5.1 Choosing the Right Exeercise Program for You


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Bishop Kenny Naval Science One/Two Physical Fitness Part 1

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5.1 Choosing the Right Exeercise Program for You

  1. 1. UNIT 5 CHAPTER 1 Choosing the Right Exercise Program for You1
  2. 2. Introduction What you eat and how you exercise can directly affect how you look and feel. When it come to your appearance, diet and exercise help you maintain: • Weight • Healthy hair • Muscle tone • Healthy skin2
  3. 3. Tone A degree of tension or firmness, as of muscle3
  4. 4. HEALTH Diet and exercise can lower the risk of: • Heart disease • High blood pressure • Depression • Other health problems Staying healthy and looking good = following a balanced diet and exercising regularly.4
  5. 5. With the right outlook, everyone can find an exercise program they enjoy.5
  6. 6. Exercise • Good for you • Can be fun • Can help form friendships • Will help you feel better about yourself • Improves your resistance to disease • Relieves stress Being fit improves your health mentally and physically.6
  7. 7. The degree of tension or firmness of a muscle is known as its _______. A. tone B. strength C. suppleness D. density7
  8. 8. Are you physically fit?When you are physically fit, your heart, bloodvessels, lungs, and muscles work together asa team allowing you to breathe easily andcontract muscles in coordinated movement.8
  9. 9. Your body is made for activity, and regularexercise helps you gain or maintain physicalfitness.Rest, sleep, and good nutrition are just asimportant as a program of vigorous exercisein developing fitness and a healthy lifestyle.9
  10. 10. Components of FitnessEach individual has their own potential forfitness, but you can reach your own personalbest. Four health-related components: • Cardiorespiratory endurance • Muscular strength and endurance • Flexibility10 • Body composition
  11. 11. 1. Cardiorespiratory Endurance The ability of your heart, blood vessels, and lungs to distribute nutrients and oxygen and to remove wastes • At rest—5 to 6 quarts per minute (5.5 to 6.6 liters) • Exercising—20 to 25 quarts per minute (22 to 27 liters)11
  12. 12. Good cardiorespiratory endurance—heart andlungs function easily and recover quickly afterheavy exercisePoor cardiorespiratory endurance—shortnessof breath and a very high heart rate after lightexercise12
  13. 13. 2. Muscular Strength and Endurance Strength: the capacity of a muscle or a group of muscles to exert or resist a force Endurance: the ability of muscles to keep working for an extended time13
  14. 14. History Connection ‘gymnasium’ comes from the Greek ‘gymnasion’ meaning “school” Ancient Greeks placed great emphasis on physical fitness. Students received instruction on exercise and sports.14
  15. 15. 4. Flexibility The ability to use a muscle throughout its entire range of motionStretching exercises can increase flexibilityand reduce risk of injury during exercise.15
  16. 16. 5. Body Composition The amount of body fat compared to lean tissue, such as bone and muscle Excessive body fat has been linked to harmful health conditions.16
  17. 17. The efficient functioning of your heart, lungs, and blood vessels as they deliver nutrients and remove waste is known as _______. A. flexibility B. muscular strength and endurance C. cardiorespiratory endurance D. body composition17
  18. 18. The amount of weight you can lift measures your muscular _______. A. endurance B. strength C. flexibility D. composition18
  19. 19. The Benefits of ExerciseWhat happens inside you when you enjoysome form of exercise?• Muscles contract and relax.• Muscles use oxygen enriched nutrients.• The heart beats faster.• Breathing becomes rapid and deep.• Blood flow increases.• Blood pressure & body temperature rise.• Sweating begins. What is the benefit?19
  20. 20. Some Benefits of Regular Exercise Physical Increases • muscle strength and endurance • efficiency of heart and lungs • physical stamina • bone strength • flexibility • resistance to muscle and bone injury • resistance to disease20
  21. 21. Physical Improves posture and appearance Reduces • blood pressure • risk of cardiovascular disease Helps • reduce body fat • to control appetite Aids digestion and helps prevent constipation21
  22. 22. Psychological and Social Improves • mental alertness • self-image • self-confidence • quality of sleep Increases • ability to concentrate • resistance to mental fatigue • social involvement Helps • relieve stress and improve relaxation • control anxiety and depression22
  23. 23. The ancient Greek word “gymnasion,” from which our word “gymnasium” comes, means _______. A. exercise B. strength C. school D. training23
  24. 24. Physical Benefits Blood circulates faster during exercise. Increased circulation is why you feel refreshed and energetic. Regular exercise may increase the number of your capillaries.24
  25. 25. An exercise program: • Increases cardiovascular endurance • Can lower blood pressure and improve lung function • Can help prevent heart disease.25
  26. 26. As you stretch your muscles, you can improve your flexibility. When you do endurance exercises regularly, your muscles become stronger and can work longer. Regular exercise strengthens bones which, along with strong muscles, are less likely to be injured.26
  27. 27. Exercise can improve or maintain body composition. A regular workout is important in keeping body fat within standards. Regular exercise is an important factor in successful weight loss or maintenance.27
  28. 28. Psychological Benefits People who exercise are likely to: • Sleep better • Feel more confident • Focus more productively • Increase creativity.28
  29. 29. Exercise reduces emotional stress. Simple stretching can help relax tense muscles and allow better sleep. If you are depressed, exercise can help you feel better. Many health professionals consider exercise an important part of treatment for depression.29
  30. 30. Ever experience exhilaration following a hard workout? Think about endorphins.Endorphins help give a sense of satisfactionand pleasure.Vigorous exercise causes brain cells toproduce more endorphins.30
  31. 31. Which one of these conditions is NOT usually a result of regular exercise? A. Fewer capillaries B. Stronger heart C. Denser bones D. Lower blood pressure31
  32. 32. True or False: Regular exercise has been linked to an increase in creativity. A. True B. False32
  33. 33. Types of Exercise No single exercise can maintain all four components of physical fitness. Recreational activities also provide excellent33 exercise.
  34. 34. Exercise can be classified into different types depending on what the performance involves. Among these are: • Aerobic • Anaerobic • Isotonic • Isometric34 • Isokinetic
  35. 35. Aerobic Allowing sufficient amounts of oxygen to be delivered to the muscles Anaerobic Working in the absence of adequate amounts of oxygen being delivered to the muscles35
  36. 36. Isotonic Building muscle strength using resistance with joint movement Isometric Building muscle strength using resistance without joint movement36
  37. 37. Isokinetic Exercise in which muscles contract, but very little body movement takes place37
  38. 38. Exercise that permits sufficient amounts of oxygen to be delivered to the muscles is _______. A. isometric B. isotonic C. aerobic D. anaerobic38
  39. 39. Aerobic Exercise • Nonstop, repetitive, strenuous physical exercise that raises the breathing and heart rates • Improves blood and oxygen flow to vital organs as well as lung capacity39
  40. 40. Frequent, regular, ongoing aerobic exercises (lasting at least 20 minutes) improve cardiovascular endurance. Aerobic exercises: • are especially important for circulatory and respiratory health. • do not always improve muscular strength. • generally improve muscular endurance.40
  41. 41. Anaerobic Exercise • Works the muscles intensely in fast bursts of movement and does not require as much oxygen • Requires bursts of power, energy, and the ability to maneuver quickly41
  42. 42. An overall 20 minute weight lifting exercise only achieves anaerobic levels when the lifter actually lifts the weight. Anaerobic exercises: • are intense physical activities that last from a few seconds to minutes. • usually improve flexibility, strength, and sometimes speed. • are designed to develop specific skills.42
  43. 43. Isotonic, Isometric, Isokinetic Exercise • Firms and tones muscles and builds muscle strength • Works against resistance to build muscle strength • Can increase strength and endurance of specific muscles43
  44. 44. Isometric exercise builds muscle strength by using resistance without joint movement—hand pulls. Isotonic exercise builds muscle strength by using resistance with joint movement—curls. Isokinetic exercise builds muscle strength by using resistance through a range of muscles—special machinery.44
  45. 45. What is the common goal of isotonic, isometric, and isokinetic exercise? A. Improving flexibility B. Building cardiovascular endurance C. Toning and building muscles D. Increasing oxygen supply to cells45
  46. 46. Defining Your Goals • Increased stamina • Trimmer body • Better coordination • Feeling more alert • Stronger muscles • Improved cardiovascular endurance46 • Combination
  47. 47. Your exercise and fitness program should be fun. Choose activities you will look forward to. Combine exercise with social activities. Expand on activities already a part of your life.47
  48. 48. Weekly Exercise ProgramSunday Wednesday • 20-minute slow run • Walk to school • 2 flights of stairs 3 • Gym class times • 40-minutes/basketballMonday Thursday • 20-minute brisk walk • 20-minute walk to school • Gym class • Basketball game • 20-minute walk home FridayTuesday • Gym class • Walk to school • 30-minute aerobics class • 30-minute swim • 20-minute walk home • Walk home Saturday • 40-minutes/rake leaves • 20-minute slow run48
  49. 49. Youth Fitness Fact Sheet• Youth fitness has not improved in the last 10 years.• 50% of girls (6-17) and 30% of boys (6-12) cannot run a mile in under 10 minutes.• 55% of girls (6-17) and 25% of boys (6-12) cannot do a pull-up.• Boys generally perform better than girls except in flexibility.• Girls’ scores increase until 14 then plateau and decrease (except flexibility).49
  50. 50. Youth Fitness Fact Sheet • American children have become fatter since 1950. • 40% of children age 5-8 show one heart disease risk factor • obesity (overweight) • elevated cholesterol • high blood pressure. • Only 36% of schoolchildren (grades 5-12) are enrolled in physical education with an average of 3.6 gym classes per week.50
  51. 51. Obesity Overweight to the point of injuring health51
  52. 52. Which of the following statements regarding youth fitness is accurate? A. In fitness tests, girls are usually more flexible than boys. B. Youth fitness in the US has drastically improved in the last 10 years. C. American children became fatter from 1950 to 1990 but then grew slimmer because of health trends. D. Twenty-five percent of children ages 5-8 have at least one heart disease52 risk factor.
  53. 53. The FIT Principle Exercise effectiveness depends on: • How often (frequency) F • How hard (intensity) I • How long (time) T you exercise. To achieve fitness, you need to meet the minimum standards for each FIT factor.53
  54. 54. Frequency of Exercise To stay physically fit, exercise three or more times per week. If your exercise is moderate, four times a week is effective for cardiovascular endurance and weight loss. If your exercise is vigorous, do not exercise more than five times a week.54
  55. 55. Whatever your goal, spread your exercise out over the week. Inactivity during the week does not prepare you for intense weekend workouts. Weekend only athletes are more prone to injuries.55
  56. 56. Intensity of Exercise If your goal is cardiovascular endurance, you must work your systems intensely through aerobic exercise.The intensity is indicated by the number ofheart beats per minute. The more intense theexercise, the faster the heart rate.56
  57. 57. Maximum heart rate—heart’s top speed when exercised to exhaustion. For teenagers, it is about 200 bpm. Target heart rate—maintained during exercise; approximate heart rate needed to benefit from aerobic workout. Depends on age, fitness level, resting heart rate, and maximum heart rate. Expressed as a range for example 145-170 bpm.57
  58. 58. During exercise, check your heart rate regularly to stay within your target range. Stop exercising, count your pulse for 658 seconds, and multiply by 10.
  59. 59. The “talk test” is an easy way to check exercise intensity. If you are breathless and cannot talk, the exercise level is too intense. If you are able to sing while exercising, the exercise level is too moderate. If you are able to talk comfortably while exercising, intensity is at the proper level.59
  60. 60. Exercise Time Time spent exercising affects your fitness level. Start with about 10-15 minutes. Increase gradually by up to 10% a week. Once established, maintain 20-30 minutes of vigorous exercise for greater fitness.60
  61. 61. Goal—cardiovascular improvement— exercise vigorously for 20-30 minutes within target heart rate. Goal—reduce body fat—exercise moderately for 30 minutes minimum (about 60% of maximum heart rate). Moderate level of exercise uses body fat as energy. Vigorous level of exercise uses body’s glucose as energy.61
  62. 62. In the FIT principle of exercise, what does the “F” stand for? A. Fortify B. Fast C. Force D. Frequency62
  63. 63. In the FIT principle of exercise, what does the “I” stand for? A. Intensity B. Interest C. Interval D. Increase63
  64. 64. In the FIT principle of exercise, what does the “T” stand for? A. Tempo B. Time C. Try D. Test64
  65. 65. Phases of Exercise A warm up should precede a workout followed by a cool down. Skipping them does not always cause injury, but including them is safer and healthier.65
  66. 66. Warming Up and Stretching Warm up with a 5- 10 minute period of mild exercise before vigorous exercise. • Body temperature rises. • Heart rate increases. • Blood flow to muscles increases. • Muscles become more elastic.66
  67. 67. Some suggest going through the same motions as the planned exercise when warming up. If you do so, exercise the motions at a slower pace. For example, if the exercise is running, start out by walking and gradually increase the speed until you are running at the intended exercise pace.67
  68. 68. Warm up should include 5-10 minutes of stretching to increase flexibility. Know your limits; don’t overstretch your ligaments and joints. Stretching should be a constant even pull on both sides of the body to feel tension. Do not bounce.68
  69. 69. If you select muscle strengthening exercises, do them on alternate days. Muscles need a full day of recovery. During the exercise, plan on short sets followed by rest periods for the muscles to recover between sets.69
  70. 70. Warming up before exercising results in all of the following physical conditions except which one? A. Body temperature rises. B. Muscles grow tenser. C. Blood flow to muscles increases. D. Heart rate picks up.70
  71. 71. The WorkoutThe goal of the Workout Phase is to improveone or more components of physical fitness.You may include cardiovascular endurance orstrength endurance, for example.You may select both on alternate sessions.If you select both for the same session, do thecardiovascular exercises first.71
  72. 72. Checking Your Progress Seeing your progress can be rewarding. Wait 3-4 weeks before retesting, but for most exercise programs, you will notice changes within 12 weeks.72
  73. 73. Cooling Down and StretchingA slow warm-up period brings you safelyfrom minimal to maximal activity. The cool-down is a period of milder exercise thatallows your body and your heart rate toreturn slowly and safely to their restingstates. Your cool-down should be at least aslong as your warm-up. If you stop exercisingabruptly, blood can collect in the musclesyou were using.73
  74. 74. When this happens, blood may not returnfast enough to your heart and brain. As aresult, you may become dizzy and faint.Walking is a common method of coolingdown.Stretching after your cool-down loosensmuscles that have tightened from exerciseand prevents muscle and joint soreness.Spend at least five minutes repeating thestretches you did before your workout.74
  75. 75. Your Resting Heart Rate A person with average cardiovascular fitness has a resting heart rate of 72- 84 bpm. Girls/women generally have higher rates than boys/men. Below 72 in either sex indicates a good fitness level. Top conditioned young athletes may be as low as 40 bpm.75
  76. 76. Your Changing Shape If one of your goals is to lose body fat, combine exercise with changes in eating habits. However, you may actually gain some weight; muscle is heavier than fat.76
  77. 77. Despite possible weight gain, you will have a trimmer body. To see if you are loosing body fat, measure and track the circumference of your upper arm every 3-4 weeks.77
  78. 78. Keep track of your progress by recording results on a chart to compare data.Progress Record Week Weight Upper Arm Resting Appetite Sleep Measure Heart Pattern 0 3 6 978
  79. 79. Without a proper cool down period, your blood may collect in _______, resulting in dizziness. A. your brain B. the organs in your chest C. your extremities D. the muscles you were using79
  80. 80. In both girls and boys, a heart rate below _______ beats per minute reflects that their fitness level is good. A. 40 B. 58 C. 72 D. 8080
  81. 81. A Safe Workout Anyone who exercises faces the risk of injury. Some may be unavoidable, but most can be prevented by common sense.81
  82. 82. Equipping for Safety You do not need expensive equipment to be safe. You may only need sneakers. Choose the right equipment for your exercise.82
  83. 83. Clothes should be comfortable, unrestrictive, and allow the body to cool. Avoid clothing that can trip you or get caught in your equipment. Wear long sleeves and pants where scrapes can occur.83
  84. 84. To protect your feet, footwear must: • Fit properly • Be in good condition • Provide support and protection. You probably do not need to buy highly specialized, expensive, athletic footwear. If your main activities are walking and bicycling, you do not need professional runner’s shoes.84
  85. 85. Protective gear is designed to prevent injuries in contact sports. Many sports use hard-shell helmets to protect the head from blows.85
  86. 86. You shouldregard a helmetas standardequipment forany wheeledsport also.Knee andelbow padsare importantequipment forskateboarders andskaters.86
  87. 87. Which of these suggestions for workout gear and clothing is NOT recommended? A. Fabric should allow the body to cool through the evaporation of sweat. B. Clothing should be loose-fitting and baggy to allow for movement. C. A helmet is necessary for any activity involving wheeled equipment. D. Footwear does not have to be expensive but should fit well and give support.87
  88. 88. Fluids and Food Your body can require water even when you are not thirsty. If you exercise more than 45 minutes, take in fluids as you exercise, especially in hot weather. Have a cup of fluid a few minutes before exercising and every 15 minutes during exercise.88
  89. 89. The food you eat provides the energy you need for exercising.89
  90. 90. Avoiding Overexertion Signals you have overworked your body: • Unusually tired during/after exercise • Nausea or vomiting • Muscle or joint pains that stay If you experience any of these symptoms: • Cut back on intensity and length • Stick to consistent exercise schedule • Keep your exercise within your level.90
  91. 91. Weather Considerations Make sure your clothing is appropriate for the weather. You should feel slightly cool before exercising. On warm, sunny days, wear light-colored clothing and dress lightly. The lighter or more sun-sensitive your skin, the more sunscreen you need.91
  92. 92. Exercise Myths and Facts1. MYTH: “No pain, no gain.”; exercise to the point of feeling pain is the only way to improve your abilities. FACT: Pain is a danger signal, a signal that you are causing harm. Sharp or sudden pain should be a signal to stop.2. MYTH: Sit-ups and other abdominal exercises will decrease fat in the stomach area. FACT: You cannot “spot reduce” or lose fat just in one area.3. MYTH: Drinking fluids before exercising can cause stomach cramps. FACT: Plain water will not cause cramps. Without adequate water, you can become dehydrated, which can lead to muscle cramps and other more serious problems.92
  93. 93. Exercise Myths and Facts4. MYTH: Being thin is a sign of fitness. FACT: Thin people who do not exercise are likely to have poor heart, lung, and muscular fitness. Cardiovascular fitness is a better indication of overall fitness than your appearance.5. MYTH: If women lift weights, they will develop muscles. FACT: Women usually have less muscle tissue and more fat tissue than men. They also have a balance of hormones that is different from men and that prevents the development of large muscle mass.6. MYTH: Exercise is unsafe for older people. FACT: The health of elderly people can benefit greatly from moderate exercise.93
  94. 94. When it is cold, clothing should protect from frostbite. Cover your head and hands. You may need a sweat suit, but don’t overdo the thickness of clothing. Layers of clothing are better because you can remove layers to regulate body heat.94
  95. 95. During exercise in warm weather, you should drink a cup of water every _______ minutes. A. 15 B. 20 C. 30 D. 4595
  96. 96. Choosing the Right Exercise Program Base your exercise program on your current fitness, interests, needs, and abilities. Make sure your new activity does not put you at risk, then get help from an exercise specialist to select the best exercises for you. Specific pointers can make the activities safer and more effective.96
  97. 97. Your exercise program should have three parts: • Warm-up • Conditioning • Cool-down97
  98. 98. The warm-up period : • Allows for a slow increase in heart rate • Sends extra blood through muscles to warm them. For 5-7 minutes, include: • Slow walking • Mild stretching • Calisthenics.98
  99. 99. Calisthenics Light gymnastic exercise designed to promote good health by developing strength and grace99
  100. 100. The conditioning period (generally 20 minutes) brings on cardiorespiratory endurance and/or muscle strengthening endurance. Push your body to normal limits, then a little beyond. As you strengthen, your normal limits will change. Weight training: • For bulk—add weight. • For strength—add reps. • Give muscles a day off between100 workouts.
  101. 101. Cardiorespiratory Of or relating to the heart and respiratory system101
  102. 102. Weekly Physical Fitness Training Program Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Warm-up/ Warm-up/ Warm-up/ Warm-up/ Warm-up/ Stretching Stretching Stretching Stretching Stretching Strength Aerobics Strength Assessment Training Conditioning Training of goal Measurement Running Running Unit fun run session Cool-down/ Cool-down/ Cool-down/ Cool-down/ stretching stretching stretching stretching Cool-down/ stretching Tuesdays and Thursdays—“recovery” days102
  103. 103. Cool-down period—4 to 6 minutes of slow walking, easy calisthenics, and mild stretching. Cool-down period allows your heart rate to slow down, relaxes muscles, and cools the body. Stretching muscles can relieve cramps and soreness.103
  104. 104. Which of the following statements is an exercise myth? A. Weightlifting will not cause women to develop large muscles. B. Moderate exercise has excellent health benefits for older people. C. Being thin is an indication of physical fitness. D. Spot reduction, such as sit ups to get rid of abdominal fat, does not work.104
  105. 105. Light, gymnastic-like exercises that develop strength and grace are known as _______. A. calisthenics B. interval training C. low impact aerobics D. isometrics105
  106. 106. Weekly Physicalan Exercise Program Sticking with Fitness Training Program People know how important exercise is, but Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday they have trouble staying with a program. Warm-up/ Warm-up/ Warm-up/ Warm-up/ Warm-up/ Stretching Stretching Stretching Stretching Stretching Tips to make it easier to keep your resolution toStrength become/remain fit: Aerobics Strength Assessment Training Conditioning Training of goal • Think of fitness as part of a daily Measurement routine. Running Running Unit fun run session • Set realistic and specific goals. Cool-down/ Cool-down/ Cool-down/ Cool-down/ • Exercise at least three stretching stretching stretching times a week. stretching Cool-down/ stretching • Keep track of your progress. Tuesdays and Thursdays—“recovery” days106
  107. 107. Weekly Physicalan Exercise Program Sticking with Fitness Training Program (continued) Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday • Make the routineWarm-up/ personality. Warm-up/ Warm-up/ fit your Warm-up/ Warm-up/ Stretching Stretching Stretching Stretching Stretching • Choose a convenient place for exercise. Strength Aerobics Strength Assessment • Wear comfortable clothing and shoes. Training Conditioning Training of goal Measurement • Stay positive and have fun. run Running Running Unit fun session Cool-down/ Cool-down/ Cool-down/ Cool-down/ Caution: Before beginning any exercise stretching stretching stretching Cool-down/ stretching or diet program, have the approvalstretching of your physician. Tuesdays and Thursdays—“recovery” days107
  108. 108. Assessing Cardiovascular Fitness and Determining Target Heart Rate During exercise, the heart and lungs must supply more oxygen. Rest 5 quarts/minute Vigorous Exercise 20-25 quarts/minute108
  109. 109. Your target heart rate is the rate you need to maintain during exercise to improve your cardiovascular fitness. 200 Heart Rate-Beats Per Minute 180 % of Maximum 160 Heart Rate 140 85%-100% 120 65%-85% 100 50%-65% 80 50% or less109 Age 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65
  110. 110. To help you stick with your exercise program, think of fitness as a _______. A. chore to get rid of early in the day B. part of your daily routine C. way to get immediate results if you push yourself to the limits D. bonus that makes you feel good when you have time in your week to get to it110
  111. 111. Test Your Cardiovascular Fitness Before you do a test or start an exercise program, have a physical exam, including a check of your blood pressure and resting heart rate. Do not attempt a test if you have a history of health problems.111
  112. 112. Test your cardiovascular fitness by walking/running for one mile as fast as you can. Have a partner use a watch with a second hand to measure your time in minutes and seconds.112
  113. 113. Compare Your Results to Recommended Results Compare your score to the table. Your time should be no greater than the minimums. Mile Walk/Run Times In Minutes and Seconds Age Girls Boys 14 10:30 7:45 15-18 10:30 7:30113
  114. 114. Take Your Resting Pulse and Determine Your Target Heart Range Determine your resting heart rate by counting your pulse beats for one minute.114
  115. 115. Subtract your resting heart rate from 200, your approximate maximum heart rate. Multiply that figure by 0.6 and also by 0.8.Approx MHR 200 -RHR -72 128 X 0.6 = 76.8 200 -72 128 X 0.8 = 102.4115
  116. 116. Add your resting heart rate back into the two numbers from the previous step. The two new sums give you your target heart rate range.Approx MHR 200 -RHR -72 128 X 0.6 = 76.8 + 72 = 148.8 200 -72 128 X 0.8 = 102.4 + 72 = 174.4116
  117. 117. Which one of these cardiovascular fitness assessment steps contains an error? A. You run one mile as fast as you can. B. Your partner records your time using a watch with a second hand. C. If you are 14 and your time is more than 10:30 for girls or 7:45 for boys, you are not at a good fitness level. D. If you have to walk part of the mile, you are automatically not at a good fitness level.117
  118. 118. Choose an Appropriate Cardiovascular Exercise Program Ask your physical education teacher to help select appropriate exercise activities for you. Start moderately, and progress into higher intensity exercises.118
  119. 119. Do your exercises 3-4 times a week. Take your pulse rate immediately to see if you are staying within your target heart range. Your heart rate begins to slow immediately after you stop exercising, so count your pulses for only 6 seconds and then multiply by 10 to account for 60 seconds worth of pulses.119
  120. 120. After exercising regularly, retake the walk/run one mile test to check your progress.Apply the skill:1. Do warm-up stretches; complete the timed one mile walk/run; record the results.2. Determine your target heart rate ranges.3. After a physical checkup, design a cardiovascular fitness program that will improve your fitness level.120
  121. 121. Fitness Throughout Life One of the most important and challenging things to do for yourself—start exercising while you are young and continue for life. Don’t be discouraged thinking it’s too difficult or time consuming.121
  122. 122. Many activities you already do may be some form of fitness exercise and can be fun: activities such as aerobic dance classes or recreational dancing.122
  123. 123. Fitness and Recreation Do you: • ride a bike with friends? • take a brisk walk in the morning? • jump and turn to fast music? • get together with friends for a • hike? • basketball game? • swim? If so, you already participate in activities that contribute to your physical fitness.123
  124. 124. Fitness and Aging Bodies undergo physical changes as they age, but that should not prevent you from being physically fit. Even if started late, moderate exercise can help reduce or eliminate many physical problems associated with age.124
  125. 125. Some older people think they need to avoid exercise to avoid injury. That is a mistake. Exercised bones and muscles stay stronger and can reduce the risk of osteoporosis. Older people who get little exercise are less healthy than those who remain active.125
  126. 126. Moderation is especially important in a fitness program for older adults. Exercise issues for older people: • Possible circulatory-system problems • Lower target heart rate • Need less stress on bones and muscles However, with care and moderation, older people can continue to benefit from regular exercise.126
  127. 127. Finding Ways to Get Fit Still cannot plan and carry out a fitness plan? Then increase your level of activity by making a game of it. • Bike or walk instead or riding. • Use stairs instead of elevators. • Pick up your walking pace or jog. A little exercise is better than none, and every little increase is beneficial.127
  128. 128. True or False: Recreational activities such as walking your dog, dancing, and shooting baskets with friends are important parts of a fitness program. A. True B. False128
  129. 129. Which of these statements about exercise and aging is NOT accurate? A. Older people must be careful when exercising because it increases the risk of osteoporosis, a condition when bones become fragile. B. Even when older people begin exercising later in life, the effects of cardiovascular disease and arthritis can be reduced. C. The target heart rate decreases as people become older, since they are more likely to have circulatory-system problems. D. Older people can keep bones and muscles healthy through exercise, but they must use more moderation and decrease129 exercise intensity.
  130. 130. Conclusion Regular exercise is important in maintaining your health; you feel better, look better, and help fight disease. Different exercise programs have different benefits, but the important thing is to stay active. It is easy to get out of shape, so take the stairs, bike, walk, or bowl. Turn off the TV and have fun with your friends; it’s all a benefit to you and your health.130
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