2IntroductionA healthy lifestyle includes goodnutrition.Your body will not function properlywithout the right nutrients.A balanced diet helps maintain properweight and lower risk of disease.
3NutrientsSubstances found in food thatnourish the body
4Eating on the run too often can affect yournutrition and weight. You may consume toomany fats and too few vegetables andfruits, leaving you deficient in certainnutrients.Eating balanced meals, even on the run:• contributes to proper weight• provides energy for physical activity• supplies nutrients for good health.4
5FatsNutrients made up of fatty acidsthat are insoluble in water andprovide energy to the body
6DeficientHaving too little of something,such as a nutrient in the body
7Although too many fats can be bad foryou, your body needs a certain amount offat from the foods you eat. Manynecessary vitamins are fat-soluble only;without fat, these vitamins cannot beabsorbed.Note:
8A. resistanceB. profusionC. intoleranceD. deficiencyIf your body has too little ofsomething, such as a vitamin ormineral, it has a(an) _______.
9A. resistanceB. profusionC. intoleranceD. deficiencyIf your body has too little ofsomething, such as a vitamin ormineral, it has a(an) _______.
10Balancing CaloriesYou must eat to fuel your body. The moreactive you are, the more fuel you need. Evenremaining very still, your body uses calorieson basic functions. You do not have controlover these functions.Some people use more calories, some less,for basic functions. Those who use more aresaid to have a high metabolism.10
11CaloriesThe amount of energy it takes toraise the temperature of onekilogram of water one degreeCelsius; a measurement ofenergy
12MetabolismThe chemical process bywhich the body producesenergy and maintains vitalfunctions
13Your body uses calories in everything youdo. Unlike your basic functions, you cancontrol how many calories you voluntarilyuse.For example, you use more calories walkingthan watching TV.You use more calories walking fast thanwalking slowly.The more effort you put in, the morecalories you burn.13
14When your body uses the same amount ofcalories as you eat daily, your weightremains the same.If you eat more calories than your bodyuses, you gain weight.If you eat fewer calories than your bodyuses you lose weight.It’s a balancing act between calories eatenand calories used.EATEN USED
15A. The process of breaking down foodinto components that can the bodycan useB. The collection of chemical reactionsthat convert food into energyC. The absorption of food molecules intothe bloodstreamD. The movement of food through thedigestive organsWhat is meant by the body’smetabolism?
16A. The process of breaking down foodinto components that can the bodycan useB. The collection of chemical reactionsthat convert food into energyC. The absorption of food molecules intothe bloodstreamD. The movement of food through thedigestive organsWhat is meant by the body’smetabolism?
17Karen and AndreaHere’s an example of making sensiblechoices.
18Karen wonders why she gains weight, 10pounds last year. After sleeping late andwatching TV, she meets Andrea, who playedtennis that morning.Karen AndreaPlain doubleHamburger (1/4 lb)Salad with grilledchickenMayonnaise Light ItaliandressingFrench FriesChocolate shake(large)Soda(small)Their orders:
19Andrea: “Do you ever eat fruit orvegetables?”Karen: “Sometimes.”Andrea: “I had a hamburger and fries a fewdays ago; that’s why I ordered a salad today.If you will eat fruit and vegetables more oftenthan fried foods and sweets, it will help youmaintain your weight.”Karen: “???”19
20Karen Calories Andrea CaloriesPlain doubleHamburger(1/4) pounder540 Salad withgrilledchicken200Mayonnaise 100 Light Italiandressing50French Fries 360Chocolateshake (large)540 Soda(small)150Total 1540 Total 400Perhaps if Karen knew the calorie count, shemight reconsider her order. Most people onlyneed 2,000-3,000 calories per day.
21Karen’s alt Calories Andrea CaloriesHamburger(2 ounce)275 Salad with grilledchicken200Lettuce(1/2 cup)5 Light Italiandressing50Tomato (1 slice) 5Mustard (1 tbs) 8Ketchup (1 tbs) 15French Fries(regular order)220Chocolateshake (small)330 Soda(small)150Total 858 Total 400If Karen didn’t want a salad, she could stillcut calories with an alternate order.21
22Tomato(Medium)25WholeMilk (Cup)150Cheese Pizza(slice)290Egg(large)80Apple(medium)80GreenPepper(medium)20WheatBread(slice)65Potato(medium)45IceCream(cup)270Orange(medium)60If Karen really wants to lose weight, sheshould have salad, reduce calorie intake,and get more exercise. Tennis burns threetimes as many calories as watching TV.Eat sensibly-exercise-lose weight.Calories of some common foods.22
23A. 1500B. 2000C. 3000D. 3500Most people need no more than_______ total calories per day.
24A. 1500B. 2000C. 3000D. 3500Most people need no more than_______ total calories per day.
25The Importance of a Proper Dietto Your HealthWhat you eat to get calories is as importantas the amount you eat. If you eat like Karen,you give your body too much fat,cholesterol, salt, and sugar, causing healthproblems to start when you are young.At your next physical, ask the doctor aboutyour cholesterol, blood pressure, and bloodsugars. You may be surprised.25
26What Should You Eat?The Food Guide Pyramid indicates dailyservings of 6 food groups to get the propernutrients for your body.
27If you follow the guidelines, you will getenough vitamins and minerals for bodyprocessing and enough carbohydrates,protein, and fat for energy. If not, youincrease your risk of disease. For example,lack of calcium can develop osteoporosis.
28VitaminsNutrients that occur naturally inplant and animal tissue and arerequired for proper function of thebody
29MineralsNatural chemicals of the Earthused by the body to supplynecessary nutrition
30CarbohydratesOne of the various neutral organiccompounds composed of carbon,hydrogen, and oxygen (includingstarches and sugars) producedby green plants and used toprovide energy necessary forgrowth and other functions
31ProteinNutrients that are made of aminoacids and that maintain bodytissues and supply energy to thebody
32OsteoporosisA condition characterized by acalcium deficiency in the bonemass in which the body pullscalcium from the bones, causingthem to lose their density andpossibly leading to fractures
33Your body also needs fiber to aid digestionand prevent cholesterol, fats, and toxicminerals from entering your blood stream. Italso helps control diabetes by balancingblood sugar levels.Fiber:• raw or lightly cooked vegetables• fresh fruit-nuts-beans• whole wheat or bran breads• cereals-crackers
34FiberCoarse food made mostly ofcarbohydrates, such as bran orlettuce, that serves to stimulateand aid the movement of foodthrough the intestines
35DiabetesA disease that causes toomuch blood sugar to buildup in the body
36Water is the final nutrient vital to keepingyou alive. The body is more than 65% water,and water lost must be replaced.It aids digestion, regulates temperature,carries vitamins and minerals through thebody, and is important for the removal ofwaste.Drink five to six glasses a day and more onthe days you exercise.36
37A. proteinB. ironC. vitaminD. calciumOsteoporosis is a condition caused bya(an) _______ deficiency in the bonemass.
38A. proteinB. ironC. vitaminD. calciumOsteoporosis is a condition caused bya(an) _______ deficiency in the bonemass.
39A. vitaminsB. mineralsC. saltsD. proteinsFor proper nutrition, the body requirescertain chemical elements that occurnaturally in the Earth, called _______.
40A. vitaminsB. mineralsC. saltsD. proteinsFor proper nutrition, the body requirescertain chemical elements that occurnaturally in the Earth, called _______.
41A. vitaminsB. proteinsC. mineralsD. carbohydratesEssential nutrients found in both plantand animal tissue are known as_______.
42A. vitaminsB. proteinsC. mineralsD. carbohydratesEssential nutrients found in both plantand animal tissue are known as_______.
43Eating in ModerationYour body needs fat but not too much.Your body needs cholesterol, but too muchis harmful; it forms plaque in artery walls,leading to high blood pressure and anincreased risk of heart disease.Lower your intake:• less meat• oil-free dressing• no fried foods• use low-fat dairy• eat lots of fiber43
44Many foods, especiallyprepackaged and restaurant,already have added salt. Donot add more.Too much salt forces thebody to retain unnecessarywater and may contributeto high blood pressure.
45Sugary foods (candy, soda, syrup, tablesugar) supply “empty calories” and few, ifany, nutrients.Avoid them while dieting, and do not eatthem as a replacement for nutritiousfoods.Many fruits and vegetables contain sugar,but they also contain nutrients.45
46Limit your intake of coffee, tea, and sodasthat contain caffeine, a stimulant. Caffeinecan temporarily reduce drowsiness but alsoupset your stomach, make you irritable, andgive you diarrhea.46
47StimulantA drink, drug, or other substancethat speeds up the activity of themind or body; a drug that speedsup the activities of the centralnervous system, the heart, andother organs
48A. A stimulant is a substance such ascaffeine that speeds up activity.B. Sodas, coffee, tea, and chocolatecontain caffeine.C. Large quantities of caffeine canmake you nervous but have noharmful physical effects.D. Caffeine affects primarily the centralnervous system and heart.Which of these statements aboutstimulants is NOT accurate?
49A. A stimulant is a substance such ascaffeine that speeds up activity.B. Sodas, coffee, tea, and chocolatecontain caffeine.C. Large quantities of caffeine canmake you nervous but have noharmful physical effects.D. Caffeine affects primarily the centralnervous system and heart.Which of these statements aboutstimulants is NOT accurate?
50ConclusionYour body needs food for energy. Howmuch food depends on how active youare and how many calories your bodyuses for its basic functions.You know you are getting the rightamount when you maintain your idealweight.
51Food supplies you with energy alongwith the nutrients to operate properlyand lower the risk of disease.Eating a healthy, balanced diet andexercising regularly increase yourchances of a long, strong, and disease-free life.
52UNIT 5 CHAPTER 4Nutrition: Nourishing Your Body52
53IntroductionNutrition is the science of nourishing thebody properly to reach higher levels ofdynamic living.You can provide yourself with the sixnutrients in a well rounded, diversifieddiet.By reading labels and choosing yourfood carefully, you can help maintain alean body, free from excess personal fat.
54Diets have radically changed in the last35 years.Proper eating habits now take a backseat to convenience and lack of time.• Fast-food outlets• Duel-career parents• Skyrocketing number ofsingle parent families
55Our lifestyles are busy and hurried, but itis very important that young adults have abasic understanding of nutrients, how toobtain them, and how to control fat.Six Nutrients:• Carbohydrates• Fats• Proteins• Vitamins• Minerals• Water
56The first threeingredients,carbohydrates, fats,and proteins, arefoodstuffs. They giveus energy for bodyprocesses.The released energyis measured incalories.
57A. Single parent householdsB. Parents who both workC. Lack of nutritional education inschoolsD. Fast-food restaurantsIn the last 35 years, all the followingfactors have led to a lifestyle that hasnegatively affected proper nutrition,except which one?
58A. Single parent householdsB. Parents who both workC. Lack of nutritional education inschoolsD. Fast-food restaurantsIn the last 35 years, all the followingfactors have led to a lifestyle that hasnegatively affected proper nutrition,except which one?
59CarbohydratesCarbohydrates are found in fruits,grains, and vegetables.With a value of 4 calories per gram,they supply short- and long-termenergy for everything from thinkingto breathing to running a race.
60Short-term carbohydratesare the sugars, or simplecarbohydrates, that arequickly absorbed.Glucose (blood sugar) is the mostimportant simple sugar. Many sugaryfoods (candy, soda) are sources butcontain few nutrients.Fruit is an excellent source of simplecarbohydrates and has vitamins andminerals as well.
61Simple CarbohydratesA sugar that is found in thebody in its simple state whichsupplies the body with short-term energy
62They take longer to digest and convert toglucose.Extra glucose converts to glycogen forstorage in the muscles and liver.Extra glycogen converts to fat for long-termenergy.Long-term carbohydratesare starches, or complexcarbohydrates, which arecombinations of sugars.
63Complex CarbohydratesA carbohydrate that isformed by the body after theconversion of extra glucose,which supplies the body withlong-term energy
64Grains and starchyvegetables are goodsources of complexcarbohydrates.They are also goodsources for vitamins,minerals, and fiber.Fiber provides nocalories but aids themovement of foodthrough the digestivesystem.
65A. SucroseB. LactoseC. GlucoseD. FructoseWhich of these sugars is mostimportant to the body?
66A. SucroseB. LactoseC. GlucoseD. FructoseWhich of these sugars is mostimportant to the body?
67Nourishing Your Body’s Fuel with FatsFats (lipids) maintain body temperature,insulate body organs, provide storedenergy, and carry fat-soluble vitamins(A, D, E, & K) to the cells.One gram of fat is equivalent to 9 caloriesof energy, more than twice the equivalent ofcarbohydrates (1 gram = 4 calories).The most sensible approach to maintaininga lean level of body fat is to minimize yourfat intake.67
68Fat Soluble VitaminA vitamin that is absorbedthrough the intestinal tract withthe help of fats and is stored inthe body
69Triglycerides are the primary fats we eatand store.• Saturated fats From animals Do not melt at room temperature• Monounsaturated fats Usually liquid vegetable oil• Polyunsaturated fats Usually liquid vegetable oilToo many calories = triglycerides = fat.Too many saturated fats = cholesterol.69
70Monounsaturated FatsOils or fats that are liquid atroom temperature, are low inhydrogen, and can lower thelevel of blood cholesterol
71Polyunsaturated FatsOils of fatty acids containingmore than one double or triplebond and are, therefore,cholesterol defensive
72Saturated FatsFats that do not melt at roomtemperature and can raise thecholesterol level
73Cardiovascular Disease is theMain Killer of AmericansYour liver already produces about 1,000milligrams (mg) of cholesterol daily, anddiet adds another 400 to 500 mg.Cholesterol, a waxy, sticky substance foundin animal and human waste tissue,insulates nerves and forms hormones, cellmembranes, vitamin D, and bile to aid infood digestion.1/4
74Your blood carries cholesterol by way oflipoproteins, with low density lipoproteins(LDL) carrying cholesterol that is notneeded by the cells in the arteries, givingthem the nickname of the “bad guys.”Cholesterol accumulated on the insidewalls of the arteries is a factor in thedevelopment of atherosclerosis. Eventually,cardiovascular disease, in the form of aheart attack or stroke, may result.2/4
75The high density lipoproteins (HDL) carrythe extra cholesterol in your blood to theliver to dispose of it, thus preventingcholesterol from building up in the arteries.For this reason, HDLs are known as the“good guys.”To keep cholesterol at a normal level in thebody, you must lower LDL levels and raiseHDL levels.3/4
76Steps you can take to accomplish this areto eat less fat, especially saturated fat,maintain appropriate body weight, andparticipate in a regular exercise program.Eating more fiber will also help because itbinds with cholesterol and carries it out ofthe body; and consuming monounsaturatedfats, such as olive oil, canola, and peanutoils, raises HDLs.4/4
77A. MonounsaturatedB. PolyunsaturatedC. SaturatedD. Trans fatWhich type of fat comes mainly fromanimal sources and does not melt atroom temperature?
78A. MonounsaturatedB. PolyunsaturatedC. SaturatedD. Trans fatWhich type of fat comes mainly fromanimal sources and does not melt atroom temperature?
79A. hypertensionB. vasculitisC. atherosclerosisD. endocarditisCholesterol deposits in the arterieslead to a disease called _______.
80A. hypertensionB. vasculitisC. atherosclerosisD. endocarditisCholesterol deposits in the arterieslead to a disease called _______.
81Proteins:• are in every cell• aid development andmaintenance of muscle, bone, skin, blood• keep the immune system strong• control chemical activities that transportoxygen, iron, and nutrients• can be used for energy when low oncarbohydrates and fat• have the same caloric amount ascarbohydrates, 1 gram = 4 calories.Nourishing Your Body with Proteins
82There are 22 found in human tissue, but the8 (9 for children) essential amino acids mustcome from food.Food products that contain all 8 essentialamino acids are referred to as completeproteins (meat, fish, poultry, dairy products).82Amino acids are thebuilding blocks ofprotein.
83Amino AcidsThe basic units of proteins,produced by living cells orobtained as an essentialcomponent of a diet
84Plant foods are generally incomplete sincethey are either low on or lack an essentialamino acid.However, they can be easily combined (rice& beans) to form complete proteins.84
85The remaining 14 amino acids are thenonessential amino acids that are stillnecessary for body function, but whichthe body manufactures itself.
86Animal and dairy products are sources ofcomplete proteins but are also high in fat.You will have a healthier diet if you meetyour protein needs with carbohydratesfrom grains and vegetables.
87A. LipoproteinsB. Amino acidsC. TriglyceridesD. CarboxylsWhat are the basic units of proteincalled?
88What are the basic units of proteincalled?A. LipoproteinsB. Amino acidsC. TriglyceridesD. Carboxyls
89Your body needs vitamins, minerals, andwater to be healthy.Vitamins and minerals come from food;water is essential for hydration.Regulating Your Body withVitamins, Minerals, and Water
90Vitamins promote health and wellness.The body does not digest vitamins like itdoes carbohydrates, fats, and proteins; thebody tissues absorb them instead.The intestinal track absorbs fat-soluablevitamins—A, D, E, and K.Water in the body tissues dissolveswater soluble vitamins—B complex and C.Vitamins
91Water Soluble VitaminA vitamin that is dissolvedin the water of the tissues
92Many countries have established the dailyamount of vitamins and minerals needed forgood health.In the United States, it is the ReferencedDaily Intake (RDI), which replaced the oldRecommended Dietary Allowances (RDA).The federal government will review andupdate these standards as research makesnew discoveries.
93Referenced Daily Intake(RDI)Standards developed by theU.S. government for theregulation of vitamin andmineral requirements
94A. water; A, D, E, and K; stores them inthe bodyB. water; B complex and C; the tissuesabsorb themC. fat; A, D, E, and K; stores them in thebodyD. fat; B complex and C; the tissuesabsorb themThe intestinal tract absorbs the_______ soluble vitamins _______ and_______.
95A. water; A, D, E, and K; stores them inthe bodyB. water; B complex and C; the tissuesabsorb themC. fat; A, D, E, and K; stores them in thebodyD. fat; B complex and C; the tissuesabsorb themThe intestinal tract absorbs the_______ soluble vitamins _______ and_______.
98Vitamin U.S.RDI Functions SourcesB-5Panto-thenicAcid10 mg Helps convertnutrients into energyLiver, yeast, wholegrains, eggs, beans,and milkB-6Pyridoxine2.0 mg Aids in more than 60enzyme reactionsMilk, liver, meat,green leafyvegetables, andwhole-grain andenrichedbreads/cerealsVitamins
99Vitamin U.S.RDI Functions SourcesB-7Biotin0.3 mg Helps convert nutrientsinto energyLiver, yeast, milk,oatmeal, beans,nuts, and egg yolksB-9FolicAcid0.4 mg Aids in blood cellproduction; helpsmaintain nervoussystemLiver, green leafyvegetables, andbeansB-12Cobalmin6micro-grams(mcg)Helps form new cells Meat, seafood,poultry, dairyproducts, and eggsVitamins
101Vitamin U.S.RDI Functions SourcesE 30 IU An antioxidant(prevents oxygen frominteractingdestructively withother substances) thathelps protect cellmembranes, maintainfats and vitamin A, andincrease blood flowGreen leafyvegetables, wholegrains, seeds, nuts,vegetableshortening, liver,and egg yolksK 60-80mcgHelps in blood clotting Green leafyvegetables, liver,tomatoes, eggyolks, and milkVitamins101
102A. AB. CC. DD. KWhat vitamin found in eggs, fish-liveroils, fortified milk, and sunlightmanages calcium absorption forstrong bones and teeth?
103A. AB. CC. DD. KWhat vitamin found in eggs, fish-liveroils, fortified milk, and sunlightmanages calcium absorption forstrong bones and teeth?
10410-year study-11,348 adults-3 groups:1. 50 mg or more per day + 500 supplement2. 50 mg or more per day3. less than 50 mg per dayGroup 1• Men—35% lower mortality—42% lowerdeath from heart disease/stroke• Women—10% lower mortality—25% lowerdeath from heart disease/strokePoints of Interest: VitaminsVitamin C
105Good Sources of Vitamin CDaily vitamin C supplements of 2,000 mgmay be helpful to allergy sufferers.
106Minerals are elements found in theenvironment that help regulate the bodyprocess.The body needs minerals to absorbvitamins.Macrominerals are minerals needed in largeamounts: calcium, phosphorous,magnesium, potassium, sulfur, sodium, andchloride.Minerals
107Mineral U.S.RDIFunctions SourcesCalcium 1000mgStructure of bones andteeth, muscle contraction,maintenance of cellmembranes, bloodclotting, nerve impulsetransmission, heartactivity, helps convertcarbohydrates intoenergyDairy products,small fish (suchas sardines) withbones, dark-greenvegetables, driedbeans and peasPhosphorus 1000mgStructure of bones andteeth, release of energyfrom nutrients, formationof enzymesMeat, poultry,fish, eggs, driedbeans and peas,dairy productsMacrominerals
108Mineral U.S.RDIFunctions SourcesMagnesium 400mgBuilding bones, releaseof energy from muscleglycogen, conduction ofnerve impulse to muscleGreen leafyvegetables, nuts,soybeans,seeds, wholegrainsPotassium 3500mg*Muscle contraction,maintenance of fluid andelectrolyte balance,transmission of nerveimpulse, release ofenergy from nutrientsOrange juice,bananas, driedfruit, meat, bran,peanut butter,potatoes, coffee,tea, cocoaMacrominerals
109Mineral U.S.RDIFunctions SourcesSulfur 140mg*Part of sulfur-containingamino acids; firmproteins of hair, nails,skinMeat, wheat germ,dried beans andpeas, peanutsChlorideandSodiumTable Salt(sodiumchloride)Nomorethan2400mg*Regulate blood andfluids; nerve impulsetransmission; heartactivity; metaboliccontrolsMany cannedsoups andprocessed foods,pickles, soy sauce,sauerkraut, celery* No U.S. RDI established.Amount is estimated recommendation for dietary intake.Macrominerals109
110Sodium is a macromineral, but manyAmericans consume too much, contributingto high blood pressure, which contributesto cardiovascular disease.Calcium is also a macromineral, but manyAmericans consume too little, which can leadto osteoporosis.
111True or False: Without minerals, ourbodies could not absorb vitamins.
112TrueTrue or False: Without minerals, ourbodies could not absorb vitamins.
113A. IronB. CalciumC. MagnesiumD. SodiumWhat macromineral do manyAmericans consume too much of?
114A. IronB. CalciumC. MagnesiumD. SodiumWhat macromineral do manyAmericans consume too much of?
115The body also needs trace minerals in verysmall amounts; they are essential forproper functioning of the body.An iron deficiency can reduce the numberand size of red blood cells, causingweakness, sleepiness, and headaches.
116Mineral U.S.RDIFunctions SourcesSelenium 50-75mcg*Prevents breakdownof fatsSeafood, whole-grain cereals,meats, egg yolks,milk, garlicManganese 5mg*Central nervoussystem, normal bonestructure, reproductionNuts, whole grains,vegetables, fruits,tea, cocoa powderFluoride 1.5-4mg*Tooth and boneformationDrinking water insome places,seafood, teaMolybdenum 75-250mcg*Part of enzymes Legumes, cereals,liver, kidneys, dark-green vegetablesTrace Minerals116
117Mineral U.S.RDIFunctions SourcesIron 18mgFormation ofhemoglobin; part ofrespiratory enzymesLiver, kidneys, meat,egg yolks, greenleafy vegetables,dried fruit, driedbeans and peas,whole-grain andenriched cerealsCopper 2mgFormation of redblood cells; part ofrespiratory enzymesOysters, nuts, cocoapowder, liver,kidneys, beans, cornoil, margarineTrace Minerals
118Mineral U.S.RDIFunctions SourcesIodine 150mcgFunctioning of thethyroid gland andproduction of thethyroid hormonesIodized salt andseafoodChromium 50-200mcg*Helps the body usecarbohydrates andfats, aids in digestionof proteinLiver, nuts, wholegrains, Brewer’syeast, meat,mushrooms,potatoes, appleswith skin, oystersTrace Minerals
119Mineral U.S.RDIFunctions SourcesZinc 15mgPart of manyenzymes, essential tosynthesis of DNA andRNA; metabolizescarbohydrates, fats,and proteins; disposeof carbon dioxide,strengthen immunesystem, helps woundsheal, helps body usevitamin AMeat, liver, eggs,poultry, seafood* No U.S. RDI established.Amount is estimated recommendation for dietary intake.Trace Minerals
120Point of Interest: MineralsA study found that heart-disease patientswho received 150 mcg of chromium per dayhad a dramatic jump in HDL cholesterol, thegood stuff that helps keep arteries clear.
121WaterYour body is 60-70% water. Mostof your blood, brain, and musclesare made of water, along with 20%of your bones.Without water you would die in a few days.To maintain body functions, you need todrink 6-8 glasses per day, more when youexercise.
122A. Production of red blood cellB. Synthesis of the thyroid hormoneC. Maintenance of water balanceD. Storage of energy in the cellsAn iron deficiency is associated with areduction in what bodily process?
123A. Production of red blood cellB. Synthesis of the thyroid hormoneC. Maintenance of water balanceD. Storage of energy in the cellsAn iron deficiency is associated with areduction in what bodily process?
124True or False: Your body would lastlonger without water than withoutfood.
125FalseTrue or False: Your body would lastlonger without water than withoutfood.
126Hunger and MalnutritionIf you can obtain anabundant and varieddiet, you can easilymeet your nutritionalneeds.However, for many people in theworld, hunger is a way of life.Poor nutrition is a seriousworldwide problem.
127MalnutritionMalnutrition (technically)—any condition inwhich a person’s nutrient consumption isinadequate or unbalanced.Usually, however, it is consuming too little ofone or more nutrients.Malnutrition harms every body system anddamages emotional well-being.
128Malnourished people:• Do not have energy to perform well• Are more susceptible to disease.Malnourished children:• Grow much more slowly.Malnutrition duringpregnancy may cause thebaby to weigh less thannormal and have serioushealth problems.
129There are various types of malnutrition. Anespecially serious one is protein-energymalnutrition—not enough protein orcalories.Especially severe inchildren, it can causedeath directly or throughdiseases.It is the most seriousproblem today indeveloping countries.
130Malnutrition has various causes (lack ofknowledge, digestive system condition),but poverty is by far the most common.People in severe poverty cannot afford tobuy or grow the food they need.
131Hunger and malnutrition are severe inmany poorer nations, but they are alsoproblems in prosperous countries.A WorldProblem
132• Those with little or no income• Homeless people• Runaway teenagers• Families with unemployment• Some elderly peopleA WorldProblemHungry people inthe United Statesinclude:
133Several programsand organizationslike the UnitedNations are trying tosolve the problem.The U.S. governmentsponsors the FoodStamp Program, andvolunteers providemeals at soupkitchens.
134A. PovertyB. IgnoranceC. Substance abuseD. OvercrowdingWhat is the most common cause ofmalnutrition?
135A. PovertyB. IgnoranceC. Substance abuseD. OvercrowdingWhat is the most common cause ofmalnutrition?
136ConclusionUnderstanding your body’s nutritionalneeds is essential to maintaining yourphysical and emotional health.Without the proper balance ofcarbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins,and minerals, you open the door to healthproblems.Even with a fast-paced lifestyle, you caneat correctly and give your body the fuel itneeds to be healthy and active.
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