1.5 The Rise To World Power Status
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1.5 The Rise To World Power Status

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Bishop Kenny NJROTC Naval Science 2

Bishop Kenny NJROTC Naval Science 2

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    1.5 The Rise To World Power Status 1.5 The Rise To World Power Status Presentation Transcript

    • CHAPTER 5 THE RISE TO WORLD POWER STATUS 1865-1914
    • Five years after the Civil War, the American Navy had shrunk in size dramatically.
    • 1871 American Asiatic Naval Squadron
    • 1871 American Asiatic Naval Squadron
    • In 1881, a treaty was negotiated between America and Korea, the first such treaty that Korea had signed with a western country.
    • Brief Threat of War with Spain 1873
    • The cost of coal caused Congress and some senior officers to want to revert to sails, causing existing boilers and engines to be replaced with smaller ones or removed.
    • RIFLED GUNS ARMORED PLATE In Europe, improvements were being made in the construction of ships. TORPEDOES
    • Rifled Guns Guns whose barrels have helical grooves cut on the inside to give a projectile a rotary motion and thus a more precise trajectory
    • HMS Dreadnought (pre-dreadnought) (launched in 1875)
    • Dreadnought A type of battleship armed with heavy-caliber guns in turrets: so called from the British battleship HMS Dreadnought
    • Prototype The original or model on which something is based or formed Someone or something that serves to illustrate the typical qualities of a class; model
    • By 1878, fewer than 6,000 men remained in the U.S. Navy, most of them foreigners.
    • Naval officers often had to learn many languages to communicate with their crew.
    • NEWPORT, RI NEW YORK PHILADELPHIA Atlantic Ocean ANNAPOLIS, MD The Naval Academy was moved back to Annapolis in 1865.
    • Admiral David Porter LCDR Stephen B. Luce
    • Admiral Porter and Commander Luce acquired a brilliant staff of young administrators and instructors. They raised academic standards, instituted an honor system, set up programs of athletics, and encouraged creative expression and healthy social activities.
    • Honor System A system whereby the students are put on their honor to observe certain rules to minimize administrative supervision and to promote honesty
    • Midshipmen Honor Concept "Midshipmen are persons of integrity: They stand for that which is right. They tell the truth and ensure that the full truth is known. They do not lie. They embrace fairness in all actions. They ensure that work submitted as their own is their own, and that assistance received from any source is authorized and properly documented. They do not cheat. They respect the property of others and ensure that others are able to benefit from the use of their own property. They do not steal."
    • • Brilliant Naval Academy Instructor from 1875 to 1879 • First American to win the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1907 for discovering the speed of light Albert Michelson
    • The U.S. Naval Institute Established in 1873 The U.S. Naval Institute was established on the grounds of the Naval Academy. It was composed of officers and civilian instructors whose purpose was to: Advance professional and scientific knowledge about the U.S. Navy, other world navies, and the maritime industry
    • First published in 1875, the Proceedings is still the foremost naval and maritime publication of its type in the world.
    • Commodore Luce was instrumental in starting training for enlisted men in gunnery and seamanship prior to transfer to their first ships. Commodore Luce
    • 1884 Naval War College Newport, RI
    • Mahan was one of the first instructors at the War College. CAPT Alfred T. Mahan
    • • Started fleet exercises as a means of battle practice • Fought tirelessly for improvements in ships and gun designs Commodore Luce
    • Captain Alfred T. Mahan • President of the Naval War College in 1886 • Published writer of his sea power findings in 1890, 1892, and 1897 • The foremost expert on sea power and naval strategy
    • Mahan believed that the following was essential to become a world power or for national survival: • Control of the sea • Fleet of capital ships • Overseas bases in colonies under the Captain Alfred control of the aspiring power Thayer Mahan
    • Mahan’s work received acclaim world- wide, especially in Europe and the Far East. It also seemed to justify the new imperialism that had become rampant among nations in the last part of the nineteenth century.
    • Imperialism The policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring and holding colonies and dependencies
    • Mahan’s book on naval history and strategy was ordered placed on every ship of the German Navy. Kaiser Wilhelm II
    • • A young politician • Supported Mahan’s ideas Theodore Roosevelt
    • In 1872, the French introduced the use of steel in ship construction, and the British followed suit. Other improvements included: • Armor • Propulsion • Armament
    • Aware of advances in naval and other military technology through contacts with Perry, the door to Western trade was opened to Japan in the 1850s. Commodore Matthew Perry
    • Japan had to worry about China becoming a naval power, and Russia taking control of the ice-free ports in the region.
    • Sino-Japanese War
    • In 1894-95, Japan defeated China, forcing the following concessions: • Withdrawal from Korea • Ceding of Formosa and the Pescadores to Japan • Relinquishing Port Arthur in Manchuria
    • Cede To yield or formally surrender to another: to cede territory
    • Sakhalin Russia 1904-05 Port Arthur 1894-95 Korea Japan Manchuria (China) Pescadores 1894-95
    • Russo-Japanese War, 1904-05 Japan defeated the Russian eastern fleets, gaining control of southern Sakhalin.
    • USS BROOKLYN Congress established a Naval Advisory Board in 1881, and in 1883, authorized the building of two European design cruisers.
    • USS MAINE In 1886, Congress authorized the building of America’s first battleships. USS TEXAS
    • The Texas and Maine provided a means for U.S. shipyards to learn how to build modern ships. PITTSBURGH STEEL MILL The requirement for steel helped to establish the American steel industry. NEWPORT NEWS SHIPYARD
    • By the end of the 1880s, American shipyards were producing USS OLYMPIA cruisers, which compared favorably with any foreign navy. USS NEW YORK
    • USS INDIANA USS MASSACHUSETTS The Naval Act of 1890 called for the construction of three new battle- ships plus cruisers, torpedo boats, and USS OREGON gunboats.
    • USS Iowa In 1892, Congress authorized the battleship Iowa, heavier and faster than the Indiana class.
    • President Assistant Secretary McKinley of the Navy, Roosevelt In 1897, Roosevelt became the Assistant Secretary of the Navy.
    • By 1898, with the Spanish-American war looming, the United States had a fleet respectable by any measure.
    • HAVANA CUBA Cuba was the most important Spanish colony in the New World.
    • HAVANA CUBA SUGAR CANE America had over $50 million invested in the sugar cane plantations and $100 million in annual sugar trade.
    • Support Grows for War with Spain Yellow journalism in U.S. newspapers, including publication of a letter stolen from the Spanish ambassador describing President McKinley as “weak,” further whipped up American feelings in support of war with Spain.
    • Yellow Journalism Misrepresentation in editorial comment and the presentation of news, especially in sacrificing truth for sensationalism Objective reporting isn’t always a match for yellow journalism.
    • CUBA USS MAINE USS Maine was sent to protect U.S. lives and property in Cuba, but ended up sinking due to an explosion.
    • USS Maine Studies in recent years indicate that the probable cause of the explosion was a coal dust explosion in a forward coal bunker.
    • Coal Bunker A large bin or receptacle; a fixed chest or box: a storage of coal
    • Wreck of the USS Maine The Spanish denied responsibility, but it brought us to the brink of war.
    • Congress Passes Resolutions • Declaring that Cuba was free and independent • Demanding the withdrawal of all Spanish forces • Guaranteeing that the U.S. would not annex Cuba • Directing the President to use American Armed Forces to enforce these resolutions
    • Theodore Roosevelt Assistant Secretary of the Navy Under him, the Navy prepared for war.
    • Manila Bay Philippines
    • USS Olympia Commodore George Dewey Dewey was sent to ready the U.S. Asiatic Fleet for an attack on the Spanish at Manila.
    • The USS Baltimore supplied shells to Dewey. The USS Merrimac was a British-built collier.
    • Collier A ship for carrying coal
    • Because Cuba would be a primary objective of the war and Puerto Rico a close second, the bulk of the U.S. fleet was concentrated in the Atlantic.
    • Primary Objective The first or highest rank or importance in one’s efforts, actions, or goals
    • USS Oregon The USS Oregon was ordered to travel 15,000 miles by way of Cape Horn to help the U.S. fleet at Cuba.
    • USS OREGON SAN ROUTE FRANCISCO, CA JUPITER INLET, FL BARBADOS BRAZIL PERU CHILE
    • Commander of the Spanish Home Fleet Admiral Cervera
    • Cervera was ordered to destroy the U.S. fleet at Key West and to blockade the American coast.
    • USS BROOKLYN USS TEXAS USS MASSACHUSETTS Commodore Schley and the Flying Squadron were based at Norfolk to provide protection against attack.
    • Sampson was ordered to Key West to ready an offensive against Cuba and Puerto Rico. Rear Admiral Sampson
    • Admiral Sampson Admiral Cervera Admiral Sampson set up a blockade of Cuba, and Admiral Cervera sailed from the Cape Verde Islands to help defend Puerto Rico.
    • Cervera knew his ships and crews were in a poor state. He believed that he was sailing into destruction. Some European countries believed Spain would win in a long war. Alfred Thayer Mahan predicted that America would win in “about 3 months.”
    • USS OLYMPIA USS BALTIMORE When declaration of war reached Commodore Dewey in Hong Kong, he was given 24 hours to get underway to the Philippine Islands and commence operations against the Spanish fleet.
    • Philippine Islands
    • Philippine Islands Manila Bay Cavite
    • Admiral Patricio Montojo Montojo’s fleet consisted of the cruiser Reina Christina and six other light cruisers and three gunboats, all in poor condition.
    • Reina Christina With no chance to win a sea battle, Montojo anchored under the shore batteries at Cavite, south of Manila.
    • Battle of Manila Bay Manila Bataan Cavite Dewey’s Route
    • Battle of Manila Bay
    • USS Olympia Dewey proceeded to within 5,000 yards of the enemy and gave the famous command, “You may fire when you are ready, Gridley.”
    • After a few hours of oval-shaped firing runs past the Spanish ships, the Spanish fleet was in shambles.
    • The Spaniards’ lack of training, inferior firepower, and poor ammunition led to their defeat.
    • USS Olympia The Americans, who had drilled regularly at gunnery, had made some 170 hits on the Spanish vessels.
    • China Marianas Philippines Marshalls Carolines Indonesia One year after Dewey’s win over the Spanish, Germany bought these island groups and many more from Spain.
    • USS Charleston GUAM En route to the Philippines, the USS Charleston stopped at Guam and claimed the colony for the U.S. without firing a shot.
    • On 13 August 1898, 11,000 U.S. Army troops arrived in Manila Bay. The Spanish colonial government surrendered after a token resistance.
    • HAWAIIAN ISLANDS PHILIPPINES Though not directly involved in the war, the Hawaiian Islands had become very important as a base for operations in the Philippines.
    • In 1894, President Grover Cleveland denied Hawaii’s request for annexation. In 1900, Hawaii became a U.S. territory, and in 1959, it became our fiftieth state.
    • KEY WEST CAPE VERDE ISLANDS SAN JUAN PUERTO RICO The U.S. believed that Cervera would head straight for San Juan, therefore Sampson lifted the Cuban Blockade and headed for San Juan.
    • CUBA Martinique Curacao Martinique notified the U.S. forces of Cervera’s passing after refusing him entry for fuel. Cervera refueled at CuraÇao, then sailed on to Cuba.
    • Schley The flying squadron was ordered from Norfolk to Key West to meet Cervera.
    • USS Oregon Cervera eluded the split U.S. fleet and sailed into Santiago. The USS Oregon, after its circumnavigation of South America, stood a chance of facing the Spanish fleet alone.
    • Circumnavigation To sail around; make the circuit of by navigation
    • Havana Cienfuegos Santiago Cuba had three ports large enough to accommodate Cervera’s fleet. Cervera chose Santiago. Sampson blockaded Cienfuegos.
    • Cristóbal Colon Commodore Schley’s fleet found the Cristóbal Colon at the Santiago harbor entrance and bombarded her at extreme range.
    • Santiago Harbor Santiago When Admiral Sampson arrived with his fleet and the USS Oregon, he formed a close blockade of the port.
    • The largest battleships were put in the middle with the smaller ships on the outside.
    • Santiago Guantánamo Bay To solve a coaling problem, U.S. Marines from the Oregon captured Guantánamo Bay. Guantánamo Bay remains a key U.S. base.
    • An Army force of 16,000 under Major General Shafter landed in Daiquiri 16 miles east of Santiago without Major General opposition. William Shafter
    • Major General Shafter had his orders, but he had his own ideas how to conduct the operation.
    • SAN EL CANEY JUAN KETTLE HILL HILL
    • The Spaniards made a strong Roosevelt's Rough Riders stand at El Caney, inflicting nearly 1,500 casualties. African-American Cavalrymen
    • During this battle, Roosevelt’s Rough Riders swarmed up nearby Kettle Hill on foot.
    • Roosevelt had resigned his post as Assistant Secretary of the Navy to get into battlefield action. Lieutenant Colonel Theodore Roosevelt
    • Army Troops in Cuba Shafter, shocked by his losses and ill with fever, considered retreating to escape from the Spanish forces.
    • Shafter called upon Shafter the Navy to force the entrance to Santiago Harbor. Sampson
    • Sampson, onboard the New York and upset over the request, sailed to USS New York meet Shafter. The Massachusetts left to refuel, further weakening the blockade. USS Massachusetts
    • Spanish authorities ordered Cervera to escape. Cervera thought that the surrender of his fleet would damage the morale of Spanish forces and Spain’s reputation in Europe Admiral Pascual Cervera
    • Infanta Maria Teresa Cervera’s flagship fled Santiago harbor followed at 10-minute intervals by the rest of his fleet.
    • USS Brooklyn The American fleet was caught by surprise but quickly recovered. The Americans were underway toward the harbor entrance as the Spaniards exited.
    • Amid much confusion, the Spanish fleet was able to leave the harbor. But soon, the faster speed and superior firepower of the American ships turned the Spanish ships into blazing torches.
    • Vizcaya Spanish Cruiser As the cruiser Brooklyn and battleships Texas and Oregon cut down the Spanish cruiser Vizcaya, one captain yelled, “Don’t cheer boys, the poor devils are dying.”
    • Schley Sampson Schley and Sampson bitterly disputed who deserved credit for the victory.
    • The entire action took just over 3 hours; one American was killed and another wounded. Spanish losses were heavy.
    • END OF THE WAR In 2 months, American forces had: • Destroyed two Spanish fleets • Forced the surrender of Santiago • Sent forces to Puerto Rico • Captured San Juan • Planned to attack Spain • Signed a peace treaty with Spain
    • HAVANA CUBA Santiago PUERTO RICO San Juan After the Battle of Santiago de Cuba, Spain recognized the independence of Cuba.
    • PUERTO RICO GUAM PHILIPPINES Spain ceded Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and Guam to the U.S.
    • Lessons Learned from the Spanish-American War • Military and political leaders had to understand the principles of naval warfare.
    • Lessons Learned from the Spanish-American War • Military and political leaders had to understand the principles of naval warfare. • The Navy had to be a mobile organization supported from overseas bases
    • Lessons Learned from the Spanish-American War • Military and political leaders had to understand the principles of naval warfare. • The Navy had to be a mobile organization supported from overseas bases • A sound amphibious doctrine had to be developed.
    • Lessons Learned from the Spanish-American War • Military and political leaders had to understand the principles of naval warfare. • The Navy had to be a mobile organization supported from overseas bases • A sound amphibious doctrine had to be developed. • Gunnery and fire control techniques had to be improved.
    • The new Pacific possessions posed many problems.
    • The most perplexing issue was how to defend the Philippines against a militaristic, expansionist Japan.
    • In 1899, Spain sold all her remaining Pacific possessions, nearly 1,000 islands.
    • U.S. Navy Strength vs. Other Navies 1900 31,750 22,492 18,151 16,158 Great United Germany Japan Britain States The Congress accepted as a national goal, the building of the U.S. Navy that would be second only to Great Britain.
    • Theodore Roosevelt was chosen to run for Vice President with McKinley, and when McKinley was assassinated in 1901, he assumed the Presidency. President McKinley
    • Roosevelt was openly enthusiastic toward the idea of a large Navy. President Roosevelt
    • USS Alabama (BB 8) In 1903, the Navy began building two capital ships (large warships) a year. This continued for the next 15 years.
    • In 1905, the battleships Michigan and South USS Michigan Carolina were built with 12-inch guns arranged in two pairs of turrets fore USS South Carolina and aft.
    • HMS Dreadnought The British battleship Dreadnought had ten 12-inch guns in 5 turrets, and turbine engines with a maximum speed of 21 knots. She was considered the standard for all future battleships.
    • Dreadnought A type of battleship armed with heavy-caliber guns in turrets; so called from the British Battleship Dreadnought, launched in 1907, the first of its type
    • HMS Dreadnought All battleships with smaller guns that preceded the HMS Dreadnought came to be called predreadnoughts.
    • HMS Queen Elizabeth In 1912, the British pioneered the use of oil instead of coal for fuel.
    • USS Holland In 1900, Roosevelt urged the Navy to buy its first submarine.
    • Orville Wilber Wright Wright In 1903, the Wright brothers had their first successful flight at Kitty Hawk.
    • KITTY HAWK KITTY HAWK NORTH CAROLINA
    • Eugene Ely In 1910, Ely flew an airplane off a platform built on the bow of the cruiser USS Birmingham.
    • USS Pennsylvania Ely made the first arrested shipboard landing on the USS Pennsylvania USS Birmingham using lines strung across the deck.
    • American Sailors were well educated and became very proficient in the new technology. Enlistments and reenlistments were high.
    • A whole new generation of shipyard constructors who specialized in warship building, backed by the steel industry, emerged.
    • Alaskan Canadian Boundary Panama 1903 - the British agreed to a settlement of the Alaskan-Canadian boundary favorable to the U.S. and conceded exclusive control of a proposed canal across Panama.
    • GERMAN CHALLENGES Bombarded the Venezuelan coast Confrontations Challenged Dewey in Samoa in Manila Bay
    • The 1904 Roosevelt Corollary, an extension of the Monroe Doctrine, prohibited foreign interference in the Americas. President Roosevelt
    • Roosevelt Corollary A corollary (an immediate consequence) to the Monroe Doctrine, asserting that the U.S. might intervene in the affairs of a Western Hemisphere republic threatened with seizure or intervention by a European country
    • Corollary An immediate consequence or easily drawn conclusion A natural consequence or result
    • Sino-Japanese War 1894 - 1895 • Showed the weakness of the Chinese government • Movement of European powers into the Pacific region • Spheres of influence established
    • Sphere of Influence Any area in which one nation wields dominant power over another or others
    • In 1899, Hay drafted a paper calling for assurances from each power that China would be open to the trade of all friendly nations, a policy to be known as the “open door Secretary of policy.” State Hay
    • Hay’s policy was not final. In 1900, to protect their interests, a group of Chinese, called Boxers, led a campaign to rid China of foreigners by force. This was known as the Boxer Rebellion.
    • Boxer A member of a Chinese secret society that carried on an unsuccessful uprising, 1898-1900 (Boxer Rebellion), principally against foreigners, culminating in a siege of foreign legations in Peking that was put down by an international expeditionary force
    • Russia Manchuria Russia took (China) advantage of Port Arthur the Boxers to tighten their Korea grip on Port Arthur, occupy Manchuria, and dominate Korea.
    • Russia The Japanese government asked Manchuria Roosevelt to end (China) the Russo-Japanese Port Arthur War of 1904-05. Korea The Treaty of Portsmouth’s Tsushima provisions soured Straits relations between Japan and the U.S.
    • Treaty of Portsmouth 1905 Result of the mediation by President Theodore Roosevelt, disappointed the Japanese, who were subsequently outraged by segregation of Oriental children in San Francisco schools.
    • Treaty of Portsmouth 1905 In the diplomatic crisis that resulted, the U.S. Joint Board made preparations – subsequently embodied in the Orange Plans – for defending the Philippines from Japanese attack, and Roosevelt sent the U.S. battleship fleet around the world, partly to impress the Japanese with American military power.
    • Treaty of Portsmouth 1905 Russia surrendered to Japan its lease to Liaoyang and Port Arthur, ceded the southern half of Sakhalin, evacuated Manchuria, and recognized Korea as a Japanese sphere of influence.
    • In 1906, the San Francisco school board segregated the children of Japanese immigrant laborers, increasing tension between Japan and the U.S.
    • Old African proverb, “Speak softly and carry a big stick.”
    • The Great White Fleet 1907 The Great White Fleet was Roosevelt’s “big stick.” Painted white, the Great White Fleet sailed a 14-month world voyage to symbolize peace and strength.
    • The cruise provided good training and showed that there was a great need for bases and coaling stations worldwide.
    • The Navy began to consider the Japanese a threat against American interests in the western Pacific.
    • In 1911, a series of color-coded war plans was developed by Navy and Army planners for future conflicts with Japan.
    • A dangerous journey of thousands of miles around South America by sea would be replaced by a 50-mile canal across the Isthmus of Panama.
    • Isthmus A narrow strip of land, bordered on both sides by water, connecting two larger bodies of land
    • In 1855, the Americans built a railroad across the isthmus for shipment of goods between the oceans.
    • In 1881, a French company headed by Lesseps started the ill-fated Panama canal project. It was mismanaged, and illness killed 22,000 workers. Ferdinand de Lesseps
    • Mahan revived the idea of a canal in his writings on sea power. It was clear, the U.S. must have a canal or two separate navies. MAHAN
    • In 1903, the U.S. purchased the Panama canal construction rights, equipment, and railroad from the French.
    • Gulf of Mexico COLON PANAMA Pacific COLOMBIA Ocean The people wanted a canal for jobs and revolted against Colombia.
    • USS Nashville The USS Nashville was sent to Colon to maintain “perfect neutrality and free transit of the isthmus.”
    • The Panamanians’ fight for freedom from Colombia was supported by U.S. warships and troops.
    • USS Dixie U.S. Marines from the USS Dixie acted as a police force to assist the new government.
    • On 6 November 1903, the U.S. formally recognized the Republic of Panama as a sovereign nation.
    • A treaty signed 15 days after the revolution gave the U.S. a canal zone 10 miles wide for $10 million and $250,000 annual payments.
    • The Panama Canal was returned to Panamanian control on 31 December 1999.
    • In 1904, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and 39,000 daily workers began work on the canal that was eventually completed in 10 years.
    • The engineers built Gatun Lake, 85 feet above sea level.
    • Lock Under Construction Three sets of locks, each 1,000 feet long and 110 feet wide, help raise ships to the lake water level to transit the isthmus, and then lower the ships to sea level again.
    • The Panama Canal was completed August 1914, just as the First World War began in Europe.
    • The Navy now had its priceless canal. All of Mahan’s criteria for America to become a major world power through sea power had been met.
    • The Rise to World Power Status 1865 - 1914 1865 ~ Civil War ended 1873 ~ Naval Institute established 1884 ~ Naval War College established 1890 ~ Mahan publishes Sea Power study 1898 ~ Spanish-American War 1907 ~ HMS Dreadnought launched 1907 ~ Voyage of Great White Fleet 1914 ~ Panama Canal opened
    • What country built the Panama Canal?
    • What country built the Panama Canal? The United States
    • Who led the Rough Riders into battle in the Spanish-American War?
    • Who led the Rough Riders into battle in the Spanish-American War? Lieutenant Colonel Theodore Roosevelt
    • Who was in charge of the naval blockade of Cuba during the Spanish-American War?
    • Who was in charge of the naval blockade of Cuba during the Spanish-American War? Admiral William T. Sampson
    • Where was the USS Maine when it was destroyed?
    • Where was the USS Maine when it was destroyed? In the harbor at Havana, Cuba
    • Whom did the Spanish government send to the Caribbean islands to defend its colonies and destroy the American fleet?
    • Whom did the Spanish government send to the Caribbean islands to defend its colonies and destroy the American fleet? Admiral Cervera
    • What is the title of Admiral Mahan’s book published in 1890?
    • What is the title of Admiral Mahan’s book published in 1890? The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1860-1783
    • TRUE or FALSE. From the end of the Civil War until the 1880s, the U.S. fleet was decreasing in size while other world navies were making technological progress.
    • TRUE or FALSE. From the end of the Civil War until the 1880s, the U.S. fleet was decreasing in size while other world navies were making technological progress. TRUE.
    • At the end of the war with Spain, what possessions did the Spanish government turn over to the United States?
    • At the end of the war with Spain, what possessions did the Spanish government turn over to the United States? Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippine Islands
    • What country launched the prototype of a modern battleship in 1873?
    • What country launched the prototype of a modern battleship in 1873? Great Britain
    • Why was the USS Maine sent to Cuba?
    • Why was the USS Maine sent to Cuba? To protect American citizens and businesses because of the Spanish-Cuban unrest
    • Name the commodore who led the battles in the Philippine Islands against Spain.
    • Name the commodore who led the battles in the Philippine Islands against Spain. Commodore George Dewey
    • Who was the Assistant Secretary of the Navy at the beginning of the war with Spain?
    • Who was the Assistant Secretary of the Navy at the beginning of the war with Spain? Theodore Roosevelt
    • Who impressed upon America that national survival depended upon control of the seas?
    • Who impressed upon America that national survival depended upon control of the seas? Alfred Thayer Mahan
    • Name three battleships that were authorized for construction in 1890.
    • Name three battleships that were authorized for construction in 1890. a. USS Indiana b. USS Oregon c. USS Massachusetts
    • What publication (journal) is still the foremost naval and marine publication of its type in the world?
    • What publication (journal) is still the foremost naval and marine publication of its type in the world? The U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings
    • What was Commodore Winfield Scott Schley’s role in the war with Spain?
    • What was Commodore Winfield Scott Schley’s role in the war with Spain? He headed one of the squadrons in the Caribbean.
    • Who convinced the Secretary of the Navy to establish the Naval War College in Newport, Rhode Island?
    • Who convinced the Secretary of the Navy to establish the Naval War College in Newport, Rhode Island? Commodore Stephen Luce
    • What was the name of the Navy’s first submarine?
    • What was the name of the Navy’s first submarine? The USS Holland
    • What was the name of the fleet that President Roosevelt sent around the world in 1907?
    • What was the name of the fleet that President Roosevelt sent around the world in 1907? The “Great White Fleet”
    • Who provided the basic philosophy for America’s naval policy?
    • Who provided the basic philosophy for America’s naval policy? Alfred Thayer Mahan
    • In what year did the Panama Canal open?
    • In what year did the Panama Canal open? 1914