. backup plans C. job performance standards D. rewards systems 237
  238. 238. A leader must establish _______ that are reasonable and clearly defined, recognizing those who meet them and correcting those who do not. A. self-assessment methods B. backup plans C. job performance standards D. rewards systems 238
  239. 239. Even if team members’ commitment level is high, if they do not have adequate _______ for the mission they cannot fully contribute. A. incentives B. physical endurance C. accountability D. training 239
  240. 240. Even if team members’ commitment level is high, if they do not have adequate _______ for the mission they cannot fully contribute. A. incentives B. physical endurance C. accountability D. training 240
  241. 241. An individual’s _______ is constant, and defines him/her as a leader, serves as the basis for decisions and treatment of others. A. character B. personality C. background D. experience 241
  242. 242. An individual’s _______ is constant, and defines him/her as a leader, serves as the basis for decisions and treatment of others. A. character B. personality C. background D. experience 242
  243. 243. After a team is assigned a mission, the leader should take all of the following actions except which one? A. Ensure that goals are both challenging and attainable so that team members will not become frustrated B. Divide the mission into goals that the members will accept and understand C. Include a few trivial, easily accomplished goals since they will provide impetus for completing the others D. Allow team members to help set the goals because they will then support them more enthusiastically 243
  244. 244. After a team is assigned a mission, the leader should take all of the following actions except which one? A. Ensure that goals are both challenging and attainable so that team members will not become frustrated B. Divide the mission into goals that the members will accept and understand C. Include a few trivial, easily accomplished goals since they will provide impetus for completing the others D. Allow team members to help set the goals because they will then support them more enthusiastically 244
  245. 245. What course of action should a leader take with team members who do not know how to do the job? A. Encourage them by allowing them to participate in the planning B. Spend a great deal of time giving them guidance and support C. Give them plenty of freedom initially to see if they can become self- sufficient D. Handle them exactly the same as all other group members to avoid the 245 appearance of favoritism
  246. 246. What course of action should a leader take with team members who do not know how to do the job? A. Encourage them by allowing them to participate in the planning B. Spend a great deal of time giving them guidance and support C. Give them plenty of freedom initially to see if they can become self- sufficient D. Handle them exactly the same as all other group members to avoid the 246 appearance of favoritism
  247. 247. What course of action should a leader take with team members who are experienced and enthusiastic about their assignments? A. Encourage them by allowing them to participate in the planning B. Spend time giving them subtle guidance so that they will clearly realize who is in charge C. Handle them exactly the same as all other group members to avoid the appearance of favoritism D. Allow them to complete their tasks however they choose while monitoring 247 their progress
  248. 248. What course of action should a leader take with team members who are experienced and enthusiastic about their assignments? A. Encourage them by allowing them to participate in the planning B. Spend time giving them subtle guidance so that they will clearly realize who is in charge C. Handle them exactly the same as all other group members to avoid the appearance of favoritism D. Allow them to complete their tasks however they choose while monitoring 248 their progress
  249. 249. A leader with _______ is whole in body, mind, and spirit and treats all team members fairly, no matter his/her personal feelings toward them. A. integrity B. selflessness C. loyalty D. commitment 249
  250. 250. A leader with _______ is whole in body, mind, and spirit and treats all team members fairly, no matter his/her personal feelings toward them. A. integrity B. selflessness C. loyalty D. commitment 250
  251. 251. What term is used to refer to a willingness to act? A. Commitment B. Energy C. Decisiveness D. Motivation 251
  252. 252. What term is used to refer to a willingness to act? A. Commitment B. Energy C. Decisiveness D. Motivation 252
  253. 253. A leader who is _______ shows faithfulness and allegiance to colleagues, whether they are peers, superiors, or subordinates and knows he/she cannot expect it from them if they do not receive it from him/her. A. selfless B. decisive C. loyal D. empathetic 253
  254. 254. A leader who is _______ shows faithfulness and allegiance to colleagues, whether they are peers, superiors, or subordinates and knows he/she cannot expect it from them if they do not receive it from him/her. A. selfless B. decisive C. loyal D. empathetic 254
  255. 255. A leader’s _______ is the enthusiasm, perseverance, and stamina he/she brings to a task. A. motivation B. energy C. decisiveness D. commitment 255
  256. 256. A leader’s _______ is the enthusiasm, perseverance, and stamina he/she brings to a task. A. motivation B. energy C. decisiveness D. commitment 256
  257. 257. What term is used to refer to the sacrifice of personal needs and wants for a greater good? A. Selflessness B. Loyalty C. Empathy D. Commitment 257
  258. 258. What term is used to refer to the sacrifice of personal needs and wants for a greater good? A. Selflessness B. Loyalty C. Empathy D. Commitment 258
  259. 259. If a leader uses _______, he/she treats others courteously and respectfully, especially in situations where he/she must criticize a subordinate. A. empathy B. tact C. a sense of humor D. self-control 259
  260. 260. If a leader uses _______, he/she treats others courteously and respectfully, especially in situations where he/she must criticize a subordinate. A. empathy B. tact C. a sense of humor D. self-control 260
  261. 261. Since a leader sets the standards for conduct and performance by personal example, team members will _______ him/her. A. criticize B. ignore C. admire D. imitate 261
  262. 262. Since a leader sets the standards for conduct and performance by personal example, team members will _______ him/her. A. criticize B. ignore C. admire D. imitate 262
  263. 263. Former Chief of Naval Operations Adm. George Anderson states that effective leaders go further than knowing rules of social etiquette, that they show a _______ interest in those they meet. A. polite B. special C. sincere D. dignified 263
  264. 264. Former Chief of Naval Operations Adm. George Anderson states that effective leaders go further than knowing rules of social etiquette, that they show a _______ interest in those they meet. A. polite B. special C. sincere D. dignified 264
  265. 265. NJROTC units with 151-299 cadets are organized into a _______. A. company B. battalion C. regiment D. platoon 265
  266. 266. NJROTC units with 151-299 cadets are organized into a _______. A. company B. battalion C. regiment D. platoon 266
  267. 267. What officer maintains files, prepares correspondence, and ensures the timely submission of reports? A. Administrative Officer B. Executive Officer C. Operations Officer D. Supply Officer 267
  268. 268. What officer maintains files, prepares correspondence, and ensures the timely submission of reports? A. Administrative Officer B. Executive Officer C. Operations Officer D. Supply Officer 268
  269. 269. What officer oversees the appearance, discipline, and conduct of the unit and ensures that suitable leadership opportunities are available for all cadets? A. Administrative Officer B. Platoon Commander C. Executive Officer D. Company Commander 269
  270. 270. What officer oversees the appearance, discipline, and conduct of the unit and ensures that suitable leadership opportunities are available for all cadets? A. Administrative Officer B. Platoon Commander C. Executive Officer D. Company Commander 270
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